Skip to main content

Full text of "American state papers : documents, legislative and executive, of the Congress of the United States ..."

See other formats


Miteillii;::-; 






liiilil 







:;i;t,:::' 






wmi^.s< 



ililliiliii^M 



illi 







Digitized by tine Internet Arciiive 

in 2009 with funding from 

University of Pittsburgii Library System 



Iittp://www.arcliive.org/details/americanstatepap_e01unit 






T 



WILLIAM S MARV OARLINGTOM 

MEMORIM. LIGRAR* 

UNIVERSITV Of PITTS3URGM 



%i 



AMERICAN STATE PAPERS. 



CL.ASS V. 



MILITARY AFFAIRS. 



VOLUME I. 



-»^<v: 



^^ 






.^ 



-%ij '.'^ v^>5x %^»-»*5^. 



.T^^\ W ^^'^^^ 



- ^ 






AMERICAN STATE PAPERS. 

DOCUMENTS, 



liEGISLiATIVE AJTD EXECUTIVE, 



ONGMESS OF THE UNITED STATES, 



FROM THE FIRST SESSION OF TlIE FIRST TO THE SECOND SESSION OF THE 
FIFTEENTH CONGRESS, INCLUSIVE: 



tOMMENCIlVG MARCH 3, 1?89, AND EjSmKG MARCH 3, 1819. 



SELECTED AND EDITED, UNDER THE AUTHORITY OF CONGRESS. 

BY WALTER LOWRIE, Secretary of the Senate, 

AND 

MATTHEW ST. CLAIR CLARKE, Clerk of the House of Representatives. 



VOLilIME 



WASHINGTON: 

PUBLISHED BY GALES AND SEATON. 

1832. 



S3 



I9f 






.Ax 



TABLE OF CONTENTS. 
MILITARY AFFAIRS. 

TOL.UME I. 



1 Message of the President of the Uuited States, transmitting a statement of the troops in the service of the 

United States, - - - - - - - - 5 

2 Message of the President transmitting a report of the Secretary of War, proposing a plan for the organi- 

zation of the militia of the United States, - - - - - - 6 

3 Report of the Secretary of War, showing the troops and militia furnished by the several States, from time 

to time, during the revolutionary war, - - - - - - 14 

4 Proceedings of the court of inquiry into the conduct of General Harmar, as commanding officer of the 

expedition against the Miami Indians, - - - - - - 20 

5 Report of a committee of the House of Representatives on the causes of the failure of the expedition 

against the Indians commanded by General A. St. Clair, - - - - 36 

6 Letter from the Secretary of War to the House of Representatives, requesting an opportunity to exculpate 

himself from certain allegations in relation to the defeat of the army under the command of General St. 
Clair, - - - - - - - - - 39 

7 Report of the Secretary of War, containing estimates of the expenses for the army for the year 1793, - 39 

8 Organization of the army in 1792, - - - - - - 40 

9 Report of the committee relative to the causes of the failure of the expedition agaiast the Indians in 1791, 

commanded by General A. St. Clair, - - - - - "41 

10 Report of the Secretary of War, exhibiting the ordnance, arms, and military stores, December 16, 1793, 44 

1 1 Message of the President of the United States, recommending the establishment of the office of purveyor 

of public supplies, January 7, 1794, - - - - - - 61 

12 Report of a committee of the House of Representatives, recommending the establishment of the office of 

purveyor of public supplies, - - - - - - -61 

13 Report of a committee of the House of Representatives respecting such ports and harbors as they deem 

expedient to put in a state of defence, with estimates of the expense, - - - 61 

14 Report of a committee of the House of Representatives on the subject of providing a supply of arms, and 

erecting arsenals and national armories, March 5, 1794, - - - - 65 

15 Report of a committee, March 24, 1794, on the subject of establishing a uniform militia throughout the 

United States, - - - - - - - - 66 

16 Report of a committee of the House of Representatives on increasing the army and calling 80,000 militia 

into service, - - - - - - - -67 

17 Report of the Secretary of War, exhibiting the military force of the United States, June 5, 1794, - 67 

18 Report of the Secretary of War, exhibiting the military force, November 25, 1794, - . 68 

19 Report of a committee of the House of Representatives on the expediency of completing certain fortifica- 

tions, and the estimated expense for that object, December 4, 1794, - - - 68 

20 Message transmitting a representation of the Secretary of the Treasury relative to the propriety of consti- 

tuting the office oi purveyor of public supplies, - - - - - 69 

21 Report of the Secretary of War respecting the difficulties attending the execution of the law establishing a 

uniform militia throughout the United States, December 10, 1794, - - - - 69 

22 Report of the Secretary of War, containing plans of fortifications to be constructed for the defence of the 

■ports and harbors of the United States, December 19, 1794, - - - - 71 

23 Report of a committee of the House of Representatives, appointed to prepare a plan for organizing, arming, 

and disciplining the militia, December 29, 1794, - - - - - 107 

24 Report of estimates of sums necessary for fortifying certain ports and harbors of the United States, Janu- 

ary 28, 1795, - . - - - . - - - 107 

25 Report of the Secretary of War, showing the military force, arsenals, and stores, December 12, 1795, - 108 

26 Description and progress of certain fortifications, January 18, 1796, - - - - 110 

27 Report of a committee on the organization and distribution of the army, March 25, 1796, - - 112 

28 Report ol a committee, showing the measures pursued for procuring proper sites for fortifications, and 

replenishing magazines with military stores, and the expenditures necessary therefor. May 9, 1796, - 115 

29 Report of a committee on the condition of the fortifications, &c. February 10, 1797, - - 116 

30 Message of the President, returning to the House of Representatives, with his objections, the act to 

reorganize the army and fix the military establishment of the United States, February 28, 1797, - 117 

31 Report ol a committee, with estimates. &c. for fortifications, June 10, 1797, - - - 117 

32 Report of a committee on the expediency of additional measures for protecting the commerce and coast 

of the United States, and recommending the creation of a Naval Department, - - - 119 

33 Report of a committee on the expediency of erecting fortifications, raising troops, and purchasing 

ordnance stores, April 9, 1798, ------ i20 

34 Communication of the Secretary of W"ar respecting contracts for the supply of cannon, - - 123 

35 Report of the Secretary of War on the reorganization of the army, December 31, 1798, - - 124 

36 Report of a committee on a claim of Captain White to the pay of an aid-de-camp, February i, 1799, - 129 

37 Report of the Secretary of War, showing the expenses of the national armory at Springfield, and the state 

of that establishment, ------- 130 

38 Report of a committee on the subject of suspending the recruiting service, January 13, 1800, - 132 

39 Report of the Secretary of War, recommending a military academy and the reorganization of the military 

force of the United States, January 5, 1800, - - - - - 133 

40 Communication from the Secretary of War, supplementary to his report on the reorganization of the army 

and the establishment of a military academy, - - - - - 143 



vi TABLE OF CONTENTS. 

No. Page. 

41 Report of a cotnmittae on the emoluments of certain staff officers, with the opinions of the Attorney 

General and Secretary of the Treasury relative thereto, February 21, 1800, - - - 144 

42 Message transmitting a return of the officers appointed under the act of J^ly 16, 1798, "to augment the 

army of the United States, anil for other purposes," - - - - - 146 

43 Report of a committee on the expediency of making further appropriations for fortifications, May 5, 1800, 152 

44 Message of the President of the United States respecting the inconveniences arising from the want of a 

competent general staflf of the army, February 23, 1801, - - - - 152 

45 Message from the President on the number, magnitude, and cost of the fortifications commenced or 

projected, December 8, 1801, - - - - - ' - 152 

4C Report of the Secretary of War, showing the numerical force of the army of the United States, and the 

posts and stations for which garrisons will be requisite, December 23, 1801, - - - 154 

47 Message from the President, transmitting a return of ordnance, arms, and military stores, with estimates of 

expenditures still required for the completion of fortifications, February 2, 1802, - - 156 

48 Message transmitting statements of the militia of the several States, January 5, 1803, - - 159 

49 Report of the Secretary of War respecting a complaint against certain officers of the army stationed at 

Mobile, - - - - - - - - 163 

50 Report of a committee on the militia laws of the United States, - - - - i63 

51 Message transmitting the returns of the militia of the several States, March 1, 1803, - - 163 

52 Message transmitting returns of the militia, March 22, 1804, - . - - 168 

53 Report of the Secretary of War on the subject of commuted rations, January 15, 1805, - - 173 

54 Memorial of certain officers of the army on the subject of the alleged disobedience of military orders by 

Colonel Thomas Butler, ,.---.. 173 

55 Report of the Secretary of War, showing the military force, posts where stationed, expenses of fortifica- 

tions, arsenals, armories, and magazines, in 1803 and 1804. . - - . 174 

56 Message transmitting returns of the United States' militia, February 28, 1805, - - - 184 

57 Report of a committee on the organization and classification of the militia, January 2, 1806, - - 189 

58 Report of the Secretary of War, showing the number of fire-arms fit for use, - - - 190 

59 Report of a committee on the memorial of the merchants of New York, relative to the importance of 

fortifying that port, - - - - - ^ " " 191 

60 Message transmitting the names and description of fortifications, with a statement of the suras expended 

and estimates of the expenditures still required on each, February 18, 1806, - - - 192 

61 Report of the Secretary of War on the expediency of increasing the pay of the officers of the army, - 198 

62 Report of a committee on the measures which may be necessary to complete the arming of the militia of 

the United Slates, - - - - - - - - 198 

63 Message transmitting a statement of the militia of the United States, April 2, 1806, - - 199 

64 Report of a committee on the state of the fortifications, and the expediency of further appropriations to 

put them in a state of defence, December 15, 1806, - - - - - 204 

65 Report of a committee on the invasion of the territory of the United States by Spain, and recommending 

measures of defence, - - - - . . - - - 204 

66 Report of a committee recommending appropriations for fortifications and building gunboats, January 12, 

1807, - - - - - - - - - 206 

67 Documents relating to the defence of the Mississippi against invasion, January 15, 1807, ■■ - 206 

68 Documents relating to a pecuniary compensation of the officers and men who composed the expedition to 

the Pacific Ocean, under Lewis and Clarke, January 12, 1807, . - - - 207 

69 Message transmitting returns of the militia of the several States, February 12, 1807, - - 210 

70 Resolutions of the Legislature of the State of New York, relative to the defence of the city and harbor of 

New York, - - - - - - - - 215 

71 Report of a committee relative to the establishment of a cannon foundry at the city of Washington, No- 

vember 19, 1807, - - - - - - , . - . - 215 

72 Report of a committee on the expediency of placing the ports and harbors of the United States in a state 

of defence, November 24, 1807, ...--. 217 

73 Report of a committee on the expediency of increasing the army, marine corps, and navy, December 2, 

1807, - - - ' - - - - - - 218 

74 Report of a committee on the measures necessary to be adopted for the defence of the seaports and harbors 

of the United States, December 2. 1807, - - - - - - 219 

75 Report of the Secretary of War, exhibiting the military force of the United States in 1807, - - 222 

76 Report of the Secretary of War, showing the condition of the respective fortifications of the ports and 

harbors, the sums expended, the balances of appropriations, and the additional appropriations required. 223 

77 Report of the Secretary of War, transmitting the estimated expense of an army of 32,800 men, December 

9, 1807, - - - - - - - - - 324 

78 Message of the President, recommending an increase of the army, February 26, 1808, - - 237 

79 Message of the President, recommending an extension of the Military Academy, ■ - - 228 

80 Message transmitting statements of the militia of the United States, - - - - 330 

81 Message recommending legislative measures for the removal of existing difficulties in procuring advan- 

tageous sites for fortifications, ------- 235 

82 Report of a committee recommending the raising of 50,000 volunteers, December 26, 1808, - - 235 

83 Report of a commiltee on the militia system of the United States, January 3, 1809, - - 236 

84 Message of the President on the progress and condition of the fortifications of the United States, January 

6, 1809, - - - - - - - - 236 

85 Report of the Secretary of War on the expediency of erecting fortifications and batteries at Wilmington 

and Newcastle, Delaware. February 7, 1809, - - - - - 239 

86 Message transmitting statements of the militia of the United States, February 25, 1809, - - 239 

87 Communication from the Secretary of War, suggesting modifications of the laws relative to the militia 

system of the United States, May 31, 1809, - - - - - 244 

88 Report of the Secretary of War, containing estimates of appropriations for the completion of certain forti- 

fications, June 6. 1809, - - - - - - - 244 

89 Report of the Secretary of War on the state of the fortifications for the defence of the harbors of the United 

States, - - - - - - .-. . - 245 

90 Message recommending the continuance of the act authorizing a detachment of 100,000 militia, and the 

adoption of measures to put the country in a state of defence, January 3, 1810, - - - 248 

91 Report of the Secretary of War, exhibiting the officers and cadets composing the Military Academy. 

Januarys, 1810, - - - - - - - - 248 

93 Report of the Secretary of War, showing the force and disposition of the army of the United States, 

February 1, 1810, -------- 249 

93 Report of the Secretary of War, showing the arms sold to the several States, February 17, 1810, - 255 

94 Report of the Secretary of War, transmitting the result of an inspection of the armory and arsenal at 

Springfield. February 28, 1810, - - - - - - 255 

,95 Report of a committee on the militia system of the United States, March 6, 1810, - - 256 

96 Report of the Secretary of War. proposing a reform in the quartermaster's department, March 12, 1810, - 256 

97 Message transmitting statements of the militia of the United States, March 21, 1810, - - 258 

98 Report of a committee adverse to any innovation in the existing militia system of the United States, 

March 20, 1810, - - - - - - - - 263 



TABLE OF CONTENTS. vii 

No. Page. 

99 Reportof the Secretary of the Treasury, exhibiting the annual amount of expenditure, in relation to the 

military and naval establishments, from 1789 to the close of 1809, - - - - 2G7 

100 Report of a committee on the mortality of the troops stationed for the defence of New Orleans, April 27, 

1810, - - - - - - . - . - - 268 

101 Report of the Secretary of War, transmitting a system of regulations for the militia, December 13, 1810, 295 

102 Report of the Secretary of War, transmitting estimates for fortifications for 1811, January 8, 1811, - 296 

103 Message transmitting statements of the militia of the several States, February 20, 1811, - - 297 

104 Report of the Secretary of War, transmitting an account of the expenditures at the several armories, 

March 2, 1811, - - - _ - - - - - 302 

105 Report of a committee on the measures necessary to insure an adequate supply of cannon and other muni- 

tions of war, December 16, 1811, - - - - - - 303 

106 Report on the fortifications and defences of the United States, and an estimate of the sums necessary to 

complete, man, and arm them, December 17, 1811, - - - . - 307 

107 Report of a committee recommending provision to be made for the officers and soldiers wounded, and for 

thefamiliesof those killed, in the engagements with the Indians on the Wabash in 1811, January 8, 1812, 312 

108 Report of the Secretary of War, containing estimates for the military service of the United States, January 

31,1812, - - '.".'..- " - 313 

109 Report of the Secretary of War, showing the expenditures for national armories in 1811, and the number 

of arms manufactured, February 19, 1812, - - - - - - 317 

110 Resolution of the Legislature of Kentucky, urging tiie adoption of measures for providing an efficient 

militia. March 6, 1812, - -..".. " . " " "318 

111 Reportof the Secretary of War, showing the quotas ot militia to be furnished by the several States, under 

the act authorizing a detachment of 100,000 men. June 1, 1812, - - - - 319 

1 12 Report of the Secretary of W^ar on the number and equipments of the military force of the U. States in 1812, 319 

113 Message of the President, recommending the commissioning of the officers of the volunteer corps, and that 

provision be made for additional general and staff officers and engineers, June 30, 1812, - - 319 

114 Reportof the Secretary of War on the defences provided for the tovvn of Newcastle, June 29, 1812, - 319 

115 Message of the President of the United States, transmitting the refusal of the Governors of Massachusetts 

and Connecticut to furnish their quotas of militia, November 6, 1813, - - - 319 

116 Report of the Secretary of War, showing the arms provided for and issued to the militia, December 34, 

1812, - - - - - - - - - 327 

117 Communication from the Secretary of War respecting the appointment of an additional number of general 

officers of the army, February 12, 1813, - - - - - - 329 

118 Message transmitting statements of the militia of the several States, February 13, 1813, - - 330 

119 Report of the Secretary of War, exhibiting the sums drawn from the Treasury under the act for arming 

the militia, March 3, 1813, - - - "."..". - 335 

120 Memorial of certain officers of the army under the command of General Harrison, complaining of the mode 

by which appointments and promotions have been made, June 16, 1813, - - - 336 

121 Communication from the head of the ordnance department, recommending the extension of that depart- 

ment, June 19, 1813, - - - " - - - - 336 

122 Report of a committee of the House of Representatives on the due execution of the act for arming the 

militia of the United States, July 8, 1813, - - - - - - 337 

123 Report of a committee on the spirit and manner in which the war is waged by the enemy, July 31, 1813, ■• 339 

124 Documents respecting the military defences for the protection of the seaboard, June 10, 1813, - 383 

125 Register, rules, and regulations of the army for 1813, December 29, 1813, - - - 384 

126 Report of a committee recommending that the term of service of the militia of the United States shall not 

be limited to three months, .--.-.- 433 

127 Message respecting the causes of the failure of the American army on the Northwestern frontier, Febru- 

ary 2, 1814, - - - - - - - - 439 

128 Report of a committee on the proper disposition to be made of flags, standards, and colors taken from the 

enemy, February 4, 1814, ..-..--- 433 

129 Report of a committee relative to the pay of the militia called into the service of the United States, by 

their own authority, or detached by the authority of the several States, February 15, 1814, - 490 

130 Documents communicated to the House of Representatives, exhibiting the manner in which the war has 

been conducted by the army under the command of General Smyth, February 21, 1814, - - 490 

131 Message recommending provision for the subsistence of the inhabitants of Michigan Territory, February 

28, 1814, - - - -.-.■. ■ - 510 

132 Documents showing the amount disbursed as bounties and premiums for recruits since January 27, 1814, 

and the distribution of the same, October 27, 1814, - - - - - 511 

133 Documents submitted by a committee of the Senate on the defects of the military establishment, and the 

legislative provisions deemed necessary to remedy them, - - - - 514 

134 Report of the Secretary of War, showing the number of enlistments in the year 1814, and the expenses of 

the recruiting service, November 10, 1814, ..... 519 

135 Documents exhibiting an apportionment of a detachment of eighty thousand militia calculated on different 

data, - , - - - - ■ . . . - - - 523 

136 Report of the Secretary of War respecting the adoption of a system of discipline for the army, November 

23, 1814, • - - - - - - - 523 

137 Report of a committee on the causes of the capture of Washington by the British forces in 1814, Novem- 

ber 29, 1814, - - - - - - - - 524 

138 Documents communicated to Congress on the best mode of subsisting the army, January 25, 1815, - 599 

139 Memorial of the committee of vigilance and safety of the city of Baltihiore relative to measures of defence, 

February 1, 1816, - - - - - - - - 602 

140 Report of a committee adverse to the employment of veterinary surgeons in the army, February 9, 1815, 603 

141 Report of the Secretary of War, showing the expenditures at the national armories, and the number of 

arms manufactured, February 24, 1815, ...... 604 

142 Report of a committee relative to powers of the General and State Governments over the militia, Febru- 

ary 28, 1814, - - - - -.-...- - 604 

143 Report of a committee respecting the payment of certain claims for services in the militia, January 11, 1816, 624 

144 Report of the Secretary of War, exhibiting the contracts made by the War Department in 1815, January 

25, 1816, - - - - - - - - 624 

145 Report of the Secretary of War, with an army register for 1815, - - . . 625 

146 Report of the Secretary of War on the organization of the staff" of the army, December 27, 1816, - 636 

147 Message transmitting statements of the militia of the United States, March 9, 1816, - - 636 

148 Repm-t of the Secretary of War on the claims of certain States for the services of their militia, March 7, 

1816, - - - - - - - .639 

149 Report of the Secretary of War on the organization and discipline of the militia, December 13, 1816, - 642 

150 Report of the Secretary of War on the expenses of subsisting the army under the command of General 

Harris()n, while commanding the Northwestern army, December 31, 1816, - - - 614 

151 Report of the Secretary of War, exhibiting the numerical force of the army of the United States, January 

13, 1817, - - . - - - - - 661 

152 Report of a committee on the classification and reorganization of the militia, January 17, 1817, - 6^3 

153 Report of the Secretary of War on the amount paid for the services of the militia, January 23, 1817, - 666 



viii TABLE OF CONTENTS. 

No. Page. 

154 Report of a committee on the conduct of General Harrison while commanding the Northwestern army, 

January 23, 1817, - - - - - - - - 667 

155 Report of a committee on the pay and emoluments incident to brevet rank, ... 667 

156 Report of the Secretary of War on the claim of the State of Maryland for the services of militia, - 668 

157 Report of a committee on a memorial praying indemnification for the penalty legally incurred by the en- 

listing of a minor, -.-.-.. 669 

158 Report of the Secretary of War showing the number and distribution of the army of the United States, 

December 22, 1817, - - - - - - - 669 

159 Report of the Secretary of War, with a list of brevet officers, December 23, 1817, - - 673 

160 Report of a committee on the organization, arming, and government of the militia, January 9, 1818, - 675 

161 Report of a committee of conference on a bill making an appropriation for the pay of brevet of&cers, Janu- 

ary 12, 1818, - - - - - - - - 675 

162 Report of the Secretary of War, showing the arms manufactured and delivered to the several States, - 677 

163 Message respecting the war with the Seminole Indians, March 25, 1818, ... 680 

164 Message transmitting documents relating to the war with the Seminole Indians, and to the trial and exe- 

cution of Arbuthnot and Ambrister, November 17, 1818, - - - - 681 

165 Report of the Secretary of War, showing the organization and strength of the militia of each State and 

Territory, 1818, - - - - - - - - 769 

166 Report of the Secretary of War relative to tlie establishment of a national armory on the Western waters, 

December 7, 1818, - - - - - - - 773 

167 Message transmitting a report of the Secretary of War respecting the arrest of Captain Obed Wright, of 

the Georgia militia, for destroying the Chehaw village in the Creek nation, December 12, 1818, - 774 

168 Report of the Secretary of War on the reduction of the army, December 14, 1818, - - 779 

169 Report of the Secretary of War transmitting estimates for the War Department for 1819, - - 810 

170 Message transmitting a report of the Secretary of War respecting the numerical strength of the army, its 

distribution, and number of ordnance, January 12, 1819, ... - 813 

171 Report of the Secretary of War in relation to extra pay to soldiers on fatigue duty, January 15, 1819, - 822 

172 Report of committee on the subject of improving the organization and discipline of the militia, January 

22, 1819, - - - - - - - - 824 

173 Report of the Secretary of War on the subject of an additional military academy, January 29, 1819, - 834 

174 Message communicating a report of the Secretary of War, transmitting the rules and regulations observed, 

and register of cadets, at the military academy, February 5, 1819, - - - 837 

175 Report of the Secretary of War transmitting a statement of contracts made by the commissary general of 

subsistence, the ordnance department, the commissary general of purchases, and the engineer depart- 
ment, in 1818, February 24, 1819, - - - - - - 848 



AMERICAN STATE PAPERS. 



MILITARY AFFAIRS. 



1st Congress.] ]Vo. 1. [1st Session. 

MILITARY FORCE IN 1789. 

COMMUNICATED TO THE SENATE, ON THE IOtH OF AUGUST, 1789. 

Gentlemen of the Senate: 

1 HAVE directed a statement of the troops in the service of the United States to be laid before you. foi- your 
information. 

These troops were raised by virtue of the resolves of Congress, of the 20th of October, 1 786, and tlie 3d of Oc- 
tober, 1787, in order to protect the frontiers from the depredations of the hostile Indians; to prevent all intrusions 
on the public lands; and to facilitate the surveying and selling of the same, for the purpose of reducing the public 
debt. 

As these important objects continue to require the aid of the troops, it is necessary that the establishment thereof 
should, in all respects, be conformed, by law, to the constitution of the United States. 

GEO. WASHINGTON. 
New York, August lOth, 1789. 

A statement of the Troops in the service of the United States. 
The establishment, as directed to be raised and organized by the acts of Congress, of .3d of October, 1787, to wit: 

ONE REGIMENT OF INFANTRY, COnsisting of 

1 lieutenant colonel commandant, 2 majors, 7 captains, 7 lieutenants, 8 ensigns, 1 surgeon, 4 mates. 
Eight companies, each of which to consist of four sergeants, four corporals, two musicians, and sixty 
privates, ------- - - - sgQ 

ONE BATI'ALION OF ARTILLERY. 

1 major, 4 captains, 8 lieutenants, 1 surgeon's mate. 
Four companies, each of which to consist of 4 sergeants, 4 corporals, 2 musicians, and 60 privates, :280 

Non-commissioned and privates, -----_. g^^ 

That the pay of the troops was fixed by the act of Congress, of the 12th of .\pril. 1785, and confirmed by rhe 
acts of the 20th of October, 1786, and the 3d of October, 1787, to wit: 

Lieutenant colonel commandant at $50 per month. Mate, at - $30 per month. 

Major, - 45 do. Sergeants, - 6 do. 

Captain, - 35 do. Corporals, - 5 do. 

Lieutenant, - - 26 do. Musicians, - 5 do. 

Ensign, - - 20 do. Privates, - 4 do. 

Surgeon, - - 45 do. 

That the subsistence to the officers, in lieu ot rations, are the same as during the late war, to wit: 
Lieutenant colonel commandant, 

Major, - $20 per month. Ensign, - $8 per month. 

Captain, - - 12 do. .Surgeon, - 16 do. 

Lieutenant, - 8 do. Mate, - 8 do. 

That lieutenants, acting as adjutant quarter master and paymaster, are allowed, by the act of Congress, of tiie 
13th of April, 1785, for their extra duty, $10 per month.- 
That the allowance of forage is as follows: 
3 Majors, each $12 per month, 
1 Surgeon 6 do- 

3 Regimental staflf, each $6 do. 
2 m 



MILITARY AFFAIRS. [1790. 



That, by the act of Congress, of the 31st July, 1787, Lieutenant Colonel Commandant Harmar was promoted to 
the rank of Brigadier General by brevet, with an allowance of the emoluments, but not the pay, of said rank. 
Tliat the emoluments are as follows, to wit: 

Subsistence, - ' - $64 per month, 

Forage, - - 18 do. 

That each non-commissioned officer and soldier is allowed, annually, one suit of uniform clothes, as follows: 
One coat, 1 vest, 2 pairs woollen overalls, 2 pairs linen overalls, 1 hat, 4 shirts, 4 pairs shoes, 4 pairs socks, 1 
stock. 1 stock clasp, 1 pair shoe buckles, 1 blanket. 

That each non-commissioned officer and soldier is also allowed one ration per day, to consist of the following 
articles: 

1 pound of bread or flour, 1 quart salt, ~i 

1 pound of beef or lib. of pork, 2 quarts vinegar, \ , . „„ nations 

1 gill of con>mon rum. 2 pounds soap, f ^" ^"^^^ ^°° rations. 

1 pound candles.J 
That the troops in actual service are as follows: 

Two companies of artillery, raised by virtue of the acts of Congress, of the 20th of October, 1786, and continued 
by the act of Congress, of the 9th of April, 1787, one of which is stationed at the arsenal at West Point, on Hud- 
son river, and the other at the arsenal at Springfield, on Connecticut river, . - . 76 
Troops stationed on the frontiers, as follows: 
At the various posts northwest of the Ohio, - - - - - - 596 

672 
Wanting, to complete the establishment, ---..- 168 

Non- commissioned and privates, 840 

That all the troops were enlisted for three years. _ ^^ 

That the engagements of the two companies of artillery, at West Point and Springfield, will expire tlie begin- 
ning of the year 1790. 

That, of the troops on the frontiers, enlisted by virtue of the acts of Congress, of the 3d of October, 1787, 528 
non-commissioned officers and soldiers will have to serve, generally, to the middle of the year 1791; and two com- 
panies, consisting of 68 non- commissioned and privates, until towards the month of May, 1792. 

That the change in the Government of the United States will require that the articles of war be revised and 
adapted to the constitution. That the oaths, necessary to be taken by the troops, be prescribed, and also the form 
of the commissions which are to be issued to the officers. 

\\\ which is humbly submitted to the President of the United States. 

H. KNOX. 
War Office, Jlugvsl 8th, 1789. 



1st Congress.] ' No. 2. [2d Session- . 

ORGANIZATION OF THE MILITIA. 

COMMUNICATED TO THE SENATE, ON THE 21sT OF JANUARY, 1790. 

Genilemen of the Senate and House of Representatives: 

The Secretary for the Department of War has submitted to me certain principles to serve as a plan for the gen- 
eral arrangement of the militia of the United States. 

Conceiving the subject to be of the highest importance to the welfare of our countr}^, and liable to be placed in 
various points of view, I have directed him to lay the plan before Congress, for their information, in order that they 
mav make ;uch use thereof as they may judge proper- 

GEO. M^ASHINGTON. 
Uniti:j States, January 21, 1790. 

War Office, January 18,1790. 
Sir: Having submitted to your consideration a plan for the arrangement of the militia of the United States, which 
I had presentail to the late Congress, and you having approved the general principles thereof, with certain e.xcep- 
tions, I now respectfully lay the same before ycu, modified according to the alterations you were pleased to suggest- 
It has been my anxious desire to devise a national system of defence adequate to the probable exigencies of the 
United States, whether arising from internal or external causes; and at the same time to erect a standard of repub- 
lican magnanimity, independent of, and superior to, the powerful influences of wealth. 

The convulsive events, generated by the inordinate pursuit of riches or ambition, require that the Government 
should possess a strong corrective arm. 

The idea is therefore submitted, whether an efficient military branch of Govei nment can be invented, with safe- 
ty to the great principles of liberty, unless the same shall be formed of the people themselves, and supported by 
their habits and manners. 

I have the honor to be, sir, with the most perfect respect, your most obedient servant, 

H. KNOX, 
Secretary for the Department of TVur. 
The President of the United States. 



THE INTRODUCTION. 



That a well constituted republic is more favorable to the liberties of society, and that its principles give a higher 
elevation to the human mind than any other form of Government, has generally been acknowledged by the unpre- 
judiced and enlightened part of mankind. 

But it is at the same time acknowledged, that, unless a republic prepares itself by proper arrangements to meet 
those exigencies to which all States are in a degree liable, that its peace and e.tistence are more precarious than the 
forms of Government in which the will of one directs the conduct of the whole, for the defence of the nation. 



1790.] ORGANIZATION OF THE MILITIA. 7 

A government, whose measures must be the result of multiplied deliberations, is seldom in a situation to produce 
instantly those exertions which the occasion may demand; therefore itought to possess such energetic establishments 
as should enable it, by the vigor of its own citizens, to c(mtrol events as they arise, instead of being convulsed or 
subverted by them. 

It is the misfortune of modern ages, that governments have been formed by chance and events, instead of system; 
that, without fixed principles, they are braced or relaxed, from time to time, according to the predominating power 
of the rulers or the ruled: the rulers possessing separate interests from the people, excepting in some of the high- 
tioned monarchies, in which all opposition to the will of tl'.e princes seems annihilated. 

Hence we li)uk round Euraps in vain for an extensive government, rising on the power inherent in the people, 
and performing its operations entirely for their benefit. But we find artificial force governing every where, and the 
people generally made subservient to the elevation and caprice of the few: almost every nation appearing to be busily 
employed in conducting some external war; grappling with internal commotion; or endeavoring to extricate itself 
from impending debts, which threaten to overwhelm it with ruin. Piinces and ministers seem neither to have leisure 
nor inclination to bring forward institutions for diffusing general strength, knowledge, and happiness; but they seem 
to understand well the Machiavelian maxim ot politics— divide and govern. 

May the United States avoid the errors and crimes of other governments, and possess the wisdom to embrace the 
present invaluable opportunity of establishing such institutions as shall invigorate, e:calt, and perpetuate, the great 
principles of freedom — an opportunity pregnant with thefateof millions, but rapidly borne on the wings of time, and 
whicli may never again return. 

The public mind, unbiassed by superstition or prejudice, seems happily prepared to receive the impressions of 
wisdom. The latent springs of human action, ascertained by the standard of experience, may be regulated and 
made subservient to the noble purpose of forming a dignified national character. 

The causes by which nations have ascended and declined, through the various ages of the world, may be cahnly 
and accurately determined; and the United States may be placed in the singularly fortunate condition of commenc- 
ing their career of empire with the accumulated knowledge of all the Known societies and governments of the 
globe. 

The strength of the Government, like the strength of any other vast and complicated machine, will depend on 
a due adjustment of its several parts: its agriculture, its commerce, its laws, its finance, its system of defence, and 
its manners and habits, all requue consideration, and the highest exercise of political wisdom. 

It is the intention of the present attempt to suggest the most efficient system of defence which may be compa- 
tible with the interests of a free people— a system which shall not only produce the expected effect, but which, in its 
operations, shall also produce those habits and manners which will impart strength and durability to the whole go- 
vernment. 

The modern practice of Europe, with respect to the employment of standing armies, has created such a mass of 
opinion in their favor, that even philosophers and the advocates for liberty have frequently confessed their use and 
necessity in certain cases. 

But whoever seriously and candidly estimates the power of discipline, and the tendency of military habits, will 
be constrained to confess, that, whatever may be the eflicacy of a standing army in war, it cannot in peace be con- 
sidered as friendly to the rights of human nature. The recent instance in France cannot with propriety be brought 
to overturn the general principle, built upon the uniform experience of mankind. It may be found, on examining 
the causes that appear to have influenced the military of France, that, while the springs of power were wound up in 
the nation to the highest pitch, the discipline of the army was proportionably relaxed. But any argument on 
this head may be considered as unnecessary to the enlightened citizens of the United States. 

A small corps of well disciplined and well informed artillerists and engineers, and a legion for the protection of the 
frontiers and the magazines and arsenals, are all the military establishment which may be required for the present 
use of the United States. The privates of the corps to be enlisted for a certain period, and after the expiration of 
which to return to the mass of the citizens. 

An energetic national militia is to be regarded as the capital security of a free republic, and not a standing army, 
forming a distinct class in the community. 

It is the introduction and diffusion of vice, and corruption of manners, into the mass of the people, that renders a 
standing army necessary. It is when public spirit is despised, and avarice, indolence, and effeminacy of manners 
predominate, and prevent the establishment of institutions which would elevate the minds of the youth in the paths 
of virtue and honor, that a standing army is formed and riveted for ever. 

While the human character remains unchanged, and societies and governments of considerable extent are formed, 
a principle ever ready to execute the laws, and defend the state, must constantly exist. Without this vital principle, 
the government would be invaded or overturned, and trampled upon by the bold and ambitious. No community 
can be long held together, unless its arrangements are adequate to its probable exigencies. 

If it should be decided to reject a standing army for the military branch of the government of the United States, 
as possessing too fierce an aspect, and being hostile to the principles ef liberty, it will follow that a well constituted 
militia ought to be established. 

A consideration of the subject will shov/ the Impracticability of disciplining at once the mass of the people. All 
discussions on the subject of a powerful militia will result in one or other of the following principles: 

First, Either efficient institutions must be established for the military education of the youth, and that the know- 
ledge acquired therein shall be diffused throughout the community, by the mean of rotation; or. 

Secondly, That the mditia must be formed of substitutes, after the manner of the militia of Great Britain. 

If the United States possess the vigor of mind to establish the first institution, it may reasonably be expected to 
produce the most unequivocal advantages. A glorious national spirit will be introduced, with its extensive train of 
political consequences- The youth will imbibe a love of their country; reverence and obedience to its laws; courage 
and elevation of mind; openness and liberality of character; accompanied by a just spirit of honor: in addition to 
which their bodies will acquire a robustness, greatly conducive to their personal happiness, as well as the defence 
of their country; while habit, with its silent but efficacious operations, \w\\\ durably cement the system. 

Habit, that powerful and universal law, incessantly acting on the human race, well deserves the attention of legis- 
lators — formed at first in individuals, by separate and almost imperceptible impulses, until at length it acquires a 
force which controls with irresistible sway. The effects of salutary or pernicious habits, operating on a whole nation, 
are immense, and decide its rank and character in the world. 

Hence the science of legislation teaches to scrutinize every national institution, as it may introduce proper or im- 
proper habits; to adopt with religious zeal the tbrmer, and reject with horror the latter. 

A republic, constructed on the principles herein stated, would be uninjured by events, sufficient to overturn a 
government supported solely by the uncertain power of a slianding army. 

The well informed members of the community, actuated by the highest motives of self-love, would form the real 
defence of the country. Rebellions would be prevented or suppressed with ease; invasions of such a government 
would be undertaken only by mad men; and the virtues and knowledge of the people ^^ ould effectually oppose the 
introduction of tyranny. 

But the second principle, a militia of substitutes, is pregnant, in a degree, with the mischiefs of a standing army; 
as it is highly probable the substitutes from time to time will be nearly the same men, and the most idle and wortli- 
less part of the community. Wealthy families, proud of distinctions which riches may confer, will prevent their 
sons from serving in the militia of substitutes; the plan will degenerate into habitual contempt; a standing army will 
be introduced, and the liberties of the people subjected to all the contingencies of events. 

The expense attending an energetic establishment of militia may be strongly urged as an objection to the institu- 
tion. But it is to be remembered, that this objection is levelled at both systems, whether by rotation or by substi- 
tutes: for, if the numbers are equal, the expense will also be equal. The estimate of the expense will show its unim- 
portance, when compared with the magnitude and beneficial effects of the institution. 



MILITARY AFFAIRS. [1790. 



But the people of the United States will cheerfully consent to the expenses of a measure calculated to serve as a 
perpetual barrier to their liberties; especially as they well know that the disbursements will be made among the 
members of the same community, and therefore cannot be injurious. 

Every intelligent mind would rejoice in the establishment of an institution, under whose auspices the youth and 
vigor of the constitution would be renewed with each successive generation, and which would appear to secure the 
great principles of freedom and happiness against the injuries of time and events. 

The following plan is formed on these general principles: 

First, That it is the indispensable duty of every nation to establish all necessary institutions for its own perfec- 
tion and defence. 

Secondly, That it is a capital security to a free state, fur the great body of the people to possess a competent know- 
ledge of the military art. 

Thirdly, That this knowledge cannot be attained, in the present state ot society, but by establishing adequate 
institutions for the military education of youth; and that the knowledge acquired therein should be diffused through- 
out the community by the principles of rotation. 

Fourthly, That every man ot the proper age, and ability of body, is firmly bound, by the social compact, to per- 
form, personally, his proportion of military duty for the defence of the state. 

Fifthly, That all men, of the legal military age, should be armed, enrolled, and held responsible for different 
degrees of military service. 

And sixthly. That, agreeably to the constitution, the United States are to provide for organizing, arming, and 
disciplining the militia, and for governing such a part of them as may be employed in the service of the United States; 
reserving to the States, respectively, the appointment of the officers, and the authority of training the militia, accord- 
ing to the discipline prescribed by Congress. 

THE PLAN. 

The period of life, in which military service shall be required of the citizens of the United States, to com- 
mence at eighteen, and terminate ai the age of sixty years. 

The men comprehended by this description, exclusive of such exceptions as the Legislatures of the respective 
States may think proper to make, and all actual mariners, shall be enrolled for different degrees of military duty, 
and divided into tnree distinct classes. 

The first class shall comprehend the youth of eighteen, nineteen, and twenty years of age; to be denominated 
the Mvanced Corps. 

The second class shall include the men from twenty-one to forty-five years ot age; to be denominated the Main 
Corps. 

The third class shall comprehend, inclusively, the men from forty-six to sixty years of age; to be denominated 
the Reserved Coi-ps. 

All the militia of the United States shall assume the form of the legion, which shall be the permanent establish- 
ment thereof. 

A legion shall consist of one hundred and fifty-three commissioned officers, and two thousand eight hundred 
and eighty non-commissioned officers and privates, formed in the following manner: 

1. — The Legionary Staff. 

One Legionary, or Major General. 

Two Aids-de-Camp, of the rank of major; one of whom to be Legionary Quartermaster. 
One Inspector and Deputy Adjutant General, of the rank of Lieutenant Colonel. 
One Chaplain. 

2. — The Brigade Staff. 
One Brigadier-General. 
One Brigade Inspector, to serve as an Aid-de-Camp. 

3. — The Regimental Staff. 

One Lieutenant Colonel Commandant. 

Two Majors. 

One Adjutant. 

One Paymaster, or Agent. 

One Quartermaster. 

4. — Two Brigades of Infantry. 

Each brigade of two regiments; each regiment of eight companies, formingtwo battalions; each company of a cap- 
tain, lieutenant, ensign, six sergeants, one drum, one fife, and sixty -four rank and file. 

5. — Two Companies of Riflemen. 

Each company to have a captain, lieutenant, ensign, six sergeants, a bugle-horn, one drum, and sixty-four rank 
and file. 

G. — A Battalion of Artillery, 

Consisting of four companies; each to have a captain, captaiii lieutenant, one lieutenant, six sergeants, twelve 
artificers, and fifty-two rank and tile. 

7. — A SquADRON or Cavalrk, 

Consisting of two troops; each troop to have a captain, two lieutenants, a cornet, six sergeants, one farrier, one 
saddler, one trumpeter, and sixty-four dragoons. 

In case the whole number of the advanced corps in any State should be insufficient to form a legion of this ex- 
tent, yet the component parts must be preserved, and the reduction proportioned, as nearly as may be, to each 
part. 

The companies of all the corps shall be divided into «ec«Jo«s of twelve each. It is proposed, by this division, to 
establish one uniform vital principle, which in peace and war shall pervade the militia of the United States. 

All requisitions for men to form an army, either for state or federal purposes, shall be furnished by the advanc- 
ed and main corps, by means of the sections. 

The Executive Government, or commander in chief of the militia of each State, will assess the numbers required, 
on the respective legions of these corps. 

The legionary general will direct the proportions to be furnished by each part of his command. Should the de - 
mand be so great as to require one man from each section, then the operation hereby directed shall be performed by 
single sections. But if a less number should be required, they will be furnished by an association of sections, or com- 
panies, according to the demand. In any case, it is probable that mutual convenience may dictate an agreement with 
anindividual to perform the service required. If, however, no agreement can be made, one must be detached by an 
indscriminate draught, and the others shall pay him a sum of money equal to the averaged sum which shall be paid 
in the same legion lor the voluntary performance of the service required- 



1790.] ORGANIZATION OF THE MILITIA. 



In case any sections or companies of a legion, after having furnished its own quota, should have more men willing 
to engage for the service required, other companies of the same legion shall have permission to engage them. The 
same rule to extend to the different legions in the State. 

The legionary general must be responsible to the commander-in-chief of the militia of the State that the men 
furnished are according to the description, and that they are equipped in the manner, and marched to the rendez- 
vous, conformably to the orders for that purpose. 

The men who may be draughted shall not serve more than three years at one time. 

Reserved corps, being destined for the domestic defence of the State, shall not be obliged to furnishmen, except- 
ing in cases of actual invasion or rebellion; and then the men'required shall be furnished by means of the sections. 
The actual commissioned officers of the respective corps shall not be included in the sections, nor in any of the 
operations thereof. 

The respective States shall be divided into portions or districts; each of which to contain, as nearly as may be, 
some complete part of a legion. 

Every citizen of the United States, who shall serve his country in the field for the space of one year, either as an 
ofiBcer or soldier, shall, if under the age of twenty-one years, be exempted from the service required in the advanced 
corps. If he shall be above the age of twenty-one years, then every year he shall so serve in the field shall be 
estir/iated as equal to six years' service in the main or reserved corps, and shall accordingly exempt him from every 
service therein for the said term of six years, except in cases of actual invasion of, or rebellion within, the State in 
which he resides. And it shall also be a permanent establishment, that six years' actual service in the field shall 
entirely free every citizen from any further demands of service, either in the militia or in the field, unless incases of 
invasion or rebellion. 

Ml actual mariners, or seamen, in the respective States, shall be registered in districts, and divided into two 
classes. The first class to consist of all the seamen from the age of sixteen to thirty years, inclusively. The second 
class to consist of all those of the age of thirty-one to forty-five, inclusively. 

The first class shall be responsible to serve three years on board of some public armed vessel or ship of war, as a 
commissioned officer, warrant officer, or private mariner; for which service they shall receive the customary wages 
and emoluments. 

But, should the State not demand the said three years' service during the above period, from the age of sixteen to 
thirty years, then the party to be exempted entirely therefrom. 

The person so serving shall receive a certificate of his service, on parchment, according to the form which shall 
be directed, which shall exempt him from any other than voluntary service, unless in such exigencies as may re- 
quire the services of all the members of the community. 

The second class shall be responsible for a proportion of service in those cases to which the first class shall be un- 
equal. The numbers required shall be furnished by sections, in the same manner as is prescribed for the sections of 
the militia. 

OF THE ADVANCED CORPS. 

The advanced corps are designed not only as a school in which the youth of the United States are to be instinct- 
ed in the art of war, but they are, in all cases of exigence, to serve as an actual defence to the community. 

The whole of the armed corps shall be clothed according to the manner hereafter directed, armed and subsisted 
at the expense of the United States; and all the youth of the said corps, in each State, shall be encamped together, 
if practicable, or by legions, which encampments shall be denominated the annual camps of discipline. 

The youth of eighteen and nineteen years shall be disciplined for thirty days successively in each year; and those 
of twenty years shall be disciplined only for ten days in each year, which shall be the last ten days of the annual 
encampments- 

The non commissioned officers and privates are not to receive any pay during the said time; but the commis- 
sioned oflicers will receive the pay of their relative ranks, agreeably to the federal establishment for the time being. 
In order that the plan shall effectually answer the end proposed, the first day of January shall be the fixed period, 
for all who attain the age of eighteen years, in any part, or during the course of each year, to be enrolled in the ad- 
vanced corps, and to take the necessary oaths to perform, personally, such legal military service as may be 
directed, for the full and complete term of three years, to be estimated from the time of entrance into the said corps, 
and also to take an oath of allegiance to the State and to the United States. 

The commanding officer, or general of the advanced legions of the district, shall regulate the manner of the ser- 
vice of the youth, respectively, whether it shall be in the infantry, artillery, or cavalry; but, after having entered 
into either of them, no change should be allowed. 

Each individual, at his first joining the annual camps of discipline, will receive complete arms and accoutre- 
ments, all of which, previously to his being discharged from the said camps, he must return to the regimental quarter- 
master, on the penalty of dollars, or months' imprisonment. 

The said arms and accoutrements shall be marked, in some conspicuous place, with the letters. M. U. S. And 
all sales or purchases of any of said arnis or accoutrements, shall be severely punished, according to law. 

And each individual will also, on his first entrance into the advanced corps, receive the following articles of uni- 
form clothing: one hat, one uniform short coat, one waistcoat, and one pair of overalls, which he shall retain in his 
own possession, and for which he shall be held accountable, and be compelled to replace all deficiencies during his 
service in the annual camps of discipline. 

Those who shall serve in the cavalry shall beat the expense of their own horses and uniform helmets, and horse- 
furniture; but they shall receive forage for their horses, swords, pistols, and clothing', equal in value to the infantry. 
At the age of twenty-one years, every individual having served in the manner and for the time prescribed, shall 
receive an honorary certificate thereof, on parchment, and signed by the legionary general and inspector. 

The names of all persons to whom such certificates shall be given, shall be fairly registered in books, to be pro- 
vided for that purpose. 

And the said certificate, or an attested copy of the register aforesaid, shall be required as an indispensable quali- 
fication for exercising any of the rights of a free citizen, until after the age of; years. 

The advanced legions, in all cases of invasion or rebellion, shall, on requisition of lawful authority, be obliged to 
march to any place within the United States; to remain embodied for such time as shall be directed, not to exceed 
one year, to be computed from the time of marching from the regimental parades; during the period of their being on 
such service, to be placed on the continental establishment of pay, subsistence, clothing, forage, tents, camp-equi- 
page, and all such other allowances as are made to the federal troops at the same time, and under the same circum- 
stances. 

If the military service so required should be for such a short period as to render an actual issue of clothing un- 
necessary, then an allowance should be made in proportion to the annual cost of clothing for the federal soldier, ac- 
cording to estimates to be furnished for that purpose from the War Office of the United States. 

Ill case the legions of the advanced corps should march to any place in consequence of a requisition of the Gene- 
ral Government, all legal and proper expenses of such march shall be paid by the United States. But, should they 
be embodied and march in consequence of an order, derived from the authority of the State to which they belong, 
and for State purposes, then the expenses will be borne by the State. 

The advanced corps shall be constituted on such principles that, when completed, it will receive one-third part 
and discharge one-third part of its numbers annually. By this arrangement, two thirds of the corps will at all times 
be considerably disciplined; but, as it will only receive those of eighteen years of age, it will not be completed until 
the third year after its institution. Those who have already attained the ages of nineteen and twenty years will, in 
the first instance, be enrolled in the main corps. 



IQ MILITARY AFFAIRS. [1790. 



But one half of the legionary officers to be appointed the iirst, and the other the second year of the establishment. 
The officers of each grade in the States, respectively, shall be divided into three classes, which shall by lot be 
numbered one, two, andi three, and one of tlie said classes, accordins to their numbers, shall be deranged every third 
year. In the first period of nine years, one-third part will have to serve three, one-third part six, and one-third part 
nine years. But, after the said first period, the several classes will serve nine years, which shall be the limitation of 
service by virtue of the same appointment: and in such cases, where there may not be three officers of the same 
grade the limitation of nine years' service shall be observed. All vacancies occasioned by the aforesaid derange- 
ments', or any casualties, shall be immediately tilled by new appointments. 

The captains and subalterns of the advanced corps shall not be less than twenty-one, nor more than thirty-five, 
and the field officers shall not exceed forty-five years of age. , , ^, 

Each company, battalion, and regnnent, shall have a fixed parade or place at which to assemble. 1 he companies 
shall assemble at their own parade, and march to the parade of the battalion, and the battalions to the regimental 
parade; and when thus embodied, the regiment will march to the rendezvous of the legion. Every commanding of- 
ficer of a company, battalion, and regiment, will be accountable to his superior officer that his command is in the 
most perfect order. . ,. ^ . . . . , . . , , , 

The officers to receive subsistence money, in lieuot provisions, in proportion to their respective grades, andthose 
whose duties require them to be on horseback will receive Ibrage in the same proportion. 

Every legion must have a chaplain, of respectable talents and character, who, besides his religious functions, 
should impress on the minds of the youth, at stated periods, in concise discourses, the eminent advantages of free 
governments to the happiness of society, and that such governments can only be supported by the knowledge, spirit, 
and virtuous conduct of the youth— to be illustrated by the most conspicuous examples ot history. 

No amusements should be admitted in camp, but those which correspond with war— the swimming of men and 
horses, running, wrestling, and such ether exercises as should render the biidy flexible and vigorous. 

The camps should, if possible, be formed near a river, and remote from large cities. The first is necessary for 
the practice of the manceuvres, the second to avoid the vices of populous places. 

The time of the annual encampments shall be divided into six parts or periods, of five days each; the first of 
which shall be occupied in acquiring the air, attitudes, and first principles of a soldier; the second in learning the 
manual exercise, and to march individually, and in small squads; the third and fourth, in exercising and manoeu- 
vring in detail, and by battalions and regiments: in the fifth, the youth of twenty, having been disciplined during 
the two preceding annual encampments, are to be included. This period is to be employed in the exercise and tac- 
tic of the legion; or, if more than one, in executing the grand manoeuvres ot the whole body — marching, attacking, 
and defending, in various forms, different grounds and positions; in fine, in representing all the real images of war, 
excepting the effusion of blood. . 

The guards, and every other circumstance of the camp, to be perfectly regulated. 

Each State will determine on the season in which its respective aimual encampments shall be formed; so as best 
to suit the health of the men, and the general interests of the society. 

The United States to make an adequate provision to supply the arms, clothing, rations, artillery, ammunition, 
forage, straw, tents, camp equipage, including every requisite for the annual camps of discipline; and also for the 
pay and subsistence of the legionary officers, and for the following general staff": One inspector general, one adju- 
tant general, one quartermaster general, with a deputy for each State. 

Tnese officers will be essential to the uniformity, economy, and efficacy of the system, to be appointed in the 
manner prescribed by the constitution of the United States. 

The quartermaster general shall be responsible to the United States for the public property of every species, 
delivered to him for the annual camps of discipline; and his deputy in each State shall be responsible to him. 

At the commencement of the annual camps of discipline, the deputy quartermaster will make regular issues to 
the legionary or regimental quartermasters, as the case may be, of all the articles, of every species, provided by the 
United States. , .,,,,,., , . . , ^ 

The returns for the said articles to be examined and certified by the highest legionary or regimental officer, as the 
case may be, who shall be responsible for the accuracy thereof- 

At the expiration of the annual camps of discipline, all public property (clothing excepted) shall be returned to 
the deputy quartermaster of the State, who shall hold the legionary quartermaster accountable for all deficiencies. 
All the apparatus and property so returned, shall be carefully examined, repaired, and deposited in a magazine, to 
be provided in each State fur that purpose, under the charge of the said deputy quartermaster, until the ensuing an- 
nual encampment, or any occasion which may render a new issue necessary. 

Corporal punishments shall never be inflicted in the annual camps of discipline; but a system of fines and im- 
prisonment shall be formed for the regular government of said camps. 

OF THE MAIN CORPS. 

As the mam and reserved corps are to be replenished by the principle of rotation from the advanced corps, and 
ultimately to consist of men who have received their military education therein, it is proper that one uniform arrange- 
ment should pervade the several classes. 

It is for this reason the legion is established as the common forinof all the corps of the militia. 

The main legions, consisting of the great majority of the men of the military age, will form the principal defence 
of the country. 

They are to be responsible for their proportion of men, to fiirm an army whenever necessity shall dictate the mea- 
sure; and on every sudden occasion to which the advanced corps shall be incompetent, an adequate number of non- 
commissioned officers and privates shall be added thereto, from the main corps, by means of the sections. 

The main corps will be perfectly armed, in the first instance, and will practise the exercise and manoeuvres, ibur 
days in each year, and will assemble in their respective districts, by companies, battalions, regiments, or legions, as 
shall be directed by the legionary general; but it must be a fixed rule, that, in the populous parts of the States, the 
regiments must assemble once annually, and the legions once in three years. 

Although the main corps cannot acquire a great degree of military knowledge in the few days prescribed for its an- 
nual exercise, yet, by the constant accession of the youth from the advanced corps, it will soon command respect for 
its discipline, as well as its numbers. 

When the youth are transferred from the advanced corps, they shall invariably join the flank companies, the ca- 
valry or artillery, of the main corps, according to the nature of their former services. 

OF THE RESERVED CORPS. 

The reserved corps will assemble only twice, annually, for the inspection of arms, by companies, battalions, or 
regiments, as shall be directed by each State. It will assemble by legions, whenever the defence of the State may 
render the measure necessary. 

Such are the propositions of the plan, to which it may be necessary to add some explanations. 

Although the substantial political maxim, which requires personal service of all the members of the community 
for the defence of the State, is obligatory under all forms of society, and is the main pillar of a free government, yet 
the degrees thereof raay vary at the dift'erent periods of life, consistently with the general welfare. The public con- 
venience may also dictate a relaxation of the general obligation as it respects the principal magistrates, and the 
ministers of justice and of religion, and perhaps some religious sects. But it ought to be remembered that measures 
of national importance never sTiould be frustrated by the accommodation of individuals. 



1790.] ORGANIZATION OF THE MILITIA. H 



The military age has eenerally commenced at sixteen, and terminated at the age of sixty years; but the youth of 
sixteen (jo not commonly attain such a degree of robust strength as to enable them to sustain, without injury, 
the hardships incident to the lield; therelore the commencement of military service is heiein fixed at eighteen, and 
the termination, as usual, at sixty years of age. 

The plan proposes that the m'ilitia shall be divided into three capital classes, and that each class shr.U be 
formed into legions; the reasons for which shall be given in succession. 

The advanced corps, and annual camps of discipline, are instituted in order to introduce an operative military 
spirit in the community. To establish a course of honorable military service, which will, at the same time, moulci 
the minds of the young men to a due obediente of the laws, instruct them in the art of war, and, by the manly ex- 
ercises of the field, form a race of hardy citizens, equal to the dignified task of defending their country. 

An examination into the employments and obligations of the individuals composing the society, will evince the 
impossibility of diflfusing an adequate knowledge of the art of war, by any other means than a course of discipline, 
during the period of nonage. The time necessary to acquire this important knowledge cannot be afforded at any 
other period of life with so little injury to the public or private interests. 

Without descending to minute distinctions, the body of the people of the United States may be divided into two 
parts— the yeomanry ot the country, and the men of various employments, resident in towns and cities. In both 
parts it is usual for the male children, from the age of fourteen to twenty-one years, to learn some trade or em- 
ployment, underthedirectionof a parent or master. In general, the labor or service of the youlh,during this period, 
besides amply re-paying the trouble of tuition, leaves a large profit to the tutor. This circumstance is stated to show 
that no great hardships will arise in the first operations of the proposed plan; a little practice will render the mea- 
sure perfectly equal, and remove every difficulty. 

Youth is the time for the State to avail itself of those services which it has -a right to demand, and by wiiich it is 
to be invigorated and preserved. In this season, the passions and affections are strongly infiuenced by the splendor 
of military parade. The impressions the mind receives will be retained through life. The young man will repair 
with pride and pleasure to the field of exercise; while the head of a family, anxious for its general welfare, and per- 
haps its immediate subsistence, will reluctantly quit his domestic duties tor any length of time. 

The habits of indHstry will be rather strengthened than relaxed by the establishment of the annual camps of dis- 
cipline, as all the time will be occupied by the various military duties. Idleness and dissipation will be regarded as 
disgraceful, and punished accordingly. As soon as the youth attain the age of manhood, a natural solicitude to es- 
tablish themselves in the society, will occur in its full force. The public claims for military service will be too 
inconsiderable to injure their industry. It will be sufficiently stimulated to proper exertions, by the prospects of 
opulence attending on the cultivation of a fertile soil, or the pursuits of a productive commerce. 

It is presumed that thirty days annually, during the eighteenth and nineteenth, and ten days during the twentieth 
year, is the least time that ought to be appropriated by the youth to the acquisition of the military art. The same 
number of days might be adcled during the twentieth as during the two preceding years, were not the expense an 
objection. 

Every means will be provided by the public to facilitate the military education of the youth, which it is proposed 
shall be an indispensable qualification of a free citizen: therefore they will not be entitled to any pay. But the offi- 
cers, being of the main corps, are in a different predicament. They are supposed to have passed through the course 
of discipline required bythe laws, and to be competent to instruct others in the military art. As the public will have 
but small claims for personal services on them, and as they must incur considerable expenses to prepare themselves 
to execute properly their respective offices, they ought to be paid while on actual duty. 

As soon as the service of the youth expires in the advanced corps, they are to be enrolled in the main corps. On 
this occasion, the republic receives disciplined and free citizens, who understand their public rights, and are pre- 
pared to defend them. 

The main corps is instituted to preserve and circulate throughout the community the military discipline, acquired 
in the advanced corps; to arm the people, and fix firmly, by practice and habit, those forms and maxims which are 
essential to the life and energy of a free government. 

The reserved corps is instituted to prevent men being sent to the field whose strength is unequal to sustain the 
severities of an active campaign. But, by organizing and rendering them eligible for domestic service, a greater 
proportion of the younger and robust part of the community may be enabled, in case of necessity, to encounter the 
more urgent duties of war. 

It would be difficult, previously to the actual formation of the annual camps of discipline, to ascertain the num- 
ber in each State of which it would be composed. The frontier counties of several States are thinly inhabited, and 
require all their internal force for their immediate defence. There are other inlant settlements, from which it might 
be injurious to draw away their youth annually for the purpose of discipline. 

No evil would result, if the establishment of the advanced corps should be omitted in such districts for a (ew 
years. Besides, the forbearance in this respect would lessen the expense, and render the institution more compati- 
ble with the public finances. 

The several State Legislatures, therefore, as best understanding their local interests, might be invested with a 
discretionary power to omit the enrolments for the advanced corps, in such of their frontier and thinly inhabited 
counties, as they may judge proper. 

If the number of three millions may be assumed as the total number of the inhabitants within the United States, 
half a million may be deducted therefrom, for blacks, and, pursuant to the foregoing ideas, another half million may 
be deducted, on account of the thinly settled parts ot the country. 

The proportion of men of the military age, from eighteen to sixty years inclusively, of two millions of people, of 
all ages and sexes, may be estimated at four hundred thousand. There may be deducted from this number, as ac- 
tual mariners, about fifty thousand, and a further number of twenty-five thousand, to include exempts of religious 
sects, and of every other sort whicli the respective States may think proper to make. 

Three hundred and twenty-five thousand, therefore, may be assumed, as the number of operative, fencible men, 
to compose the militia. The proportion of the several classes of which would be nearly as follows: 

Firstly, The advanced corps, one tenth composed of the youth of the ages of eighteen, nineteen, and twenty 

years, - - -..--... 32,500 

Secondly, The main corps, six-tenths and one-twentieth, . . . . 211,250 

Thirdly, The reserved corps, two-tenths and one-twentieth, . - - _ 81,250 

325,000 



The following estimate is formed for the purpose of exhibiting the annual expense of the institution of the ad- 
vanced corps, stating the same at thirty thousand men. 

Estimate of the expense of the annual camps of discipline, as proposed in the foregoing plan, arising on each of 
the first three years, and, after that period, of the annual expense of the institution. 

THE FIRST YEAR. 

10,000 suits of unifonn clothing, stated at eight dollars, each suit of which shall serve for the three 
years' discipline, - - - - - - - - - $80,000 

10,000 rations per day, for 30 days, each ration at 10 cents, - - - - 30,000 

The expense of four complete corps of legionary officers, of all descriptions, for 30 days, including 
pay, subsistence, and forage, ._..-. 27,870 



12 



MILITARY AFFAIRS. [1790. 



Forage for the cavalry, - " , / , " ' " ' ' tt'ln^ 
Straw, camp kettles, bowls, axes, canteens, and fuel, - , ,. -., - r' ■^.. ' ' 
Annual proportion of the expense of tents for oflScers and soldiers, which may serve tor eight an- 
nual encampments, .-..--- o'nnn 
Four legionary standards, .----■-- ^,ouo 

Regimental colors, -,",,„", " " . \ ^ ' i _^i' ' 
Consumption of powder and ball, shot, and shells, damage to arms and accoutrements and artil- 
lery, and transportation of the same, stated at - - - - - - ^I'nnn 

Hospital department, " . ,' , , '' ' " " ' " , I'lnil 

Contingencies of the quartermaster's and other departments, - , ," . , T " Jx'nnn 

General stafj; adjutant general, quartermaster general, inspector general, and their deputies, - 1^,000 

Entire expense of the first year, ------- $225,670 

ADDITIONAL EXPENSES ON THE SECOND YEAR. 

10,000 rations per day, for 30 days, are 300,000 rations, at 10 cents, - - - $30,000 
The expense of four complete corps of legionary officers, of all descriptions, for 30 days, including 

pay, subsistence, and forage, ...---- ^o'nnn 

Four legionary standards. - - - - - . - - 2,000 

Regimental colors, - - - . - - " - " J'^OO 

Forage for the cavalry, - - " , r ," ' " " ' ->n'nnn 

Tents, straw, camp kettles, bowls, axes, canteens, and fuel, . - - - iO.OOO 

Hospital department, -------- 5,000 

Contingencies in the quartermaster's and other departments, - - - - 15,000 

Ammunition, damage to arms and accoutrements, . . - . - 15,000 

$120,670 
Expense of the first year, . - - - ■ ... ^^5,670 

Combined expenses of the first and second years, ... - - $346,340 

ADDITIONAL EXPENSES ON THE THIRD YEAR. 

The expense of 10.000 rations, for 10 days, is 100,000 rations, at 10 cents, . . - $10,000 

Forage, - - - - - - " " ' ^^00 

For the camp equipage, ----- r - - 10,000 

Tents. - - - - - -'" " " " 1,500 

Hospital stores, - - - - - - - - - 1.000 

Ammunition, damage to arms and accoutrements, - - - - - 10,000 

Contingencies in the quartermaster's and other departments, - - - - 10,000 

$44,100 
Combined expenses of the first and second years, . . . . . 346,340 

The total expense of the first three years, ------ $390,440 

It is to be observed, that the officers for four legions v/ill be adequate to command the youth of eighteen, who 

commence their discipline the first year; and that the same number of officers will be required for the second year. 

The youth of the third year may be incorporated by sections in the existing corps, so that no additional officers will 

be required on their account. 

Hence it appears that the expense of 10,000 men, for one year, amounts to . - - $225,670 

20,000 for the second year, to ------ - 346,340 

30,000 for the third year, to - - - " . . . ■ " " 390,440 

If the youth of the three ages of eighteen, nineteen, and twenty, be disciplined at once, the last 
mentioned sum will be about the fixed annual expense of the camps of discipline; from which, 
however, is to be deducted 6,000 dollars, being the expense of the standards and colors, the for- 
mer of which will be of a durable nature, and the latter will not require to be replaced oftener 
than once in twenty years, ------- 6,000 

The annual expense of the advanced corps, - . - - . - $384,440 

Thus, for a sum less than four hundred thousand dollars, annually, which, apportioned on three millions of 
■people, would be little more than one-eighth of a dollar each, an energetic republican militia may be durably es- 
tablished, the invaluable principles of liberty secured and perpetuated, and a dignified national fabric erected on 
the solid foundation of public virtue. 

The main and reserved corps must be perfectly organized, in the first instance, but th.e advanced corps will not 
be completed until the third year of its institution. 

The combination of troops, of various descriptions, into one body, so as to inyest it with the highest and greatest 
number of powers, in every possible situation, has long been a subject of discussion and difference of opinion. But 
no other form appears so well to have sustained the criterion of time and severe examination as the Roman legion. 
This formidable organization, accommodated to the purposes of modern wai-, still retains its original energy and su- 
periority. Of the ancients, Polybius and Vegetius have described and given the highest encomiums of the legion- 
The former, particularly, in his comparative view of the advantages and disadvantages of the Macedonian and Ro- 
man arms, and, their respective orders of battles, has left to mankind an instructive and important legacy. Of 
the moderns, the illustrious Mareschal .Saxe has modelled the legion for the use of fire arms, and strenuously urges 
its adoption, in preference to any other form. And the respectable and intelligent veteran, late inspector general of 
tl;e armies of the United States, recommends the adoption of the legion. * 

" Upon a review," says he, "of all the military of Europe, there does not appear to be a single form which could 
be safely adopted by the United States. They are unexcepti(mably different from each other; and, like all other 
human institutions, seem to have started as much out of accident as design. The local situation of the country, the 
spirit of the government, the character of the nation, and, in many instances, the character of the prince, have all 
had their influence in settling the fimndation and discipline of their respective troops, and render it impossible that 
we should take either as a model. 

" The legion, alone, has not been adopted by any; and yet I am confident in asserting, that, whether it be exam- 
ined as applicable to all countries, or as it may immediately apply to the existing or probable necessity of this, it 
will be found strikingly superior to any other. 

" 1st. Being a complete and little army of itself, it is ready to begin its operations on the shortest notice or slight- 
est alarm. 

" 2d. Having all the component parts of the largest army of any possible description, it is prepared to meet every 
species of war that may present itself. 

• vide letter addressed to the inhabitants of the United States, on the subject of an established militia. 



1790] ORGANIZATION OF TH'E MILITIA. 13 

" And, 3d, as in every case of detachment, the first constitutional principle will be preserved, and the etyibarrass- 
ments of draughting and detail, which in armies differently framed, too often distract the commanding officer, will 
be avoided. 

" It may easily suggest itself, from this sketch, that, in forming a legion, the most difficult task is to determine the 
necessary proportion of each species of soldiei-s which is to compose it. This must obviously depend upon what 
will be the theatre, and what tne style of the war. On the plains of Poland, whole brigades of cavalry would be 
necessary against every enemy; but, in the forests and among the hills of America, a siiigte regiment would be more 
than sufficient against any. And, as there are but two kinds of war to which we are much exposed, viz. an attack 
from the sea side, by an European power, aided by our sworn enemies settled (m our extreme left, and an invasion 
of our back settlements by an Indian enemy, it follows, of course, that musketeers and liglit infantry should make 
the greatest part of your army." 

The institution of the section is intended to interest the patriotism and pride of every individual in the militia, 
to support the le"al measures of a free Government, to render every man active in the public cause, by introducing 
the spirit of emulation, and a degree of personal responsibility. 

The common mode of recruiting is attended with too great destruction of morals to be tolerated; and is too un- 
certain to be the principal resource of a wise nation in time of danger. The public faith is frequently wounded by 
unworthy individuals, who hold out delusive promises, which can never be realized. By such means, an unprinci- 
pled banditti are often collected, for the purpose of defending every thing that should be dear to freemen. The 
consequences are natural: such men either desert in time of danger, or are ever ready, on the slightest disgust, to 
turn their arms against their country. 

By the establishment of the sections, an ample and permanent source is opened, whence the State, in every ex- 
igence, may be supplied with men whose all depends upon the prosperity of their country. 

In cases of necessity, an army may be formed of citizens, wliose previous knowledge of discipline will enable it 
to proceed to an immediate accomplishment of the designs of the State, instead of exhausting the public resources, 
by wasting whole years in preparing to face the enemy. 

The previous arrangements, necessary to form and raantain the annual encampments, as well as the discipline 
acquired therein, will be an excellent preparation for war. The artillery and its numerous appendages, arms and 
accoutrements of every kind, and all species of ammunition, ought to be manufactured within the United States. 
It is of high importance that the present period should be embraced to establish adequate institutions to produce 
the necessary apparatus of war. 

It is unworthy the dignity of a rising and free empire, to depend on foreign and fortuitous supplies of the essen- 
tial means of defence- 

The clothing for the troops could with ease be manufoctured within the United States, and the establishment in 
that respect would tend to the encouragement of important manufactories. 

The disbursements made in each State for the rations, forage, and other necessary articles for the annual camps 
of discipline, vvould most beneficially circulate the money arising from the public revenue. 

The local circumstances of the United States, their numerous sea-ports, and the protection of their commerce 
require a naval arrangement. Hence the necessity of the proposed plan, embracing tlie idea of the States qbtaini'i^ 
men on republican principles for the marine as well as the land service. But one may be accomplished with mu i 
greater facility than the other, as the preparation of a soldier for the field requires a degree of discipline, which 
cannot be learned without much time and labor; whereas the common course of sea'service, on board of merchant 
vessels, differs but little from the service required on board of armed ships; therefore, the education for war, in this 
respect, will be obtained without any expense to the State. All that seems to be requisite on the head of marine 
service is, that an efficient regulation should be established in the respective States, to register all actual seamen, and 
to render those of a certain age amenable to the public for personal service, if demanded within a given period. 

The constitutions of the respective States, and of the United States, having directed the modes in which the 
officers of the militia shall be appointed, no alteration can be made therein. Although it may be supposed that some 
modes of appointment are better calculated than others to inspire the highest propriety of conduct, yet there are 
none so defective to serve as a sufficient reason for rejecting an efficient system tor the militia. It is certain that 
the choice of officers is the point on which the reputation and importance of a corps must depend ; therefore, every 
person who may be concerned in the appointment, should consider himself as responsible to his country for a proper 
choice. 

The wisdom of the States will be manifested by inducing ^those citizens of whom the late American, army was 
composed to accept of appointments in the militia. The high degree of military knowledge which they possess was 
acquiredattoo great a price, and is too precious, to be buriedjin oblivion. It ought to be cherished, and rendered per- 
manently beneficial to the community. 

The vigor and importance of the proposed plan will entirely depend on the laws relative thereto. Unless the 
laws shall be equal to the object, and rigidly enforced, no energetic national militia can be established. 

If wealth be admitted as a principle of exemption, the plan cannot be executed. It is the wisdom of political 
establishments to make the wealth of individuals subservient to the general good, and not to suffer it to corrupt or 
attain undue indulgence. 

It is conceded that people, solicitous to be exonerated from their proportion of public duty, may exclaim against 
the proposed arrangement as an intolerable hardship. But it ouglit to be strongly impressed'' that, while socie^ has 
its charms, it also has its indispensable obligations. That, to attempt such a degree of refinement as to exonerate 
the members of the community from all personal service, is to render them incapable of the exercise, and unworthy 
of the characters of freemen- 

Every State possesses, not only the right of personal service from its members, but the right to regulate the ser- 
vice on principles of equality for the general defence. All being bound, none can complain of injustice, on being 
obliged to perform his equal proportion. Therefore, it ought to be a permanent rule, that those who in youth decline 
or refuse to subject themselves to the course of military education, established by the laws, should be considered as 
unworthy of public trust or public honors, and be excluded therefrom accordingly. 

If the majesty of the laws should be preserved inviolate in this respect, the operations of the proposed plan would 
foster a glorious public spirit, infuse the principles of energy and stability into the body politic, and give a high de- 
gree of political splendor to the national character. 



14 



MILITARY AFFAIRS. 



[1790. 



1st Congress.] 



No. 3. 



[2d Session. 



TROOPS, INCLUDING MILITIA, FURNISHED BY THE SEVERAL STATES DURING THE 

WAR OF THE IRE VOLUTION. 

COMMUNICATED TO THE HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES, MAY 11, 1790. 

War Office of the United States, May 10, 1790. 

In obedience to the order of the House of Representatives, the Secretary of War submits the statement, here- 
unto annexed, of the troops and militia furnished, from time to time, by the several States, towards the support of 
the late v^ar. 

The numbers of the regular troops having been stated from the official returns, deposited in the War Office, may 
be depended upon; and in all cases where the numbers of militia are stated from the returns, the same confidence 
may be observed. 

But, in some years of the greatest exertions of the Southern States, there are no returns whatever of the militia 
employed. In this case, recourse has been had to the letters of the commanding officer, and to well informed in- 
dividuals, in order to form a proper estimate of tlie numbers of the militia in service; and although the accuracy of 
the estimate cannot be leliecf on, yet it is the best information which the Secretary of War can at present obtain. 
When the accounts of the militia service of the several States shall be adjusted, it'is probable that the numbers will 
be belter ascertained. 

There are not any documents in the War Office'from which accurate returns could be made of the ordnance 
.stores furnished by the several States during the late %var. The charges made by the several States against the 
United States, which have been presented by the commissioners of accounts, are, probably, the only evidence which 
can be obtained on the subject. 

All which is humbly submitted to the House of Representatives. 

H. KNOX, Secretary of War. 



Ji Statement of the number of Non-commissioned Officers and Privates of the Regular troops and Militia furnish- 
ed by the several Slates from time to time, for the support of the late war. 



Statement of the troops furnished by the following States, taken from actual returns of the army, for the year 1775. 





TROOPS FDBIflSHED. 


STATES. 


Number of 
men in conti- 
nental pay. 


Number 
of Militia. 


New Hampshire, ..._--- 

Massachusetts, -.--.--- 

Rhode Island, - - - -- 

Connecticut, - • - - 

New York, ....---- 

Pennsylvania, - - ... - . • - 


3,824 
16,444 
1,193 
4,507 
2,075 
400 






27,443 


27,443 



N. B. The above troops were enlisted to serve to the last of December, 1775, 



Conjectural estimate of Militia employed in addition to the above. 



Virginia, for six months, 

Do. State corps for eight months. 

North Carolina, for three months. 
South Carolina, for six months. 
Do. State troops, 

Georgia, for nine months, 



- 


2,000 
1,180 








3,180 


- 


- 


2,000 


- 


2,500 




- ■ 


1,500 


4,000 






- 


; 


1,000 


Grand Total, 


10,180 



1812.] 



TROOPS DURING THE REVOLUTIONARY WAR. 



15 



Statement of the Troops furnished by the following States, taken from actual returns of the army, for theyear 1776. 



STATES. 


Numbers of 
men in conti- 
nental pay. 


Numbers of 
Militia. 


Total of 

Militia and 

Continentals. 


New Hampshire, -....- 

Massachusetts, ---...- 
Rhode Island, -..-.- 
Connecticut, ------- 

Delaware, ....... 

Maryland, - - - - - - , - 

Virginia, •■ - - - - - 

North Carolina, • ...... 

South Carolina, ...... 

Georgia, ------- 

New York, ..-.--- 
Pennsylvania, - - - - - - - 

New Jersey, ------- 


3.019 
13,372 

798 
6,390 

609 

637 
6,181 
1,134 
2,069 

351 
3,629 
5,519 
3,193 


4,000 
1,102 
5,737 
145 
2,592 

1,715 

4,876 
5,893 


17,372 
1,900 

12,127 

754 

3,329 

5,344 
10,395 
9,086 


Grand Total, 


46,891 


26,060 


72,951 



Conjectural estimate of Militia employed, in addition to the above. 



New Hampshire, averaged at four months, 
Massachusetts, do. 

Connecticut, do. 

New York, do. 

Virginia, do. 

North Carolina, averaged at eight montlis. 
South Carolina, do. six months, 

Georgia, _ - 

Do. State troops. 



- 


1,000 
3,000 
1,000 
2,750 


750 
1,200 


3,000 
4,000 

1,950 






16,700 


Grand Total, - 


89,651 



Quotas fixed by Congress, September, 1776, for three years or during the war. 

Statement of the Troops furnished by the following States, taken from the actual returns of the Army, for the 

year 1777. 





Quotas required. 


Troops furnished. 




STATES. 










Total of Militia 




Number of Bat- 


Number of 


Number of 


Number of Militia 


and Continentals. 




talions, 680 


men. 


Continentals. 








men each. 










New Hampshire, - - - 


3 


2,040 


1,172 


1,111— 3 months. 


2,283 


Massachusetts, . - - 


15 


10,200 


7,816 


2,775—3 do. 


10,591 


Rhode Island, - . - 


2 


1,360 


548 


- 


548 


Connecticut, - - - 


8 


5,440 


4,563 


- 


4,563 


New York, - - . - 


4 


2,720 


1,903 


929—6 do. 


2,832 


New Jersey, 


4 


2,720 


1,408 




1,408 


Pennsylvania, - . - 


12 


8,160 


4,983 


2,481—5 do. 


7,464 


Delaware, - - - - 


1 


680 


299 


- 


299 


Maryland, - - - - 


8 


5,440 


2,030 


1,535—3 do. 


3,565 


Virginia, - - - - 


15 


10,200 


5,744 


1,269—5 do. 


7,013 


North Carolina, 


9 


6,120 


1,281 


- 


1,281 


South Carolina, . - - 


6 


4,080 


1,650 


- 


1,650 


* Georgia, - - - - 


1 


680 


1,423 


and State troops. 


1,423 


Besides the above Congress autho- 












rized the commander-in-chief, on 












the 27th December, 1776, to raise 












sixteen additional regiments of 












infantry, - - - - 


16 


10,880 








Returns of May, 1778, of artillery, 


3 


2,040 








Cavalry, - - . . 


" 


3,000 










107 


75,760 


34,820 


10,100 


44,920 



* By the resolve of the 15th July, 1776, Georgia was authorized to raise in Virginia, North and South Carolina, two re- 
giments of infantry, and also two companies of artillery, of fifty men each. These troops were chiefly enhsted for one year, 
and the time expired in 1777. 



16 



MILITARY AFFAIRS. 



[1790. 



Conjectural estimate of Militia employed in addition to the above. 



New Hampshire and Vermont, for 2 months, 

Massachusetts, foi- 2 months, 

Connecticut, 

New York, 

New Jersey, 

Pennsylvania, 

Delaware, 

Maryland, 

Virginia, 

South Carolina, for 8 

Georgia, 

Rhode Island, for 6 



for 2 


do. 


for 6 


do. 


for 2 


do. 


for 3 


do. 


for 2 


do. 


for 2 


do. 


for 2 


do. 


for 8 


do. 



do. 



2,200 
2,000 
2,000 
2,500 
1.500 
2,000 
1,000 
4,000 
4,000 
350 
750 
1,500 



Grand Total, 



23,800 
68,720 



February 26, 1778, Congress resolved to have the following number of "men furnished by each State. 

Statement of the Troops furnished by the following States, taken from actual returns of the Jirmy, for the 

year 1778. 





Quotas required. 


Fui-nished. 














Total of Mili- 


STATES. 










tia and Conti- 




Number of 


Number of 


Number of 


Number of 


nental Troops 




Battalions of 


men. 


Continental 


Militia. 






532 men each. 




Troops. 






New Hampshire, 


3 


1,566 


1,283 




1,283 


Massachusetts, - - - - 


15 


7,830 


7,010 


* 1,927 


8,937 


Rhode Island, - . - - 


1 


522 


630 


12,426 


3,056 


Connecticut, . . . . 


8 


4,176 


4,010 




4,010 


New York, - - . - 


5 


2,610 


2,194 




2,190 


New Jersey, - - - - 


4 


2,088 


1,586 


- 


1,580 


Pennsylvania, - ... - 


10 


5,220 


3,684 


- 


3,684 


Delaware, - . - - 


1 


522 


349 




349 


Maryland, including the German battalion, - 


8 


4,176 


3,307 


- 


3,307 


Virginia, . . - - 


15 


7,830 


5,230 


- 


5,236 


North Carolina, - - - - 


9 


4,698 


1,287 




1,287 


South Carolina, - - - - 


6 


3,132 


1,650 


- 


1,650 


Georgia, 


1 


522 


673 


- 


673 


Total, 


86 


44,892 


32,899 


4,353 


37,252 



Total from returns, .-.-,-- 

Conjectural estimate of the Militia employed in addition to the above. 

New Hampshire for 2 months, - . . - - 

Massachusetts, 2 do. 

New Jersey, - - ' i ' 

Virginia, - - 2 do. 

Ditto, guarding convention troops, - - - r 

South Carolina, - 3 months, ----- 

Georgia, 2,000 militia 6 months and 1,200 State troops. 

Grand Total, 
' Guarding Convention troops. f Short levies and militia for six months. 



37,252 



500 
4,500 
1,000 
2,000 

600 
2,000 
3,200 



- 13,800 
51,052 



1790.] 



TROOPS DURING THE REVOLUTIONARY W^AR. 



17 



March 9, 1779, Congress resolved that the infantry of these States, for the next campaign, be composed of eighty 

battalions, viz: 

Statement of the Troops furnished by the following Stales, taken from actual returns of the Army, for the 

year 1779. 





Quotas r 


equired. 


Furnished. 


STATES. 


Number of 


Number of 


Number of 


Militia. 




Battalions, 


men. 


men. 






522 men 










each. 








New Hampshire, ------ 


3 


1.566 


1,004 


222 


Massachusetts, ------ 


15 


7,830 


6,287 


1,451 


Rhode Island, ------ 


2 


1,040 


507 


756 


Connecticut, - - - - - - - 


8 


4,176 


3,544 




New York, ------- 


5 


2,610 


2,256 




New Jersey, ------- 


3 


1,566 


1,276 




Pennsylvania, . - . - - - 


11 


5,742 


3,476 




Delaware, ------- 


1 


522 


317 




Maryland, --...-- 


8 


4,176 


2,849 




Virginia, ------- 


11 


5,742 


3,973 




North Carolina, (8 months) - - - - - 


6 


3,133 


1,214 


2,706 


Georgia, ------- 


1 


522 


87 




Total, 


■80 


41,760 


27,699 . 


5,135 



Total from returns, 



32,834 



Conjectural estimate of Militia, employed in addition to the above. 



New York, for 3 months, 
Virginia, 2 do 

Ditto, 6 do 

Ditto, guarding convention troops. 
North Carolina, for 8 months, 
South Carolina, for 9 do 
Georgia, - - . 



January Mth, 1780. 

Resolved, That the States furnish by draught, or otherwise, the deficiencies of their respective quotas of eighty 
battalions, apportioned by a resolve of Congress of 9th March, 1779. 

Statement of the Troops furnished by the following States, taken from actual returns of the Army, for the 

year 1780. 



. 


- 


1,500 




- 


. - - 


3,000 




- 


- - - 


1,000 






- 


600 




- 


- - - 


1,000 




- 


. 


4,500 




- 


- 


750 






Total Conjectural, 




12,350 








Grand Total, 


- 


41,584 



• 


Quotas required. 


Furnished. 


STATES. 


Number 
of Batta- 
lions of 
522 men 
each. 


Number of 
men. 


Nimiber of 
men. 


Militia. 


New Hampshire, ------- 

Massachusetts, ---.-.-. 
Rhode Island, - - - - 

Connecticut, - ^ . . . . 

New York, -------- 

New Jersey, -------- 

Pennsylvania, -------- 

Delaware, -------- 

Maryland, ----.-.. 

Virginia, -------- 

North Carolina, -------- 

South Carolina, -------- 

Georgia, -------- 


3 

15 

2 

8 

5 

3 

11 

1 

8 

11 

6 

6 

1 


1,566 
7,830 
1,044 
4,176 
2,610 
1,566 
5,742 

522 
4,176 
5,742 
3,132 
3,132 

522 


1,017 
4,453 

915 
3,133 
2,179 
1,105 
3,337 

325 
2,065 
2,486 


760 
3,436 

554 
668 
162 

231 


Total, 


80 


41,760 


21,015 


5,811 



18 



MILITARY AFFAIRS. 



[1790. 



Total from returns, 



Conjectural estimate of Militia employed in addition to the above. 



New York, - - 2 months, 

Virginia, - - 12 do. 

Do. . . 3 do. 

Nortli Carolina, average 12 do. 

South Carolina, - 4 do. 

Do. Do. - - 8 do. 

Georgia, . . .. 



Conjectural, 
GrandTotal, 



2,000 
1,500 
3,000 
3,000 
5,000 
1,000 
750 



26,826 



16,000 
42,826 



Arrangement 3d October, 1780. 

Statement oj the Troops furnished by the following States, taken from actual returns of the Army, for the 

year 1781. 





Quotas required. 


Furnished. 


STATES. 


Number of 
Battalions, 
576 men 
each. 


Number of 
men. 


Number of 
men. 


Number of 
Militia. 


New Hampshire, -....- 

Massachusetts, (4 months' men) - . - - 
Rhode Island, - - - - . - 

Connecticut, (4 months' men) - . . - 
New York, ------- 

New Jersey, ------- 

Pennsylvania, ------ 

Delaware, ------- 

Maryland, - - - - - - . - 

Virgraia, ------- 

North Carolina, --_..- 
South Carolina, ------ 

Georgia, ------- 


2 
11 
1 
6 
3 
2 
9 
1 
5 
11 
4 
2 
1 


1,152 
6,366 

576 
3.456 
1,728 
1,152 
5,184 

576 
2,880 
6,336 
2,304 
1,152 

576 


700 
3,732 

464 
2,420 
1,178 

823 

1,346 

89 

770 
1,225 

545 


1,566 
1,501 

1,337* 

2,894t 


Total, 


58 


33,408 


13,292 


7,298 



Total from returns. 



Conjectural estimate of Militia employed in addition to the above. 



Virginia, - 
North Carolina, 
South Carolina, 
Georgia, 



2,000") , 
3,000 5 + 



Total Conjectural, 


3,000 
750 


8,750 


. 


Grand Total, 


29,340 



• with General Green. f Before York Town. 

t The average number employed during' ten months of the year may be estimated at six thousand. 



1790.] 



TROOPS DURING THE REVOLUTIONARY WAR. 



19 



Statement of the Troops furnished by the following States,takenfromaclualreturnsof the Army, for the year 1782. 





Quota Required. 


Furnished. 


STATES. 


Number of 
Battalions, 
576 men 
each. 


Number of 
men. 


Number of 
men. 


New Hampshire, . . . - - 

Massachusetts, . . - - - 
Rhode Island, .-..-- 
Connecticut, . . - - - 
New York, . . - . - 
New Jersey, . , - 

Pennsylvania, . . - - . 
Delaware, - - - - . 
Maryland, - - - - - 
Virginia, . . - - . 
North Carolina, . . - . „ 
South Carolina, 
Georgia, - - - - ■ - 


2 
11 

1 
6 
3 
2 
9 
1 
5 
11 
4 
2 
1 


1,152 

6,336 

576 

3,456 

1,728 
1,152 
5,184 

576 
2,880 
6,336 
2,304 
.1,152 

576 


744 
4,423 

481 
1,732 
1,198 

660 
1,265 

164 
1,280 
1,204 
1,105 


Total, 


58 


33,408 


14,256 



Total, from returns. 
Conjectural estimate of Militia, employed in addition to the above. 



Virginia, 
South Carolina, 
Georgia, 



Total, conjectural, 
Grand total, 



- 1,000 

for 4 months, 2,000 

750 



14,256 



3,750 
18,006 



Statement of the Troops furnished by the following States, taken from the actual returns of the Armv for 

the year 1783. "' •' 





Quotas required. 


Furnished. 




STATES. 


Number 

ofBattalions 

of 576 men 

each. 


Number of 
men. 


Number of 
Continental;. 


Total number 

of Continentals 

and MUitia. 


New Harapshir^i « - . . - 
Massachusetts, ----- 
Rhode Island, ----- 
Connecticut, - - - . - 
New York, - - - - - 
New Jersey, - - - - 
Pennsylvania, . - - - - 
Delaware, - - - - - 
Maryland, - - - - 
Virginia, ----- 
North Carolina, - - - - - 
South Carolina, •■ - - - - 
Georgia, ------ 


2 
11 
1 
6 
3 
2 
7 
1 
5 
11 
4 
2 
i 


1,152 
6,336 

576 
3,456 
1,728 
1,152 
5,184 

576 
2,880 
6,336 
2,304 
1,152 

576 


733 

4,370 

372 

1,740 

1,169 

676 

1,598 

235 

974 

629 

697 

139 

145 




Total, 


58 


33,408 


13,476 


13,476 



N. B. The Army in the Northern Department discharged the 5th November, 1783, and that in the Southern 
States, on the 15th November, 1783. 



War Office of the United States, May 10, 1790. 



H KNOX, Secretary of War. 



20 MILITARY AFFAIRS. [1790. 

2d CoNGRESs.1 No. 4. [1st Session. 

COURT OF INQUIRY ON GENERAL HARMAR. 

Fort Washington, September 2i, 1791. 
Sir: 

I have the honor to enclose to your Excellency the proceedings of the court of inquiry which sat agreeably 
to the general order of the 14th instant, " to inquire into the personal conduct of Brigadier General Harmar, 
commanding officer on the late expedition against the Miami Indians." 

The court have taken the utmost pains to investigate the subjects committed to them, and have expected that 
some persons would have attended from Kentucky, on the occasion, as mentioned in your Excellency's letter of the 
15th. Finding no personal evidence come forward from that quarter, have this day closed the proceedings, and 
present to your Excellency their opinion as specially directed. 

There are some depositions handed in, but, as they are not authenticated under the seal of any court of record, 
or by the prothonotary of any county, the court conceive they can only subjoin them to the proceedings for informa- 
tion to your Excellency, as they have been to the court. They are numbered 1, 2, 3, 4. 

1 have the honor to be, with great respect, your Excellency's most obedient servant, 

RICHARD BUTLER, Major General, President. 
His Excellency Major General Arthur St. Clair. 



Proceedings of a Court of Inquiry, held at Fort Washington, September I5th, 1791, agreeably to the order of the 
\Uh inst. of which the following is a copy: 

" A court of inquiry, of which Major General Butler is appointed President, and Lieutenant Colonels Gibson 
and Darke, members, will sit to-morrow, 12 o'clock, at the Southeast block-house, Fort "VVashington." 
Major General Richard Butler, President. 

Lieutenant Colonels George Gibson,! 7 A/ro.«K„..o 
William Darke, i ^lembers. 

.Sfter orders, September Hth, Head Quarters. 

"Lieutenant Warren, of the 2d United States' regiment, is appointed to record the proceedings of the court of 
inauiry directed to sit at Fort Washington, by the orders of this day." 

W. SARGENT, Mj. General. 

The court met, agreeably to the above order, and were duly sworn according to law. The following letter was 
read, from his Excellency Major General St. Clair, directed.to Major General Butler, President of the court of 
inquiry: 

Fort Washington, September 15, 1791. 

"The court, of which you are appointed President, is ordered for the purpose of inquiring into the conduct of 
Brigadier General Harmar, the commanding officer upon the late expedition against the Miami Indians. 

" In the course of your investigations, all the circumstances of the campaign, from the time the army departed until 
it returned to Fort Washington, are to be taken into consideration. These will embrace the personal conduct of 
the General; the organization of the army; the orders of march, encampment and battle; the motives which influ- 
enced the detachments of the Hth, the 19ih, and the 21st of October, and whether the said detachments were duly 
supported, and if not, the reasons which prevented the said support. The articles of war specify, that courts oY 
inquiry shall not give their opinion on the merits of any case, excepting they shall be specially thereto required. 
'This seems to be one of the cases in which an opinion is requisite; you will therefore please, sir, to take the opinion 
fif the court on all, and every, of the points above specified, and convey the same to me when the inquiry shall be 

cloS6(l . 

" Some evidences have been expected from Kentucky; whether they will attend or not, I cannot inform the court; 
but the principal officers of the militia who served in the army of General Harmar have had notice that the court 
would meet this day. I have heard from none of them, excepting Lieutenant Colonel Trotter, who writes to me 
that his attendance is doubtful; that Colonel Hall is gone to the Atlantic States, and he believes Colonel M'Mullen 
likewise." 

Brigadier General Harmar, being called upon for his evidences, furnished the court with a list of persons, where- 
upon The cnurt ordered them to be summoned to attend. The court then adjourned to meet at 3 o'clock P. M. 

Three o'clock P. M. — The court met, agreeably to adjournment. 

The gentlemen vvlio were summoned, not being ready to give in their evidences, the court adjourned to meet at 
9 o'clock to-morrow morning. 

September 16th. 

The court met, agreeably to adjournment, and Major Ferguson being called in and sworn, deposed as foUoweth: 
That, sometime about the 15th July, it was determined to carry on an expedition against the Miami villages. One 
thousand militia from Kentucky, and five hundred from Pennsylvania, with what could be collected of the 1st 
United States' regiment, and one company of artillery, was to form the army. The militia from Kentucky began 

'■ to assemble at Fort Washington about the middle of September; those were very ill equipped, being almost destitute 
of camp kettles and axes; nor could a supply of these essential articles be procured. Their arms were, generally, 

■ very bad, and unfit for service; that as he was the commanding officer of artillery, they came under his inspection, in 
making what repairs the time would permit; and as'a specimen of their badnessj he informed the court, that a rifle 
was brought to be repaired without a lock, and another without a stock. That he asked the owners what induced 
them to think that those guns could be repaired at that time.' And they gave him for answer, that they were told 
m Kentucky that all repairs would be made at Fort Washington. Many of the officers told him, that they had no 
idea of there being half the number of bad arms in the whole district of Kentucky, as was then in the hands of their 
men. As soon as the principal part of the Kentucky militia arrived, the General began to organize them; in this 
he had many difficulties to encounter. Colonel Trotter aspired to the command, although Colonel Hardin 
was the eldest officer, and m this he was encouraged both by men and officers, who openly declared, unless 
Colonel Trotter commanded them, they would return home. After two or three days the business was settled, and 
they vvere formed into three batalions, under the command of Colonel Trotter, and Colonel Hardin had the com- 
mand of all the militia. As soon as they were arranged, they were mustered; crossed the Ohio, and, on the 26th, 
marched, and encamped about ten miles from Fort Washington. The last of the Pennsylvania militia arrived on 
the 25th September. These were equipped nearly as the Kentucky, but were worse armed; several were without 
any. The General ordered all the arms in store to be delivered to those who had none, and those whose guns could 



1791.] COURT OF INQUIRY ON GENERAL HARMAR. 21 

not be repaired. Amongst the militia were a great many liardly able to bear arms, such as old, infirm men, and 
young boys; they were not such as might be expected from a frontier country, viz. tlie smart active woodsman, well 
accustomed to arms, eager and alert to revenge the injuries done tliem and tlieir connexions. No, there were a 
great number of them subslif.utes, who probably had never fired a gun. Major Paul, of Pennsylvania, told him, that 
many of his men were so awkward, that they could not take their gun-locks oif to oil them, and put them on again, ^ 
nor could theyput in their flints so as to be useful; and even of such material?, the numbers came far short of what 
was ordered, as may be seen by the returns. That, on the 31st September, the General with the continental troops, 
marched from Fort Washington, to join Colonel Hardin, vvfho had advanced into the country, for the sake of feed for 
the cattle, and to open the road for the artillery. On the 3d October, the whole army joined, and was arranged in 
order of march, encampment, and battle; these would appear by the orderly-book, with dtis difterence in the en- ' 
campment — the space they were to occupy, when in order of battle; which was to be open, was always to be fill- 
led up with their fires, nor was any intervals to be left between battalions. This was done to prevent, in some 
measure, the cattle and horses from getting out of camp; and the sentinels round camp had orders not to let the 
cattle or horses pass out after dark, just before which time they were brought within their fires. Those precautions, 
aided by the care and industry of Mr. Wells and his assistants, succeeded well in preventing loss of cattle — he was 
informed there were only two oxen lost from the time the whole army took up the line of march, until it returned to 
Fort Washington; but he was sorry to say, it was not the case of the pack-horses: the generality of the people em- - ' 
ployed in that department, were ignorant of their duty, indolent, and inactive; nor was it in the power of the Gen- 
eral to remedy these defects. The shortness of the time for assembling and organizing the army put it out of his 
power to look about and select fit characters; he was of course obliged to take those that offered. After he was in 
the woods it was out of his power to exchange them for better, and punishments for neglect of duty \yas out of the 
question. The principles upon which the horses were employed induced the drivers, who were chiefly parties in 
the business, to lose and otherwise destroy them, lather than return them to their owners; by this means the pro- 
prietors had a high appraisement paid them for their horses, and daily pay for services, until they were lost; by add- 
ing to the above the negligence of sentinels, he accounted for the number of horses lost, which, in his opinion, it 
was out of General Harmar's power to prevent. 

After the army was arranged, they continued their march without any material occurrence, until the 13th, when 
the horse fell in with two Indians, and took one of them prisoner, who informed that the Indians wei'e not in force 
at the Maumee village. This day they reached a place called the French Store, at which place, a Frenchman, who 
was then with the General as a guide, had lived. He informed that the village was about ten leagues distant. From 
this place, on the morning of the 14th, Colonel Hardin was detached with six hundred men, to endeavor to surprise 
the Miami village; the army moved at the same time, and although it rained the whole day, they continued their 
march with diligence until late. The horse were ordered to be tied up this night, to enable the army to move early 
the next day, wliich it did. This diligence of the army on its march induced him to believe, the General was en- 
deavoring to guard against any disaster that might happen to Colonel Hardin, which he was of opinion would have 
been in his power: for Colonel Hardin had not gain.ed more than four miles of the army, on the first day's inarch. 
On the 17th, the army arrived at the Miami village; here were evident signs of the eneiny having quitted the place 
in the greatest confusion. Indian dogs and cows came into their camp this day, which induced to believe the fami- 
lies were not far off. A party of three hundred men, with three days' provision, under the command of Colonel 
Trotter, was ordered, as he understood, to examine the country around their camp, but, contrary to the General's or- 
ders, returned the same evening- This conduct of the Colonel's did not meet the General's approbation, and Col. 
Hardin, anxious for the character of his countrymen, wished to have the command of the same detachment for the 
remaining two days, which was given him. This command marched on the morning of the 19th, and was the same 
day shamefully defeated. Colonel Hardin told him, that the number which attacked him did not exceed one hun- 
dred and fifty, and that, had his people fought, or even made a show of forming to fight, he was certain the Indians 
would have run. But on the Indians firing, which was at a great distance, the militia ran, numbers throwing away 
their arms, nor could he ever rally them; Major Ray confirmed the same. He did not know what influenced the 
detachment on the 21st. But, from the enemy being flushed with success on the 19th, it became necessary, if in his 
power, to give them a check, to prevent the army from being harassed on its return; which they might have done, 
will readily be granted by every one who has the least knowledge of the Indians, and an army encumbered witii 
cattle and packhorses, much worn down; and although the detachment was not so fortunate, as was reasonably to 
have been expected, yet he firmly believed it prevented the savages from annoying their rear, as they never made 
their appearance after. With respect to supporting that detachment, v\jhich consisted of four hundred chosen troops, 
he always believed them superior to one hundred and fifty Indians, which was the greatest number as yet discover- 
ed, had it not been for misconduct and disobedience of orders by the officers who were on the command. He under- 
stood that Major Ray's battalion had been advanced to cover them, which was as many as could possibly have been 
spared, taking into view that those in camp could not be depended on, and many were without arms, having thrown 
them away. To support with the whole army, was impracticable; the pack-horses being weak, and greatly reduced 
in numbers; the artillery horses very much reduced, and unable to undergo much more fatigue, but at the certain 
loss of the artillery; as it was, they were obliged to send to Fort Washington for horses to assist in hauling it in. 
The inarch of the army was as regular and well conducted, as was passible to be done with militia. With respect to 
the General's conduct, report says, that he was intoxicated all the campaign, and unable to execute the important du- 
ties of his station. He had mentioned his commanding the artillery, which was posted at the head of the centre col- 
umn, and here the General chiefly was, during the march; of course he had anopportunity of seeing, and being with 
him through the day; in the morning he received his orders from him, and when they halted to encamp, he chiefly 
pointed out the ground where the artillery should be posted; his duty called him often to his tent, before they 
marched in the morning, and after they halted in the evening; in short, had he been given to drunkenness, he had as 
good an opportunity of seeing it as any other officer in the army- Yet he declared, that, from their leaving Fort 
Washington, until their return, he never sa\y General Harinar intoxicated, or so as to render him unfit for the exe- 
cution ot any duties. In him, and his abilities, as an officer, he placed the greatest confidence, never doubting his 
orders, but obeying with cheerfulness, being conscious they were the production of experience and sound judgment. 
Question by the Court. What were your reasons for thinking punishment for neglect of duty out of the ques- 
tion? 

Answer. The state of the army being such, that it obliged the General not to do any thing that would tend to 
irritate the militia. 

Question by the Court. Is it your opinion that the organization of the army was a judicious one — such a one as 
was well calculated for the security of the troops? 

Answer. It is my opinion that it was the most judicious organization that could be made, and calculated for the 
interest of the United States. * 

Question by the Court. Is it your opinion that the order of encampment was a judicious one, and that the ex- 
treme parts were so disposed as were calculated to give security to the army and its appendages? 
Answer. I think no better disposition could have been made. 

Question by the Court. Do you think the order of battle calculated so as to have been easy of execution and 
easily formed? 

Answer. I think it was the best that could have been formed, and well calculated for covering the appendages 
of the army. 

Question by the Court. Do you know the General's motives for making the detachments of the 14th, 19th, and 
21st October? 

Answer. I do not know the General's motives for making the detachment of the 14th, but I suppose it was for 
the purpose of surprising the Maumee village, as we had taken an Indian the day before, who gave us information 
that the Indians were in great confusion there, and that they were not in force, and very much divided in their coun- 
sels. We expected to surprise them before they separated. 
4 m 



MILITARY AFFAIRS. [1791. 



y 



Question by the Court. What were the movements of the army after that detachment was made? 
Answer. We continued our march next day, until an express arrived to inform us that the Indians had evacu- 
ated the village; when we halted. 

Question by the Court. What was the distance between the main body and the detachment? 
Answer. About four miles. 

Question by the Court. Do you think that the army was within supporting distance when that detachment was 
made? 

Answer. On the first day we were. 

Question by the Court. Do you know what induced the General to make the detachment of the 19th? 
Answer. The day preceding that on which the detachment was made, Indian dogs and cattle came into our 
camp, which led us to believe the Indians were near us, moie especially as they had left their village in such haste. 
I suppose it was for the purpose of examining the country around the camp. A detachment of three hundred men, 
/iiider the command of Col. Trotter, with three days' provision, was made on the 18th, with orders to continue out 
three days, but which nevertheless returned into camp the same evening. The General appeared displeased at their 
disobedience of orders. Col. Hardin, wishing to retrieve the character ot the militia, asked the General's permission 
to take out the same detachment on the 19th, which was granted. 

Question by the Court. What motives led Col. Hardin at such adistanceas fifteen miles from camp? 
Answer- I understood that he got on the trails of the Indians, and that he had discovered an Indian on horse- 
back, about one vnilefrom where he fell in with their main body. 

Question by the Court. Upon hearing of the defeat of that detachment, did you understand that the General 
ordered any support? 

Answer. \ don't know that he did; the first intelligence of the defeat was brought us by those who were de- 
feated, late in the evening. 

Question by the Court. Do you know the motives for the detachment of the 21st, either from the General him- 
self, or any of his confidential officers? 

/ Answer. I do not know from the General, but it was my opinion, as well as that of other officers, that the de- 
/ feat of the 19th had so panic struck the army, that, had the Indians attacked on the retreat, it might have been lost, 
which induced the General to send the detachment in the rear. 

Question by the Court. Had the General ordered another detachment upon the ground, where the defeat of the 
19th happened, do you think the militia would have gone, or would they have mutinied? 
Answer. I am rather inclined to think tliey would not have gone. 

Question by the Court. With respect to the general conduct of General Harmar in the course of the campaign, 
is it your opinion that it was judicious, and in every respect commendable? 

Answer. I do think it was perfectly so; I have the greatest confidence in, and good opinion of, his ^military 
abilities. 

Captain Strong being sworn, deposed: That he knew of no circumstance during the whole campaign that could, 
in his opinion, afreet the military character of the General. That the organization of the army appeared, to his 
judgment, extremely judicious, and such he believed was the general opinion of the officers. That the order of 
march seemed to him no less judicious and military in all its parts; that the order of encampment and battle met, if 
he mistook not, wifh the approbation of every officer able to judge of it; that the motives which influenced the detach- 
ments of the 14th, 19th, and 21st October, appeared to him to be a question that could only be answered by the Ge- 
neral, or perhaps by his confidential officers, or those more immediately attached to his person; that he had reason 
to believe, that those detachments were not properly supported, but it was his opinion, at the same time, that the 
fault lay not with the General; who had given orders, in each case, that were not complied with, at least until it was 
too late. 

Question by the Court. With respect to support in the action of the 21st, was there any support ordered that you 
Jcnow of? 

Answer. I was present when the order ^vas given to Major Ray to move with his battalion to support Major 
Wyllys. 

Question by the Court. Do you know what distance they marched (or that purpose, or how long they were gone 
from the army? 

Answer. I do not recollect perfectly how long, but I think it was not long. 

Question by General Harmar. Is it your opinion that the making the detachment under Major Wyllys was at- 
tended with good consequences to the army, or not? 

Answer. I think it was attended with useful consequences to the anny. 
The Court then adjourned to 3 o'clock P. M. 

Three o'clock P. M. The Court having met, agreeable to adjournment, 

'Lieutenant Hartshorn was sworn, and deposed. That he knew of no circumstances, during the whole campaign, 
that could in his opinion atfect the military conduct of the General; that the organization of the army appeared to 
his judgment extremely judicious, and such, he believed, was the general opinion of the officers; that the order of 
march seemed t;) him no less judicious and military in all its parts; that the order of encampment and battle met, if 
he mistook not, with the approbation of every officer able to judge of it; that the motives which influenced the detach- 
ments of the 14th, 19th, and 21st of October, appeared to him to be a question that could only be answered by the 
General, and perhaps by his confidential officers, or those more immediately attached to his person; that as to the 
question of support, he liad reason to believe the detachment was not properly supported; but it was his opinion at 
the same time, thut the fault lay not with the General, who had given orders, in each case, that were not complied 
with, at least until it was too late. 

Question by the Court. Do you know, sir, in the course of the campaign, from the time the army left Fort 
WaHhingtoi), until its return to that place, any circumstance that could militate against the military character of the 
General? 

Answer. I know of none. 

Question by the Court. Do you know of any unnecessary delays? 
Answer. None at all; far froui it, every thing was done to get forward the army. 

Question by the Court. Does any instance of inebriety in the General come within your knowledge, during the 
course of the campaign? 
Answer. I know of none. 

Question by the Court. So far as you are a judge of the organization of jthe army, do you think it was proper 
and judicious? 

Answer. So far as I could judge, I think it was extremely judicious. 

Question by the Court. Had you any conversation with the officers of the army on the subject of the organization 
of the army? 

Answer. I had, and with those who I think were judges, who thought it to be very good. 

Question by the Court. Did the arrangement of march appear to be so connected as to be able to support each 
other in case of attack? 

Answer. I think it did, and seemed no less judicious and military in all its parts. 

Question by the Court. Did the extreme parts of the encampment appear to be so formed, as to be competent to 
cover the main body of the army in case of attack by the enemy? 
Answer. Perfectly so. 

Question by the Court. Was you in the first engagement of the army? 
Answer. I was in the action of the 19th of October. 
Question by the Court. Was you in the detachment of the 14th? 
Answer. I was 




1791.] COURT OP INQUIRY ON GENERAL HARMAR. 23 



Question by the Court- Did the order of battle on the 19th appear to you to be a judicious one? 
Answer. I think it was not a judicious one. 

Question by the Court. Who was the officer who commanded the troops in that action? 
Answer. Colonel Hardin. 

Question by the Court. In what manner did you attack the enemy — was it in columns, or did you display in any 
regular order? 

Answer. We were attacked in front of columns. 

Question by the Court. When you were attacked, were you ordered to display, or form in any regular order? 
Answer. No. 

Question by the Court. In what manner did you oppose the enemy when you were attacked? 
Answer. By endeavoring to form the line to charge them. 

Question by the Court. What troops came within your notice that attempted to form when charged? 
Answer. Not more than thirty federal troops, and ten militia. 

Question by the Court. How many militia had you? / 

Answer. 1 don't know. 

Question by the Court. What became of the rest of the militia? 
Answer. They gave way and ran. 

Question. Do you think that, if the militia in that action had been properly formed, and in time, they would 
have been sufficient to have beat the enemy? 
Answer. They were. 

Question by the Court. Do you know the motives for making the detachment on the 14th? 
Answer. It was supposed for the purpose of gaining the Maumee village before the Indians left it, as we were 
informed they were preparing to leave it. 

Question by the Court. Js that your own opinion? 
Answer. It is, and was the general opinion in camp. 

Question by the Court. What was the result of the action of the 19th — were the continental troops and the 
ten militia defeated? 

Answer. They were cut to pieces except six or seven. 

Question by the Court. Do you know from head quarters, or from any principal officers of the army, what 
were the motives for making the detachment of the 19th? 

Answer. It was for the purpose of overtaking a party of Indians, whose trails had been discovered. 
Question by the Court. Was there any attempt made to support that detachment from the main body? 
Answer. Not that I know of. 

Question by the Court. What was the distance between tlie main body of the army and the detachment attacked ? 
Answer. Fourteen or fifteen miles. 

Question by the Court. From the conduct of the militia, do you think that the General had a right to expect 
any great support from them, if he had been attacked? 
Answer. I don't think he had. 

Question by the Court. Was you in the action of the 21st? 
Answer. I was not. 

Question by the Court. Do you know the motives for making the detachment of the 21st? 
Answer. It was for the purpose of seeing if any Indians wer« in the village. 

Question by General Harmar. Did you not think the detachment sent back under Major Wyllys competent to 
engage any body of the enemy? 

Answer. It was sufficient for any body of Indians in that country. 

Question by General Harmar. To what cause was it owing, that the detachment did not succeed so perfectly 
as I could have wished for? 

Answer. Because they did not obey your orders; they did not march at the time they were directed. 
Question by General Harmar. Upon the first intelligence do you recollect any support I ordered? 
Answer. I recollect you ordered a battalion, I think under Major Ray. 

Ensign Morgan being sworn, deposed as followeth: That, as lie did not join the army under the command of 
General Harmar until the 13th October, he was unacquainted with its progress until that time, when the army ap- 
peared in good order- As he was an ensign, and carried the standard every fourth or fifth day after his joining the 
army, he was frequently near the General, and always observed, as far as he could judge, the greatest propriety of 
conduct. As to the organization of the army, the order of march, encampment, and battle, they are perfectly ex- 
plained in the general orders. As to the motives which influenced the General in sending out the different detach- 
ments of the 14th, 19th, and 31st, he was unacquainted — the opinion he took up concerning the one of tlie 14th was, 
that the General, finding the army discovered, resolved to make a push for the towns before they were abandoned, 
and as he could not do it with his whole army, formed the detachment on the 14th under Colonel Hardin; the mo- 
tive for the detachment on the 19th he was utterly unacquainted with, that of the 21st, as he supposed, was to pick 
up any straggling Indians who might have come to the towns, to see what they had been about, but without an idea 
ot the Indians being in force. 

Question by the Court. Do you think that the party of militia that were attached to Major Wyllys' detachment 
was sufficient to have defeated the Indians if they had done their duty? 
Answer. If they had been together, I think they were. 

Question by tlie Court- What time did you return to the army from the action of the 21st? 
Answer. About 5 o'clock P. M. The action commenced soon after day-light. 
Question by theCourt- Did you see any thing of the detachment under Major Ray, on your return.'' 
Answer. I saw only a party three miles from camp, under Captain Craig, that were going to our support. 
Question by the Court. What was the disposition of the militia after you returned to the army — were they weH 
affected to the service and orderly? 

Answer. I think they were very disorderly, and very inattentive to their duty, and some appearances of mutiny 
among them, with both officers and men; and turned out, upon one occasion particularly, to oppose a punishment that 
had been ordered by the General. 

Question by the.Court. Do you remember any thing of General Harniar's ordering his cannon to fire upon them? 
Answer. 1 remember that General Harmar once said, that if the militia behaved again in so scandalous a man- 
ner, that he would order his cannon to fire on them. 

Ensign Britt being sworn, deposed : That with respect to the personal conduct of General Harmar, he knew that 
he was indefatigable in making arrangements for the execution of the plans which had been formed for tlie expedition; 
and he also knew that the difficulties were great which the General had to encounter in organizing the militia, and 
in endeavoring to establish that harmony, which was wanting in their commanding officers. Colonels Hardin and 
Trotter, which he accomplished apparently to their satisfaction; that he was at au times diligent in attending to 
the conduct of the officers in the difterent departments of the army, and that he was always ready to attend to such 
occurrences as were consequent to the same, and the necessary exertions to have his orders carried into execution 
were not wanting; butthat there were great deficiencies on the part of the militia, either owing to the want of author- 
ity in some of their officers, or from their ignorance or inattention; that the generality of them scarcely deserved the n 
name of any thing like soldiers; that they were mostly substitutes for others, who had nothing to stimulate them to ) 
do their duty; that as to the dispositions for the order of march, form of encampment, and order of battle, they were I 
matters which he, being a young officer, could say little about; he presumed they would answer for themselves; that 
the General's motives for detaching Colonel Hardin on the 14th October, when they were told they were but ten 
leagues from the Indian towns, he supposed to be, from information they received by a prisoner who was taken on the 
13th, that the Indians at the Maumee village were in great consternation and confusion; and the prospects were, they 



24 . MILITARY AFFAIRS. [1791. 

might be easily defeated if found in that situation; that in order to support this detachment, the horses of the army 
were ordered to be tied up at night, so that the whole army might be ready to march early in the morning, which was 
done accordingly; and that when Colonel Hardin reached the village, the main body was not more than five or six 
miles in his rear; that the detachment under Colonel Trotter was ordered to leconnoitre for threedays the neighbor- 
- hood, to endeavor to find out the savages, who had fled from their towns; that this party returned the evening of 
the same day they started, and next morning Colonel Hardin marched with the same party, and fell in with the Tin • 
dians; that an engagement ensued, in which he was routed owingto the cowardly behavior of the militia underhis 
command; that the motives which he conceived led to detaching tlie party under Major Wyllys on the 21st were, 
that the Indians iiaving avoided engaging the whole army, would collect at their towns, and harass the rear and 
flanks, as much as possible on its return, and a stroke at them before they could assemble in large bodies would 
prevent tiieir doing it with much effect; that the party accordingly met with the Indians, and a battle followed, in 
which numbers were killed on both sides; that the moment the news of this arrived in camp. Major Ray, with his bat- 
talion of Kentucky militia, was ordered to march to the support of Major Wyllys, but that he did not proceed far 
before he returned. 

Question by the Court. Did you at any time, in the course of the campaign, perceive that General Harmar was 
intoxicated? 

Answer. .1 did not; I lived in the General's family, and should have known it had any thing of that kind hap- 
pened. 

Doctor Allison being sworn, deposed: That the organization of the army, the orders of march, encampment, 
and battle, were ijuestions whicii would be more amply answered by a reference to the orderly book, than they 
could be fiDui the mere relation of an individual, or from any other official information; that, as to the motives 
which influenced the detachments of the 14th, 19th, and 21st October, those were questions which, if answered at 
all, must be merely speculative opinions, which it was not always prudent to divulge, nor would they, in his judg- 
Tnent, be admitted as evidence, or even perused by any tribunal, and therefore were nugatory; and, as he had not 
the honor of iaeing in the cabinet, it was utterly out of his power to give any other; that, as soon as the news arrived 
of the misfortune of the third detachment, a reinforcement was immediately ordered by the General, but whether 
it actually set out, or what induced it to return, he could not say, or whether sufficiently strong, he did not conceive 
himself a judge. His situation, as surgeon, prevented a minute attention to every, or, indeed, any of the arrange- 
ments of the army; yet, as far as they came within his view, or knowledge, they were judicious and uniform; that 
every attention was paid to the army by the General, in every situation; that every step was taken by him that 
prudence and military knowledge could suggest, the circumstances of the army would permit, or that necessity 
required. 

Lieutenant Denny, being sworn, deposed: That General Harmar began his preparations for the campaign soon 
after the 15th July, and that every day was employed in the most industrious manner; that the calculations for pro- 
visions, horses, and stores, were immediately maile out, and orders given accordingly; that great exertions were 
used by Captain Ferguson to get in readiness the artillery and military stores, and, indeed, every officer was busily 
engaged, under the eye of the General, in fitting out necessary matter for the expedition, but particularly the quar- 
termaster; not a moment's time appeared to be lost. Fifteenth and 16th September the Kentucky militia arrived. 
/ but instead of seeing active riflemen, sucii as is supposed to inhabit the frontiers, they saw a parcel of men, young 
/ in the country, and totally unexperienced in the business they came upon, so much so, that many of them did not 
I even know how to keep their arms in firing order; indeed, their whole object seemed to be nothing more than to see 
\ the country, without rendering any service whatever. A great many of their guns wanted repairs, and, as they 
could not put them in order, our artificers were obliged to be employed; a considerable number carne without any 
guns at all. Kentucky seemed as if she wished to comply with the requisitions of Government as ineffectually as 
possible; for it was evident that about two-thirds of the men served only to swell their numbers. Nineteenth Sep- 
tember, a small detachment of Pennsylvania militia arrived, and the 25th of September, Major Doughty, with two 
companies of federal troops, joined them from Muskingum. Governor St. Clair had arrived from New York the 
- 22cl, and the remains of the Pennsylvania militia came on the 25th. The militia, last mentioned, were similar to 
the other, too many subsliMes. The General lost no time in organizing them, though he met with many difficul- 
ties. The colonels were disputing for the command, and the one most popular was least entitled to it. The Gene- 
ral's design was to reconcile all parties, which he accomplished, after much trouble. The Kentuckians composed 
tiiree battalions, under the Majors Hall, M'Mullen and Ray, wth Lieutenant Colonel Commandant Trotter at 
their head. The Pennsylvanians were formed into one battalion, under Lieutenant Colonel Trubley and Major 
Paul, the whole to be commanded by Colonel John Hardin, subject to the orders of General Harmar; that, on the 
2Gth September, the militia marched on the route towards the Indian towns. The 30th, the General having got 
forward all the supplies that he expected, he moved out with the federal troops, formed into two small battalions, 
under the immediate command of Major Wyllys and Major Doughty, together with Captain Ferguson's company 
of artillery, and three pieces of ordnance. On the 3d of October, General Harmar joined the advanced troops earl>; 
in the morning; the remaining part of the day was spent in forming the line of march, the order of encampment and 
battle, and explaining the same to the militia field officers. General Harmar's orders will show the several forma- 
tions. On the 4th the army took up the order of march as is described in the orders. On the 5th a reinforcement of 
horsemen and mounted infantry joined from Kentucky. The dragoons were formed into two troops; the mounted 
riflemen made a company, and this smallj battalion of light troops were put under the command of Major Fontaine. 
■ The whole of General Harmar's command then maybe stated thus: 
3 battalions of Kentucky militia, ^ 

1 do. Pennsylvania do. > 1133 

1 do. Light troops mounted do. j 

2 do. Federal troops, - - 320 

Total, 1453 
The line of march was certainly one of the best that could be adopted, and great attention was paid to keep the 
officers with their commands in proper order, and the pack-horses, &c. as compact as possible. The order of en- 
campment appeared to be well calculated not only for defence, but to preserve tiie horses and cattle from being 
lost; however, notwitiistanding every precaution was taken, and repeated orders given to tiie horse-masters, to hop" 
pie well their horses, and directions to the officers and men not to suffer any to pass through-the lines, many of 
them, owing to tiie carelessness of the militia, and the scarcity of food, (though great attention was paid in the choice 
of ground) broke loose and strayed through the lines after night, and even passed the chain of sentries whicli encir- 
cled the camp, and were lost. Patrols of horsemen were ordered out every morning by day-light, to scour the 
neighboring woods, and to bring in any horses that might have broke through the lines; and a standing order directed 
the pickets to turn out small parties, and drive in every horse. This was done, he believed, to expedite the move- 
ment of the army. There was no less attention paid to securing the cattle every evening when the army halted; the 
guard, which was composed of a commissioned officer and thirty or thirty-five men, built a yard always within the 
chain of sentries, and sometimes in the square of encampment, and placed a sufficient number of sentries round the 
enclosure, which effectually preserved them; there was not more than two or tiiree head lost during the whole of the 
campaign. On the 13th of October, early in the morning, a patrol of horsemen captured a Shawanee Indian. On 
the 14th October, Colonel Hardin was detached with 600 light troops, to push for the Miami village; he believed 
that this detachment was sent forward in consequence of the intelligence gained of the Shawanee prisoner, which 
was, that the Indians were clearing out as fast as possible, and that if they did not make more haste, the towns 
would he evacuated before their arrival. As it was impossible for the main body of the army, with all their train, 
to hasten their march muchj the General thought proper to send on Colonel Hardin, in hopes of taking a few, before 
they would all get off. This night the horses were ail ordered to be tied up, that the army might start by day-light, 
on purpose to keep as near Colonel Hardin as possible; the distance to the Indian towns, w-hen the detachment 



1791.] COURT OF INQUIRY ON GENERAL HARMAR. 25 



marched ahead, was about thirty-five miles. On the 1 5th, every exertion was used to get forward the main body 
this day; they found that tlie advanced party had gained but very few miles. On the 16th, in the evening, met an 
express from Colonel Hardin, who had got into the village, informing the General that the enemy had abandoned 
everyplace. On the 17th, about noon, the army arrived at the Omee towns; on the 18th, Colonel Trotter was 
ordered out with three hundred men, militia and regulars, to reconnoitre the country, and to endeavor to make 
some discoveries of the enemy. He marched but a few miles, when his advanced horsemen came upon two Indians 
and killed thein. The colonel was contented with this victory, and returned to camp. Colonel Hardin was dis- 
pleased because Colonel Trotter did not execute his orders, and requested the General to give him the command of 
the party; it was granted; and, accordingly, Hardin marched next morning; but, he believed he had not two thirds 
of his number when two miles from camp: for, to his certain knowledge, many of the militia left him on the march, 
and returned to their companies. Whether he knew it or not, he could not tell; but that he proceeded on with a 
determination to trace some fresh signs of the enemy. He believed the plan was merely to gain some knowledge 
of the savages. He at length came upon a party not exceeding one hundred, but was worsted, owing entirely, as 
he was informed, to the scandalous behavior of the militia, many of whom never fired a shot, but ran oft' at the first 
noise of the Indians, and left the few regulars to be sacrificed; some of them never halted until they crossed the 
Ohio. The army, in the mean time, was employed burning and destroying the houses and corn, shitting their po- 
sition from one town to another; that, on the 2lst of October, the army having burned five villages, besides the capi- 
tal town, and consumed or destroyed near twenty thousand bushels of corn in ears, took up the line of march on 
the route back to Fort Washington, and encamped about eight miles from the ruins; that, about nine o'clock, P. M. 
the General ordered out four hundred choice men, militia and regulars, under the command of Major Wyllys, to 
return to the towns, intending to surprise any parties that might be assembled there, supposing that the Indians 
would collect to see how things were left. The General had feft the enemy, knew their strength, and calculated 
much upon the success of this enterprise; that it was the general opinion the force of the savages was nothing equal 
to this detachment, and unless by some such means, there was no possibility of getting any advantage of them; how- 
ever, the best laid plan was in some measure defeated by the disobedience of the militia, who ran in pursuit of 
small parties, and left Major Wyllys unsupported. The consequence was, that the Major, with most part of the 
regulars, were killed; and our loss was equal, if not greater, than the savages; that the intention of this detachment 
was evident to all the army, and would have answered the fullest expectations, provided a due obedience had been 
observed on the part of the militia — to provide against disobedience of orders was what, he believed, no one wimld 
think of, and had it not been the case, the Major, in his opinion, might have returned crowned with laurels. That 
the main body waited for the return of this detachment, but, to their mortification, about eleven o'clock, A. M. of 
the 22d, a fellow who ran back from the field, gave them information of Major Wyllys' misfortune. Geneial Har- 
mar immediately despatched Major Ray, with his battalion, to the assistance of the parties, but the Major did not 
get the length, before he met Colonel Hardin returning to camp with his wounded. He was led to believe that about 
this time, the General lost the confidence he had in the militia; those of them among the dead, were of the best men; 
that the effective strength was very much reduced by sickness and otherwise; tlie regular troops did not furnish 
more than two hundred; they were, in his opinion, very insufficient, and he was also clearly olF opinion that, had 
the enemy made an attack upon their camp that evening, or the morning following, the militia were so panic struck, 
that very few of them would have stood; the consequences that would have happened, stared every person with hor- 
ror; the sick and wounded, and all the stores, artillery, &c. would have fallen a prey to the savages. That this 
was also the opinion of several of the principal officers, who advised General Harmar of the danger of attempting to 
return to the towns, from the time it would take up, and the probability that the delay would give the savages time 
to collect from distant quarters. He observed that the22d October was employed in fixing biers for the wounded, 
and in making repairs. He also observed that the frost had destroyed the food early on their march out, and that 
the horses of the army were now become very much reduced, so much so, that it was utterly impossible for the main 
body to perform any thing rapidly, and to get back upon the road which thsy had so lately passed, was attended 
with difficulty; he said that the greatest attention was paid, the little army was kept compact, and vigilance was 
the word from all who had any reputation to lose. That the militia, on their return, began to be refractory, showing 
great signs of a revolt, discharging their pieces in open defiance of the general orders; some of them, however, were 
detected and punished, which gave umbrage, and was afterwards the cause of many illnatured reports, spread with- 
out any foundation, to injure the General's reputation. He further observed that the army returned, by slow march- 
es, back to fort Washington; that General Harmar's conduct during the campaign was observed to be sober, steady, 
and attentive to the service, and as his duty required him to be frequently near the General, should certainly have 
discovered it, had he been at any time intoxicated, as has been reported. Every evening, as duly as the army halt- 
ed, the General made his remarks for that day, and issued orders for the movement and arrangements for the next; 
and every morning he was found among the first prepared for the field. 
The court adjourned to to-morrow morning, 9 o'clock. 

. September 10th, 9 o'clock, A. M. The court met, agreeably to adjournment, and again adjourned to Septem- 
ber 19th, at 3 o'clock, P. M. 

Seftember 19th, three o'clock p. m. 
The court having met again, adjourned to to-morrow morning, 9 o'clock. 

September 20th. 

The court having met, according to adjournment, ; 

Major Zeigler, being sworn, deposed: That some time had elapsed before the different corps and battalions could 
be organized, on account of rank — the militia officers disputing for the command; and, after a good deal of exertion 
by General Harmar, they commenced their march on the 30th September, 1790, the militia, under Colonel Har- 
din, having been sent on a few days before; and, on the 3d October, they joined the militia, and took up their line of 
march, and encamped as mentioned in the General's orders. He observed that the orders of march and encamp- 
ment, motions, &c. &c. were such as would have done honor to the first officers either in America or Europe. All 
necessary precautions were observed, to gain the point General Harmar set out for. On the 14th of October he was 
ordered to advance with Colonel Hardin, commanding fifty rank and file of the federal troops, being part of six- hun- 
dred men; at ten o'clock they took up their march, and, before they left the ground, the rest of the army was or- 
dered to parade and follow them, which he remembered to have seen the army from an eminence, as he inclined to- 
wards the left with the column to which he was attached. The fifteenth, about three o'clock, P. M. they arrived at 
the Miami villages, and, at the same time, Colonel Hardin sent an express to General Harmar, to inform him that 
the villages were evacuated. It was his opinion that the motives for this Tnanoeuvre was in consequence of a Shawa- 
nese which they took a few days before, and who acquainted the General that the Indians were ready to move away. 
The army arrived the seventeenth, in the forenoon; and that day, as well as the rest, they were all busy in destroy- 
ing the Indian corn, &c. &c. He further observed, that, on the eighteenth, Colonel Trotter was detached with three 
hundred men of militia, including thirty federal troops, but that the Colonel returned the same day without bringing 
any information, and that, on the morning following. Colonel Hardin took command of the same party and advanc- 
ed, to procure some knowledge of the enemy, and on his discovering the enemy, those which were in the rear would 
not come up and support those engaged in front, and very few of those in front stopped, but ran, and the militia fled 
in a shameful manner, and the few federal troops, not supported, fell a sacrifice; the Major said, that a sergeant of 
militia, behaving very improper at that time, could not be brought to trial, on account of a brother pf his being a cap- 
tain, and who made parties that would have been attended vntn bad consequences, should he be punished, as his bro- 
ther declared he would raise some men, and bid defiance. That, on the 21st of October, 1790, after they had de- 
stroyed a great quantity of corn and five or six villages, they took up tiieir line of march towards Fort Washington, 
and at night Major Wyllys was detached with four nundred choice men, in hopes to surprise a body that might be 
at the ruins — this party was supposed to be sufl&ciently strong for any number of the enemy embodied. Major Wyl- 
lys marched in three columns, with intention to join with the right and left columns at the Miami village, but that 



26 MILITARY AFFAIRS. [1791. 

' the column under the command of Major M'Mullen fell iu with a small party of Indians; they followed them, and 
disobeyed the orders of Major Wyllys, in pursuing them, and leaving the others unsupported, and so was the lelt 
wing, which wouM not have been if they had joined them, as he supposed it to be sufficiently stipng for that party. 
He also remembered very well being oii picket, or commanding one of the wings as Captain au Cawe, when the first 
men arrived with tlie intelligence that their party had gained ground, and, at that very instant. General Harmar order- 
ed Major Ray with his battalion to the assistance of those engaged, lest that information should not prove true, but 
he went but two miles or two and a half, then meeting the scattered detachment, returned, to the great surpriseof Ge- 
neral Harmar; that the success of the detachment was defeated in a great measure by the militia running a-head,''and 
leaving Major Wyllys unsupported. The army remained this day in dressing and fixing the wounded — the militia 
■y behaving so bad in several instances, destroyed every confidence the General had in them, otherwise he would have 
returned with the army; but as things were situated, it would have been running too great a hazard. The army re- 
turned back to Fort Washington; nothing appeared wanting on the part of the General; every attention was paid to 
the army to guard against surprise. The Major observed that there had been very injurious reports spread about 
General Harmar, but, if he was to be credited, he knew of nothing that could be alleged against him, or could th.xt 
possibly injure his reputation in any respect — the good of the service appeared to be his constant study. 

Question by the Court. I think, sir, you said, that,;,on the fifteenth, at three o'clock, P. M. you arrived at the 
Miami village. What did you do after your arrival there — were the militia in good order? 

Answer. Wlien we arrived we were very much fatigued; having marched twenty-eight miles that day, I direct- 
ed that my own men should not go thirty yards from camp. The militia, like a rabble, strolled into the neighboring 
villages, in parties of thirty or forty, after plunder — such was the situation that one hundred and fifty warriors might 
have beat us off the ground. 

Question by the Court. Did you see any desire in the militia to return to the ground where Major Wyllys was 
defeated, or do you suppose they would have gone had they been ordered to go.? 
Answer. I suppose they would not have gone — they appeared to be panic struck. 

Question by tiie Court. Are you of opinion that the personal conduct of the'General was regular, steady, and 
tended to the good of the service? 

Answer. Undoubtedly so, and very much to the credit of the General. - 

Question by the Court. From your long knowledge of service, do you think that, from the complexion of the 
troops General Harmar had to organize, that the formation of the army was judicious? 
Answer. I think it was. 

Question. Do you think that the order of march, and encampment, was calculated to secure every part of the 
army and its appendages? 

Answer. Yes, very much so. 

Question by the Court. From your experience, do you think that the order of battle directed by General Har- 
mar was judicious? 

Answer. Yes, perfectly so- 

Captain Doyle, being sworn, deposed: That, previous to the campaign going out last fall, every day was employ- 
ed in the most industrious manner; on the arrival of the Kentucky militia, tney were all much disappointed, that, 
instead of seeing complete riflemen, many were armed with old muskets, much out of repair; the General immedi- 
ately ordered them repaired with all expedition. He referred the court, as to the line of march, to the General's 
orderly book, and informed the court, that the personal conduct of the General, through the campaign, was uniform 
and steady, and that, had the General's orders been strictly obeyed, he was confident he must have come home with 
honor. As to what influenced the General to make detachments he could not say; he was in the detachment of 
the 14th October, and that the behaviour of the militia in that detachment was very disgraceful; they ran from town 
to town in pursuit of plunder, contraiy to orders, and, on the arrival of General Harmar at the town, two-thirds of 
them dispersed in the same manner. The General ordered cannon to be fired, merely to collect them, and he at the 
same time harangued the officers, informing them of the ill consequences of such conduct. That the General's not 
/ returning to the village, after the ill-success of the last detachment, he believed, was owing to his not having confi- 
/ dence in his army. At that time there was afgreat rumor in camp; the general voice was for returning; their horses 
/ were much worn down; and the militia showed great signs of revolt The reports that the militia circulated after 
I their return home, and which was much to the prejudice of General Harmar, was, he believed, owing to the General's 
having a few of them punished for disobedience of orders; he thought it certain that they had no grounds for their ill5 
natured reports, and that General Harmarwould have been justifiable in arresting one or twoof the most popular field 
officers, and sending them home with disgrace — but a thing of that kind he observed would have broke up the army. 
He knew of no part of the General's conduct, during the whole of the campaign, that could be censured, without 
it was showing too much lenity to the militia, and thanking them for their conduct, when they merited punishment. 
Question by the Court. Do you think that the sending the detachment under Major Wyllys tended eventually 
to the preservation of the army? 

Answer. I think the Indians would have harassed us very much, on our return, if that detachment had not 
been made. ' 

Question by General Harmar. Did the enemy annoy the army at all after that detachment was made? 
• Answer. No, they did not. 
Question by General Harmar. Did we see any Indians afterwards? 
Answer. We did not. 

Lietenant Sedam, being sworn, deposed: That he had the honor of serving under General Harmar, last fall, on 
a campaign against the Indians of the Maumee village, and that he saw nothing in his conduct but what he thought 
was very proper; that, relative to the organization of the army, he was but little acquainted, and therefore referied the 
court to tlie General's orderly book; that he was entirely unacquainted with General Harmar's motives for sending 
out the different detachments, and if those detachments were not properly supported, it did not appear to him to 
be the fault of the General, for the militia were a poor set, and behaved very ill upon all occasions; that after the 
first action, he heard Major Paul of the Pennsylvania militia say; he hoped General Harmar would not put any 
confidence in them, for he was sure they would not fight. 

Question by General Harmar. When I. was upon the return at Chillicothe, I ordered one of the militia to be 
whipped; I was informed that Colonel Trotter and Major M'Mullen said I had no right to punish them; did you 
hear me reprimand them for that conduct? 

Answer. After the man was punished, I heard you say to Colonel Trotter and Major M'Mullen, that you would 
send them both home with disgrace, for their bad conduct. 

Ensign Armstrong, being sworn, deposed as follows: That the militia being ordered into battalions and organiz- 
ed, in which he knew the General met with great difficulty; that the order of march and encampment could be better 
ascertained by a reference to the orderly book, than any thing he could add on the subject; that the conduct of the 
militia, in every instance, seemed calculated to obstruct every measure adopted by General Harmar; that the con- 
duct of the General, in every particular, was perfectly consistent and uniform, and every step taken by him appear- 
ed to be the dictates of prudence and sobriety; that what induced the General to send out the detachments was 
wholly unknown to him. and, therefore, unanswerable by him. 

Captain Armstrong, being sworn, deposed: That on report being made to General Harmar, by Major M'Mullen 
and others, that the tracks of women and children had been seen on the route leading towards the Kickapoo towns. 
a Northwest course, and supposing the enemy had left their families and baggage not far distant from camp. General 
Harmar, on the morning of October 18th, detached Colonel Trotter, Colonel Hall, Major Ray, arid Major M^Mul- 
len, with thirty federal troops, the mounted infantry, part of the cavalry, and a detachment of militia, amounting in 
the whole to 300 men. After they had proceeded about one mile, the cavalry gave chace to an Indian, who was 
mounted; him they overtook and killed; before they returned to the column, a second one appeared, on which the 
four field officers left their commands, and pursued, leaving the troops near half an hour without any directions 



ion.] COURT OF INQUIRY ON GENERAL HARMAR. 27 

whatever. The cavalry came across the second Indian, and after wounding one of their party, killed him also. 

When the infantry came up to this place, they immediately fell into confusion, which he gained permission to leave 

them some distance on the road, where lie formed an ambuscade. After he had been some time at his station, a 

fellow on horseback came to him, who had lost the party in pursuit of the first Indianj he was much frightened, and 

said he had been pursued by fifty mounted Indians. That on his telling this story to Colonel Trotter, notwithstanding 

his observations to him, he changed his route, marched in various directions until night, when he returned to camp. 

That on their arrival in camp, General Harmar sent for him; and after answering him many questions, ordered one 

subaltern and twenty militia to join his command. With those he crossed the river St. Joseph about ten at night, 

and with a guide proceeded to an Indian town, about two miles distant, where he continued with his party until the 

morning of the 19th. His party fired upon an Indian and retook from him two horses. About nine o'clock he joined 

the remainder of the detachment under Colonel Hardin. They marched on the route Colonel Trotter had pursued 

the day before, and after passing a morass about five miles distant, they came to where the enemy had encamped 

the day before. Here they macle a short halt, and the commanding officer disposed of the parties at a distance from 

each other; aftera halt of half an hour, they were ordered. to move on, and Captain Faulkner's company was left on 

the ground: the Colonel having neglected giving him orders to move on. After they had proceeded about three 

miles, they fell in with two Indians on foot, who threw off" their packs, and the brush being (hick, made their escape. 

He then asked Colonel Hardin where Captain Faulkner was? He said he was lost, and then sent Major Fontaine 

with part of the cavalry in search of him, and moved on with the remainder of the troops. That some time after, he 

informed Colonel Hardin a gun had fired in their front, which might be considered as an alarm gun, and that he saw 

where a horse had come down the road, and returned again; but the Colonel still moved on, giving no orders, nor 

making any arrangements for an attack. That some time after, he discovered the enemy's tires at a distance, and 

informed the Colonel, who replied, that they would not fight, and rode in front of the advance, until fired on from 

behind the fires; when he, the Colonel, retreated, and with him all the militia except nine, who continued with him, 

and were instantly killed, with twenty-fourof the federal troops; that seeing his last man fall, and being surrounded 

"by the savages, he threw himself into a thicket, and remained there three hours in day-light; during that time he had an 

opportunity of seeing the enemy pass and re-pass, and conceived their numbersdid not amount to one hundred men: 

that some were mounted, others armed with rifles, and the advance with tomahawks only; lie was of opinion that 

had Colonel Trotter proceeded, on the I8th, agreeably to his orders, having killed the enemy's sentinels, they would 

have surprised their camp and with ease defeated them — or had Colonel Hardin arranged his troops, or made any 

military disposition, on the 19th, that they would have gained a victoiy. Tlieir defeat he therefore ascribed to 

two causes; the un-offjcerlike conduct of Colonel Hardin, (who he believed was a brave man) and the cowardly 

behavior of the militia; many of them threw down their arms loaded, and he believed that none, except the party 

under his command, fired a gun. What he saw of the conduct of the militia on that day, and what he felt by being 

under the command of a man who wanted military talents, has caused him to determine, that he would not willingly 

fight with the one, or be commanded by the other. That he referred the court to the orderly book, which pointed 

out the line of march, encampment, and battle. 

Question by the Court. Are you clearly of opinion that, if the militia had done their duty, they were fully 
competent to have defeated the Indians.'' 
Answer. I think they were fully so. 

Question by the Court. According to your ideas, as an officer of experience, was the formation and arrange- 
ment of the different corps of the army by General Harmar, at the commencement of the expedition, judicious? 
Answer. I think they were. 

Question by the Court. Did the line of march appear to you to be a judicious one, calculated for the protection 
of the army in all its parts? 
Answer. I think so. 

Question by the Court. Do you think the mode of encampment was calculated both for defence and protec- 
tion? 

Answer. As much so as any one that could possibly be adopted. 
Question by the Court What was your opinion of the General's order of battle? 
Answer. [ think it was a judicious one. 

Question by the Court. Do you think that the making the detachment of the 21st was in its consequences useful 
to the return of the army? 

Answer. I can judge from circumstances only; that we were not harassed by the enemy afterwards. 
Question by the Court. Do you know if any detachment was made for the purpose of supporting Major 
Wyllys? 

Answer. As soon as information of the Major's misfortune arrived in camp, the General ordered all the troops 
under arms, but whether any detachment was made from them or not, I don't know. 

Question by the Court. Do you suppose that if General Harmar had ordered the army back, the militia would 
have gone? 

Answer. I am of opinion that, if a serious attack had been made, in fifteen minutes the militia would have 
deserted us, and left the federal troops and artillery to be sacrificed. 

Question by General Harmar. Do you recollect the proceedings of (he militia at Chillicothe, on our return? 
Answer. I recollect your saying to Colonel Trotter and Major'M'Mullen, that you would post them, in their 
country, for their un-soldier-like conduct, and that they ought to be hanged. 

Ensign Shamburgh being sworn, deposed: That the organization of the army under General Harmar was, as far 
as he was capable ot judging in military affairs, exceedingly well; that the march, encampment, and order of battle, 
were also, in his opinion, very well planned; that he was not capable of judging of the motives which influenced the 
detachments of the 14th, 19th, and 21st October, but it was his opinion, at that time, that the General was apprehen- 
sive, that, as the savages had been successful in the preceding engagements, they would harass his army on his 
return; in consequencethereof he ordered the party commanded by Major Wyllys in order to check them, which 
he believed had its effect; he recollected that the different detachments sent out were numerous, and he believed 
auflScient to fight such number of Indians as were then together, if the commanding oificers thereof had taken more 
precaution. He had been told at the time, that Major Ray was ordered to support Major Wyllys, but he could not 
determine whether that officer had obeyed his orders. He observed that the loss of so many pack-horses was 
owing to the neglect of horse-masters; notwithstanding the repeated orders of the General on that head, it appeared 
to him as if they were parties concerned, and glad to lose their horses, because they had a very great appraisement 
for the same. He observed that he did duty in the ordnance department at that time, and had fiity pack-horses under 
his direction, which gave him an opportunity to know the negligence andincapacity of both horse-masters and drivers. 
Question bi' General Harmar. Do you think after the last deia.chment was made under Major Wyllys, and 
the remains of his party returned to camp, that the militia would liave gone back if they had been ordered? 
Answer. I think not. 

Question by the Court. Was the appearance of the militia, after the action of the 21st, orderly or disorderly? 
Answer. Very disorderly. 

Question by the Court. Was there any particular cause ascribed that you heard of for their disorderly con- 
duct? 

Answer. Not that I know of; the militia, both officers and men, seemed determined to go home, and said frequent- 
ly, that ten federal regiments should not keep them. 

Question by the Court. Did you observe whether the militia were as well treated as the federal troops? 
Answer. Perfectly the same. 

Ensign Gaines (who was captain of horse in General Harinar's expedition) being sworn, deposed : That, on the 
expedition, he was almost every evening at General Harmar's tent until the 24th October, when he was detached tor- 
wards to Fort Washington, and that, during the whole time, he did not see General Harmar in the least intoxicated 



28 MILITARY AFFAIRS. [179^ 

with liquor, but that on the contrary the General conducted the armjr in a manner which in his estimation did him 
great honor. He further observed, that he had served on a number ot' expeditions against the savages, undertaken 
by the militia of Kentucky, and that he never saw in any of them, the like good order and military arrangement 
which accompanied General Harmar's expedition; he also observed that the people in Kentucky never alleged 
any charge against General Harmar, until Colonel John Hardin had acquitted liiinself, before a board of inquiry, 
of several charges exhibited against him, respecting his conduct on that expedition; tiiat the populace finding 
nothing they could say to the prejudice of the Colonel would be believed, levelled their malice at General Harmar. 
He did not conceive that any thing would have been said against the General in that country, if a Baptist preacher's 
son, who resides there, had not been whipped in the army tor disobedience of ordeis. 

Question by the Court. I think you say you have been in several expeditions against the Indians — did the militia 
who were with General Harmar conduct better, or worse, than those in other expeditions? 
Answer. Much better, Sir. 

Question by the Court. Was you in the action of the 19th? 
Answer. I was. 

Question by the Court. Is it your opinion that if the militia had been properly arranged in that action, and 
would have fought, that they would have been sufficient to have defeated the Indians? 

Answer. Yes: for it appeared to me that the Indians were surprised — that if Colonel Trotter on the preceding 
day had not returned, he most certainly must have been in their camp, and completely defeated them: for I had taken 
two of their spies the day before, which appeared to be the only two they had out. 

Question by the Court. Do you think that if General Harmar had ordered the army back, after the action of the 
21st, that the militia would have gone? 

Answer- They would not have gone willingly. I think in that case there would have been danger of mutiny. 
When the militia of Major Wyllys' detachment were ordered to march, they appeared to be unwilling to go, and 
some were so much so, as to cry. 

Question by the Court. Is it your opinion that the movement of the detachment under Major Wyllys, had a 
good eflFect In securing the army from being attacked and harassed on its return? 
Answer. I think it had a very good effect. 

Question by the Court. Did the Indians ever attack you afterwards? 
Answer- Not while I continued with the army. 

Captain Asheton being sworn, deposed : That the organization of General Harmar's army was a source of trouble 
and difficulty, arising from disputes among the militia officers for precedency; but when effected, was, in all its 
parts, systematical; that the organization of the army, the order of march, encampment, and battle, when duly- 
considered, cannot fail to raise the General in the estimation of every military man ; that it had been basely reported, 
that the General was in a state of intoxication nearly the whole ot the campaign. This, he asserted tu be a mali- 
cious falsehood; and he averred, that his personal conduct, during that time, will ever do him honor. He said, the 
motives which influenced the detachments of the 14th, 19th, and -2 1st of October, could only be accounted for by 
the General himself; but he supposed, that the detachment under Col. Hardin, was sent in consequence of informa- 
tion gained from a prisoner taken on the morning of the 13th, and from a Frenchman employed as a guide, who re 
ported, that it was something more than half a day's ride from a place called the French Store (at which place the 
army encamped the night of the 13th) to the Maumee villages. This detachment was supported by the whole army, 
and moved off the ground at the same time, with as much rapidity as possible, and arrived at the villages on the 17th. 
where the army encamped. On the morning of the 18th, I mounted guard in front of the encampment. In the 
course of that day, I was informed that a detachment of 300 men was ordered out under Colonel Trotter, with three 
days' provision, with orders to scour the country; but they returned the same evening to camp, without effecting any 
thing. Colonel Hardin, disgusted at the conduct of Colonel Trotter, and anxious to retrieve the lost honor of his 
countrymen, solicited the same command, which was granted. He marched on the morning of the 19th, while he 
was yet on guard, and was defeated the same day by the Indians. He could not say what influenced the General 
to send out a detachment on the 21st; but he observed that the Indians were flushed with success in the action of the 
19th. That it had become necessary to give them a sudden check, in order to prevent the army from being harassed 
on its return; and that, if this was the General's intention, he was fully persuaded it had its desired effect. On the 
21st, the army marched eight miles from the Maumee villages on its return. Late that night, a corps of 340 militia, 
and sixty of the federal troops, under the command of Major Wyllys, were detached, that they might gain the vi- 
cinity of the Maumee villages before the morning, and surprise any Indians who might be found there. The de- 
tachment marched in three columns, the federal troops in the centre, at the head of which he was posted, with 
Major Wyllys and Colonel Hardin in iiis front — the militia formed the columns to tiie right and left. From several 
delays, occasioned by the militia's halting, they did not reach the banks of the Omee till some time after sun-rise. 
The spies then discovered the enemy, and reported to Major Wyllys, who halted the federal troops, and moved 
the militia on some distance in front, where he gave his orders and plan of attack to the several commanding officers 
of corps. Those orders were not communicated to him. That Major Wyllys reserved the command of the federal 
troops to himself. Major Hall, with his battalion, was directed to take a circuitous route round the bend of the 
Omee river, cross the Pickaway Fort, (or St. Mary's) which brouglit him directly in the rear of the enemy, and 
there wait until the attack should commence with Major M'Mullen's battalion. Major Fontaine's cavalry, and 
Major Wyllys with the federal troops, who all crossed the Omee at, and near, the common ^fording place. 
After the attack commenced, the troops were by no means to separate, but were to embody, or the battalions to sup- 
port each other, as circumstances required. From this disposition it appeared evident, that it was the intention of 
Major Wyllys to surround the enemy, and that, if Colonel Hall, who had gained his ground undiscovered, had not 
wantonly disobeyed his orders, by firing on a single Indian, the surprise must have been complete. The Indians 
then fled with precipitation, the battalions of militia pursuing in different directions. Major Fontaine made a charge 
/'upon a small party of savages— he fell the first fire, and his troops dispersed. The federal troops, who were then 
/ left unsupported, became an easy sacrifice to much the largest party of Indians that had been seen that day- It was 
/ his opinion that the misfortunes of that day were owing to the separation of troops, and disobedience of orders. 
After the federal troops were defeated, and the firing in all quarters nearly ceased, Colonel Hall and Major 
M'Mullen, with their battalions, met in the town, and, after discharging, cleaning, and fresh loading their arms, 
which took up about half an hour, proceeded to join the army unmolested. He was convinced that the detachment, 
ifit had been kept embodied, was sufficient to have answered the fullest expectations of the General, and needed 
no support; but that he was informed a battalion under Major Ray was ordered out for that purpose. 

Question by the Court. Is it your opinion, that, if the General had ordered the army back, the militia would 
have gone? 

Answer. I do not think they would. 

Lieutenant Kersey being sworn, deposed: That when the militia arrived at Fort Washington, they were formed 
into battalions, and properly organized. He knew that General Harmar had a great deal of difficulty to get them 
arranged : their arms and accoutrements were jn very bad order. He wished to refer the court to the General's 
orderly book for information relative to the order of march. In his opinion, General Harmar's conduct was uni- 
form, steady, and sober, during the whole expedition. He was also of opinion, that the detachment of the 14th 
was in consequence of information received from a prisoner, taken the morning before; which was, that the enemy 
were running away; and the detachment of the 19th, was to gain some knowledge of them; and the detachment of 
the 21st, was to surprise and take advantage of them; which, in his opinion, would have happened, had the militia 
attended to the directions and plan laid down for that enterprise. He observed, that the reduced state of the pack 
horses, notwithstanding every attention was paid to secure and keep them in good condition, rendered it impossible 
! for the army to take any advantage of the enemy. The militia had proved that they were not to be depended upon; 
' their dastardly behavior, in three instances, destroyed every confidence the General had in them. He therefore de- 
termined to return, and not to hazard another engagement unless the enemy came in reach of the main body. That 



1791.1 COURT OF INQUIRY ON GENERAL HARMAR. 29 

tiie army took up the march to return to Fort Washington, and it was with great difficulty that the General kept 
them together until they arrived there. 

Question by the Court. From your knowledge of service, is it your opinion that the organization of the array 
was judicious.'' 

Answer. I think it was. 

Question by the Court. Do you think that all the movements of the army were so connected, as to be able to 
sustain each other in case of attack by the enemy.^ 

Answer. I think they were. 

Question by the Court. Do you think, that, through the course of the campaign, the General's conduct was 
open and decisive thioughout.' 

Answer. I think it was. 

Question by the Court. Was the conduct of the militia tolerably regular, on their advance towards the 
Maumee towns."" 

Answer. It was more reaiilar than it was on the return; but it was very irregular. 

Question by the Court. Do you suppose it was necessary to make the detachment of the '21st, in order to pre- 
vent the Indians harassing the army on its return.'' 

Answer. I think it was, and for that purpose. 

Question by the Court. If the General had ordered the army to return to the towns, after Major Wyllys's 
misfortune, would the militia have gone.'' 

Answer. I think they would not; they would have mutinied. 

Question by the Court. Was the army harassed by the Indians after the 21st, on its return? 

Answer. Not to my knowledge; I believe there was not one seen. 

The court adjourned to meetat 9 o'clock to-morrow morning. 

September 21. 

The court met, according to adjournment. Major Heart was sworn, and deposed: That General Harmar's con- 
duct on his expedition in October, 1790, was at all times steady, calm, and deliberate, and was always attentive to 
the arrangements and applications made to him, and to the informations given, as far as came under his observation; 
that he was often at his quarters and marched in front of the right column, which was generally within fifty yards of 
him; that the organization of the army being published in the daily orders, would speak for itself; he however never 
heard an individual find fault with it, during the campaign, or point out any defects, except in the commissary and 
pack-horse departments, and in those the execution, and not the arrangements, were found fault with; that the or- 
der of march was in three columns, covered with front, rear, and flank guards, which order was generally preserv- 
ed, and as well executed as could be expected with a body composed mostly of militia, and embarrassed with 
pack-horses; that the encampment was in a square, with the baggage, horses, cattle and stores in centre — guards 
were posted in such manner as to form a line of sentries round the whole, field officers appointed to dispose those 
guards, and to see duty well done, and they were so disposed as to prevent surprise, and had the horse department 
followed orders, would have secured thehorses. As they had not occasion to form the line of battle, he could not de- 
termine how it would have been executed, but it was simple, easy to be understood, and universally approved. 
With respect to making the detachments, he had never been in council, and could only assign such motives as offer- 
ed themselves at the time from a concurrence ot circumstances. The detachment of the 14th, he presumed, at that 
time, was made in consequence of information obtained from a prisoner, that the Indians were confused and dis- 
tracted in their counsels, and was designed to surprise them, prevent their concerting measures to unite, and attack 
them, and not give them time to secure their provisions and property, and that the desired effect was answered, so 
far as to prevent their securing so much as they would otherwise have done. The whole army was put in motion the 
moment the detachment moved off, and followed with as much rapidity as artillery and stores w'ould admit of, to 
support the detachment; that the detachment of the 19th was made m consequence of repeated information of having 
discovered a trail of men, women, and children, and on the fullest assurance, as he was then informed, that the de- 
tachment was adequate for attacking the party they were in quest of a corps de reserve was ordered, but never came 
up. It was dark before information was brought to the General that the party were defeated, and a support could not 
be sent that night; a detachment was ordered to march next morning, but for what purpose, he could not say. The 
detachment of the 21st, he had every reason to believe, was made on the general system, viz: to find the enemy, and 
give them a check, to prevent their attacking and harassing the army on the retreat, and on that principle the de- 
taching was inevitable; he did not know that any support was ordered; he was on the left, but he knew that the 
greater part of the detachment came in very soon after the intelligence of the defeat was brought, and it M'as too 
late for giving any assistance. He did not expect that the General would make a detachment to support them, after 
the repeated proofs that the militia would not stand, and he presumed the situation of the horses would not admit 
of returning with the army. He supposed the detachment calculated to cover itself, and doubtless would have 
happdy succeeded, had the right and left columns obeyed the orders which it is said Major Wyllys had given. He 
knew of no one circumstance in the General's conduct, during the expedition, which ought to injure his reputation; 
and though the misfortunes of the 21st were to be lamented, yet he believed the salvation of the remainder of the 
army, the baggage, and stores, were due only to the making that detachment. 

Question by the Court. On the arrival of the troops in camp, who were defeated on the 21st, do you think, from 
the state of mind the militia were in, that if the General had ordered the army back the militia would have gone.' 

Answer. I do not know whether they would or not, but if they had gone, and not having any place to retreat to, 
I am of opinion they would have fled as soon as they were attacked, and have left the federal troops to be sacrificed, j 

The court then adjourned to to-morrow morning nine o'clock- 

September 22. 
The court having met according to adjournment, directed the recorder to write the following letter to his Ex- 
cellency General St. Clan-: 

Fort Washington, September 22, 1791. 

Sir: 

I am directed by the court of inquiry, now sitting in this place, to inform your Excellency, that the court 
have gone through the examination of all the witnesses that have been adduced, and that those from Kentucky, that 
were referred to in your Excellency's letter to the president of the court, have not appeared; the court are now 
ready to close their proceedings, unless your Excellency has information of any further evidence being ready, of 
which the court beg to be informed. 

I have the honor to be, with the most perfect respect, your Excellency's most obedient servant, 

WINSLOW WARREN, Recorder to the Court. 
To his Excellency General St. Clair. 

To which letter his Excellency General St. Clair sent the following answer: 

Fort Washington, September 22, 1791. 
Sir: 

You will please to inform the court that I know of no evidences here, other than those that have been be- 
fore them, and that it is not probable those from Kentucky will come forward; I therefore see no reason why the 
proceedings should not be closed. 

I am, sir, your very humble servant, 

AR. ST. CLAIR. 
Mr. Warren, Recorder to the Court of Inquiry. 
5 m 



so MILITARY AFFAIRS. [1791. 

Soon after the following letter was received: 

September 22, 1791. 

Sir: 

Since I wrote to you a moment ago, I have been informed that it is probable more testimony will be offered to 
the court in the course of this day. If the court then have not already closed their proceedings, ( wish they would 
be pleased to defer it until to-morrow morning, of which you will please to inform them. 

I am, sir, your humble servant, 

AR. ST. CLAIR. 
Mr. Warren. 

To which the following answer was returned: 

Fort Washington, September 22, 1791. 
Sir:' 

I am directed, by the president of the court of inquiry, to iniorm your Excellency, that, in consequence of 
the last letter with which you was pleased to honor them, they have adjourned, to meet to-morrow, 9 o'clock A. M. 
I have the honor to be, your Excellency's most obedient servant, 

WINSLOW WARREN. 
His Excellency General St. Clair. 

The court then adjourned to September 23d, 9 o'clock, A. M. 

September 23d. 
The court met, according to adjournment, and no further evidences appearing, came to a resolution to close 
their proceedings. 

The court having deliberately considered the evidence before them, separately and aggregately, are unanimous 
in the following opinion: 

First, That the personal conduct of the said Brigadier General Harmar was irreproachable. 

Second, That the organization of the army was calculated to support harmony, and give mutual contidence to 
the several parts. 

Third, That the order of march (a copy of which is annexed to these proceedings) was perfectly adapted to 
the country through which the army had to pass. 

Fourth, That the order of encampment and battle (plans of which are also subjoined) were judicious, and well 
calculated to give security to the camp, energy to the troops in case of attack, and simple in its execution. 

Fifth, That there were just reasons for the detachments of the 14th and 19lh of October; that the detachment of 
the 21st was made on good principles, and had the designed effect of securing the return of the army, and prevent- 
ing the enemy from harassing their rear. That the General had ordered support for the said detachment in time, 
but that his orders were not properly executed; and that the conduct of the said Brigadier General Josiah Harmar 
merits high approbation. 

RICHARD BUTLER, Major General, President. 

Attest, WiNSLOw Warren, 

Lieutenant, and Mjutant to 2d United States Regiment, Recorder to the Court. 

The depositions No. 1, 2, 3, 4, have been handed in and read to the court; they have thought proper to subjoin 
them to their proceedings, for your Excellency's information. 



1791.] 



COURT OF INQUIRY ON GENERAL HARMAR. 



31 



GENERAL ORDERS. 

Camp about thirty- one miles from Fort Washington, on the 7 
Waters of the Little Miami, October 3, 1790. 5 



As the army is now assembled, the following line of march is to be observed, viz: 

ORDER OF MARCH. 
Spies and Guides. 



Advance Company. 



Pioneers. 
Cavalry. • • Cavalry. 

McMullen's Battalion of Kentucky Militia. 



FEDERAL TROOPS- 



^ -I- 

=: o 

■< o 

Ammunition. 



Officers^ Baggage, Sfc- 



Flour and Salt. 



Cattle. 



X 


X 


X 


X 


X 


X 


X 


X 


X 


X 


X 


X 


X 


X 


X 


X 


X 


X 


X 


X 


X 


X 


X 


X 


X 


X 


X 


X 


X 


X 


X 


X 


X 


X 


X 






HalVs Battalion of Kentucky Militia. 



Bear Guard. 



32 



MILITARY AFFAIRS. 



[1791. 



THE FOLLOWING IS THE ORDER OF ENCAMPMENT. 



Cavalry. 



Front Guard, 



of 30 Militia. 
M'MuUen's Battalion. 



Cavalry. 



2 



l>.D. 



Military Stores. 



OB C 



^1 



Flour, &c. 

















Cattle. 











b3 
s2 






Major Hall's Battalion of Militia. 
Rear. Guard, 



of 30 Militia- 



1791.] 



COURT OF INQUIRY ON GENERAL HARMAR. 



THE FOLLOWING IS THE ORDER OF BATTLE. 



■ In case of an Mtack in Front. 
Truby & Paul. Major Wyllys. Major M'MuUen. Major Doughty. 

. II - - =^^=^=^^^ o — o =^=^=::^:^:= 



Major 



+ 



Mounted Cavalry. 

Riflemen. 



Cavalry. Mounted 



Pack Horses and Cattle. 



Major Hall's Battalion. 



Riflemen. 



s :: 



* * # # 



•X-HBABQ 



•j{j|BAB3 



S IS 



<1 



>, 












60 




3 


>, 






Q 


03 


o 


>• 

ca 
O 



^ II 11 II II 
I II II II II 

I II II II II 
I II II II II 



X 








3 




H 


b 


'^ 


g 


c 




o 


O 


o 
O 





S IS 

Cavalry. 



In case of an attack at night, the 
troops form inside the fires. 



Cavalry. 



^ 


g 




Ui 


o 










3 












a 


a. 





'^ 



^ s 



fea 



•uorpjtoff s^udijni/\[Oi^ 



•U9U13{}l'y^ 

p8)unoj\[ 



•^jpAB3 



•0^ '■sdSMjj ■ipnj 



•XHBAt!3 



•uauigjji'jj 



p8;unoj\[ 



PUOIOQ 



■s^lI^M JofEjvi 'IFH -'or^K 



■jC:^q§noQ joCbj^ 



•x^a 



• j»,jy ui di3nf}n uv fo dsm u[ 



34 MILITARY AFFAIRS. [1791. 

No. 1. 
Territory qf the United States Northwest of the river Ohio. 

Caleb Worlej;-, of the county of Fayette, in the district of Kentucky, lieutenant in Colonel Paterson's batta- 
lion of Kentucky militia, maketh oath and saith: That this deponent served, as lieutenant, in a battalion of Ken- 
tucky militia, commanded by Major M'Mulien, on the late expedition undertaken against the savages of the Omee 
towns, and that he, this deponent, had very frequent opportunities of seeing and conversing with Brigadier General 
Harmar, who commanded the whole forces so employed. And this deponent saith, that he never did, to the best of 
his knowledge, see the said General Harmar in a state of intoxication, nor wanting in that duty and attention which 
he owed to the safety and order of the troops under his command. And further saith not. 

C. WORLEY. 

Sworn the fifth day of May, one thousand seven hundred and ninety-one, at Cincinnati, in the county of Ham- 
ilton, before me, George Turner, one of the judges in and over the territory aforesaid. 

G. TURNER. 

No. 2. 

Territory of the United States Northwest of the river Ohio. 

John Thorp, superintendent of artificers, in the army of the United States, now serving at Fort Washington, 
in the county of Hamilton, maketh oath and saith: That he, this deponent, commanded the corps of pioneers on the 
late expedition against the Omee towns, under the command of Brigadier General Josiah Harmar; that, during the 
whole march of tlie forces so under the said General Harmar's command, both advancing and returning, it appear- 
ed to him, this deponent, that the said General conducted himself in a regular and truly military manner; that the 
General's deportment was, on all occasions, no less regular, becoming, and military, while in camp, than on the 
march, to the best of this deponent's knowledge and belief; and that, although it was a part of this deponent's duty 
to attend personally on the General early every morning, and also at the encampment every night, yet he, this depo- 
nent, does not remember that he ever perceived the said General Harmar in a state of intoxication during the whole 
expedition, but, on the contrary, verily believes that the said General Harmar's conduct, throughout the expe- 
dition, was marked with great sobriety and eminent vigilance. 

JOHN THORP. 

Sworn at Fort Washington, aforesaid, the twenty -seventh day of April, in the year of our Lord]one thousand 
seven hundred and ninety-one, before me, one of the judges in and over the territory aforesaid. 

G. TURNER. 

No. 3. 

Territory of the United States Northwest of the river Ohio, ss. 

William Wells, of the North Bend, in the county of Hamilton, Esquire, one of the judges of the common 
pleas held in and for the said county, and superintendent of commissary's stores during the late expedition against 
the Omee savages, being duly sworn, maketh oath, and saith as follows, that is to say: First, this deponent saith, 
that the duties of his late appointment, as superintendent aforesaid, required him to be about the person of the Gene- 
ral commanding the troops on that expedition, every morning and night, and that the said commanding General 
(Josiah Harmar, Esquire) uniformly appeared to him, this deponent, in a state of sobriety, competent to the trans- 
action of any business pertaining to his station. And further this deponent saith not. 

WILLIAM WELLS. 

Sworn at Cincinnati, in the county ot Hamilton, and territory aforesaid, this nineteenth day of May, one thou- 
sand seven hundred and ninety-one, before me, George Turner, Esquire, one of the judges in and over the said 
territory. 

No. 4. 

The affidavit of Colonel John Hardin, taken in consequence of a court of inquiry to he held at Fort Washington, 
respecting the conduct of Brigadier General Harmar, on the expedition against the Maumee towns, in Octo- 
ber, 1790. 

This deponent being first sworn, deposeth and saith: That, on his arrival with the Kentucky militia, at the 
mouth of Licking, he commenced an acquaintance with General Harmar; found, from his conversation, that he had 
the good of his country, and the expedition, very much at heart; business was carried on regular, and with as much 
expedition as the nature of the case would admit- About the first of October we proceeded on our march; after the 
line of march was formed, the General issued his orders regularly, and observed, very strictly, that they were exe- 
cuted. On our march there was an Indian prisoner taken, who gave information that the Indians and French were 
repairing the old fort at the Maumee town, and that the Indians were not likely to get any of the neighboring tribes 
to join them; this prisoner also informed us they did not know that General Harmar had any artillery. After receiv- 
ing this information, the General, and this deponent, consulted upon the matter, and it was agreed to detach six 
hundred men, leaving all their heavy baggage, and march rapidly to the towns, lioping that the enemy would fly to 
their fort, provided the artillery was not discovered, and that six hundred rank and file would be sufficient to 
keep them in their fort until General Harmar arrived with the artillery and balance of the army. Accordingly, when 
the General was informed, by the guides, that they were within thirty or thirty -five miles of the towns, there was a 
detachment ordered to make ready, with all possible expedition. Those orders were so pleasing to the officers that 
they disputed who should go; and some cast lots, in order to settle the dispute. This deponent being honored with 
the command, left the General with his detachment, and saw him no more until he arrived at the Maumee village, 
which, bethinks, was about three or four days after he left him, during which time he heard no complaints of General 
Harmar. After the General's arrival at the Maumee village, and the Indians all fled, he expressed a very great desire 
to make his route by the Wea towns on the Wabash; forthispurposethere wasacouncil ordered to be held;but, before 
the council met, finding the Indians had stole, the night before, a number of the pack horses, and some of the light- 
horsemen's horses, there was a stop put to the business, and the thoughts of the route by the Wea towns laid 
aside- There was an old French captive that was taken, informed us that the Indians were scattered in the woods, 
and were not able by any means to fight us, and that they had not got any assistance from other tribes; this induced 
this deponent to solicit the General for a command of about three or four hundred men, to range the woods for ten 
or twelve miles, which he granted, and ordered the three hundred men to be furnished with three days' provisions. 
These orders were as pleasing to the ofiicers and soldiers as the former. Colonel Trotter insisted he had been pro- 
mised a command, and as it appeared this would be productive of something very clever, he wished to be indulged 
with the command of the detacnment then ordered out; which was granted oy the General, this deponent consent- 
ing thereto. Col. Trotter marched on the morning of the 18th of October, equipped for a tour of two or three days, 
in order to hunt up Indian camps. He returned on the evening of the same day, at the time the General and the de- 
ponent was about fixing of guards in order to captivate any of the enemy that might come to steal horses. The 
General appeared mucn displeased with the conduct of Colonel Trotter, and ordered the same party out again that 



1791.] COURT O.F INQUIRY ON GENERAL HARMAR. 35 

evening, and for this deponent to go next morning and take charge of them. This deponent, agreeable to the orders 
given, collected what he could of the party next morning, and alter proceeding about ten miles, fell in with a party 
of Indians, who began a very brisk fire on the detachment, who retired without making but very little resistance, 
notwithstanding all exertions to prevent them. This deponent, when he returned to camp, informed the General 
what had happened— that it was owing to the cowardly behavior of the militia; and insisted on another party's be- 
ing sent to the battle ground. The General informed this deponent he would let him know in the morning. Ac- 
cordingly, he told him that he had not completed the object that he was ordered to do, and that, if any thing should 
happen to prevent him, he should be reHected on, as he had been in the possession of the towns so long, and had not 
destroyed them; that he would first give orders for that purpose, and then he would be better able to judge what 
was best to be done. On the morning of the 20th, orders were given for destroying of the towns, which was 
executed accordingly; at this time tlie men appeared more timid than before. The General told this deponent he 
thought it would not answer a good purpose to go to the battle ground, as the men's spirits appeared to be very low 
at the hearsay of so jnany men being killed, and that the sight of the mangled bodies would make them much more 
so, and the Indians, if not able to fight us, would be gone, and that he should give orders to take up the line of march 
to Fort Washington. Accordingly, on the morning of the 21st, we left the towns, and began our march for the 
mouth of Licking, in about eight or nine miles encamped. The night being very clear, and the moon giving light, 
this deponent informed the General, that he thought it would be a good opportunity to steal a march on the Indians, 
as he had reason to believe they returned to the towns as soon as they knew the army had left it. The General did 
not appear fond of sending a party back; but this deponent urged the matter, informing the General, that as he had 
been unfortunate the oth'er day, he wished to have it in his power to'pick the militia, and try it again, and at the 
same time endeavored to account for the men's not fighting, and desired an opportunity to retrieve tlie credit of the 
militia. The General appeared not to be of opinion the enemy would return so soon, but told this deponent he 
might take about one hundred men and go back. This deponent replied, he did not wish to go back with less than 
five or six hundred men; the General answered, that the troops were very much fatigued, and that it would not an- 
swer any valuable purpose to send so many men. This deponent then left the Geiieral. In about half an hour he 
was sent for, when the General informed him that he intended to send Major Wyllys back, with all the federal 
troops that could be spared, saying, at the same time, they were the men that would stand to the work, and that he 
wanted about one hundred of our best militia. After some conversation between the General and this deponent, 
the latter went to Major Wyllys, and told him he did not like his going back with so few men; the Major also 
thinking the number too few, wished this deponent to speak to the General on the subject, which was done. Major 
M'Multen and Major Hall were then sent for, and the design made known to them; they both appeared well pleas- 
ed with the affair- It was then proposed what number of men would be sufficient; this deponent recommending 
from four to six hundred; they both concluded that four hundred men was fully sufficient; the General seemed 
perfectly satisfied that any number of troops that were thought adequate to the purpose should be ordered; accord- 
ingly, four hundred men, consisting of sixty regulars, three hundred foot militia, and forty horsemen, rank and file, 
properly officered, were ordered to be ready to march at midnight. This deponent was honored with the command 
of the militia. The troops marched agreeable to orders, about two o'clock, and after proceeding to the towns,' they 
fell in with a party of Indians; a battle ensued (the result of which is generally known) as they returned, about one 
and a half miles before we got to camp. This deponent sent a horseman forward to inform the General what was 
done; and very shortly after he had despatched this horseman, met Major Ray, with about thirty men, who informed 
him there had come a horseman into camp, and had acquainted the General that the party was nearly all cut off; that 
the General had sent him with what men he could get out of the militia, to meet what had escaped of the detach- 
ment; that those with him was all that would turn out. This deponent informed the Major otherwise, and re- 
quested him to wait until Major M'MuUen, Major Hall, and Major Ormsby, should come up; that they were but a 
small distance behind, and he would go forward to the General. When this deponent arrived at camp, and inform- 
ed the General what was done, he appeared to be well satisfied: he also asked the General if he would not send 
back another party to keep possession of the battle ground; he replied he would not divide his army any more. 
When this deponent insisted on the whole army's marching back, (no person being present except the General, 
Major Doughty, and this deponent) the General answered — you see the situation of the army; we are now scarcely 
able to move our baggage; it will take up three days to go and return to this place; we have no more forage for our 
horses; and if the Indians intend to collect, which he apprehended they would, from their success on the 19th, it 
would give them a great opportunity; that they had got a very good scourging, and he would keep the army in per- 
fect readiness to receive them, should they thmk proper to follow; and finally concluded, that, under the present 
circumstances, it was best to move forward to fort Washington, and if the Indians did follow, he would make every 
exertion in his power to defeat their intentions. Major Doughty appeared perfectly to agree with the General in 
opinion. The bounds of the camp were made less; the army continued at the same camp until next morning. Or- 
ders were given to march at the usual hour, which was eight o'clock; during this time this deponent never heard any 
person express a desire to go back to the towns, except two soldiers of Major Ray's party, by the names of Miller 
and Hammond. Next morning, at the hour appointed to march, the General moved with the front of the aimy, 
and halted at a very small distance, litters not being ready for all the wounded. This deponent, with the rearguard, 
and many others, did not leave the camp until ten o'clock, when they moved on and joined the army; the whole 
then proceeded on towards fort Washington, with as much regularity as was observed in going out, untd we came to 
the old Chillicothe, on Little Miami, when a number of the militia, contrary to orders, fired on their guns. This de- 
ponent endeavored to put a stop to such disorderly behavior, and commanded that those offenders that could be 
taken should be punished agreeable to general orders; and having caught a soldier himself in the very act of 
firing his gun, ordered a hie of men to take him immediately and carry him to the six pounder, and for the 
drummer to tie him up and give him six lashes; this deponent was shortly after met by Colonel Trotter and 
Major M'MuUen, and a number of militia soldiers, who in an abrupt manner asked him by what authority he or- 
dered that soldier whipped; he replied, in support of general orders; on which a very warm dispute ensued be- 
tween Colonel Trotter, Major M'MuUen, and this deponent. The General being informedjof what had happened, 
came forward, and gave Colonel Trotter and Major M'MuUen a very severe reprimand, ordered the federal troops 
to parade, ana the drummer to do his duty, swearing he would risk his life in support of his orders: the man 
received the number of lashes ordered, and several that were confined were set at liberty; numbers of the militia 
seemed much pleased with what was done. This intended mutiny being soon quashed, the army proceeded in good 
order to Fort Washington. When the army arrived at the mouth of Licking, the General informed this deponent he 
had determined to arrest some of the mUitia officers'. for their bad conduct, and send them home with disgrace; but 
this deponent opposed his intention, alleging that it would be a disgrace to the whole militia; that he would perhaps 
stand in need of their assistance on some future occasion, and it would sour their minds and cause them to turn out 
with reluctance; and that his discharging them generally with honor perhaps would answer a better purpose; the 
General readily indulged the request of this deponent. This deponent further observes, that during the expedition 
he never heard officer nor soldier find fault, or give the most distant hint of being displeased, with the General's con- 
duct in any respect, nor charge him with cowardice or drunkenness, and expected the General had given general 
satisfaction; and what more confirmed his opinion, was, after their arrival at iFort Washington the General invited 
all the field and some other officers to dine with him, amongst whom was Colonel Trotter, Major Doughty, Major 
Hall, and Major M'MuUen; dinner being over, wine was introduced. The General stepping out on some occasion, 
Major Hall proposed drinking his health; it was unanimously agreed to, and with as much cheerfulness as any other 
health that was proposed; this deponent continued at Fort Washington a few days after, and never lieard any per- 
son speak a disrespectful word of General Harm^-, or find fault in the least with his conduct whilst on tlie expedi- 
tion. When this deponent returned home in Kentucky, hearing such reports respecting the expedition, was much 
amazed, but concluded it arose from a want of knowledge and proper information, or from prejudice. This deponent 
further saith, that he looked on General Haimar to be a very brave and experienced officer. And further saith not. 

JOHN HARDING. 



55 MILITARY AFFAIRS. [1792- 

Nelson, ss. 

This day came Colonel John Hardin before me, a justice of the peace for said county, and made oath that the 
above affidavit was just and true, to the best of his knowledge, and subscribed his name in my presence. Given 
uuder my hand this fourteenth day of September, one thousand seven hundred and ninety-one. 

JOHN CALDWELL. 
I have read the above affidavit, and what comes within my knowledge of it, I know to be true, and the rest I be- 
lieve to be true. Given under my hand this fifteenth of September, one thousand seven hundred and ninety-one. 

STEPHEN ORMSBY. 
Sworn to before me, a justice of the peace for Nelson county. 

BENJAMIN FRYE. 



2d Congress.] No. 5.* [Ist Sessiom. 

CAUSES OF THE FAILURE OF THE EXPEDITION AGAINST THE INDIANS, IN 1791, UNDER 
THE COMMAND OF MAJOR GENERAL ST. CLAIR. 

COMMUNICATED TO THE HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES, ON THE 8tH OF MAY, 1792. 

Mr. FiTzsiMONs, from the committee appointed to inquire into the causes of the failure of the late expedition under 
Major General St- Clair, reported that the committee had, according to order, proceeded to examine all the pa- 
pers furnished by the Executive Department relative thereto, sundry papers and accounts furnished by the Trea- 
sury and War Departments, with explanations of the same by the heads of those departments in person, to hear 
the testimony of witnesses upon oath, and written remarks by General St- Clair, upon the facts established by the 
whole evidence, and that, as the result of their inquiries, the committee had agreed to the following report: 
The contract for the supplies of the army on the route from Fort Pitt, was made by Theodosius Fowler, with the 
Secretary of the Treasury, and bears date the twenty-eighth day of October, one thousand seven hundred and 
ninety; that at the same time a bond, in the'penalty of one hundred thousand dollars, with Walter Livingston and 
John Cochran, securities thereto, was entered into for the due execution of the contract. 

That, on the third day of January, one thousand seven hundred and ninety-one, the contract was wholly trans- 
ferred from the said Fowler to William Duer, a copy of which transfer was lodged in the office of the Secretary of 
the Treasury; that, by letter from the Secretary of War, bearing date the twenty-fifth of February, one thousand 
seven hundred and ninety-one, addressed to William Duer, it appears that he was considered as the contractor; that 
no correspondence appears to have taken place subsequently to that time, between Theodosius Fowler and either the 
Treasury or War Departments; that, on the sixth day of March, one thousand seven hundred and ninety-one, a con- 
tract was entered into by William Duer with the Secretary at War, for supplying the troops with provisions until 
their arrival at Fort Pitt, and at Fort Pitt; a bond was at the same time entered into by the said William Duer for 
the due execution of the said contract, in the penalty of four thousand dollars, without any security whatsoever. 

That the act making provision for the defence of the frontiers received tiie signature of the President of the 
United States the third of March, one thousand seven hundred and ninety-one. That General St- Clair was ap- 
pointed commander-in-chief of the army destined for the expedition on the fourth day of the same month, and on the 
twenty-eighth left Philadelphia for Fort Pitt, at which place he arrived tiie sixteenth day of April, and from thence 
proceeded to Lexington, and from thence to Fort Washington, where he arrived on the fifteenth day of May. At 
the time of the arrival of the General at Fort Wasiiington, the garrison there consisted of seventy-five non-commis- 
sioned officers and privates fit for duty; the garrison at Fort Harmar of forty-five; at Fort Steuben of sixty-one; at 
Fort Knox of eighty-three; and on the fifteenth day of July the whole of the first United States' regiment, amounting 
to two hundred and ninety-nine non-commissioned officers and privates, arrived at Fort Washington, under orders 
from the commander in chief. General Butler was appointed the second in command, in the month of March, and 
immediately proceeded to make the necessary arrangements for the recruiting service; that he arrived in Baltimore, 
in the State of Maryland, the twentieth of April, and continued there till the thirtieth of the same month; that he 
arrived at Carlisle, in the State of Pennsylvania, on the ninth of May, and at Fort Pitt on the twenty-second of the 
same month. It appears that no moneys for purchasing supplies were furnished at Carlisle, which was the place of 
rendezvous, for the enlisted soldiery, on the ninth of May, and that Mr. Smith, agent for the contractor, was ac- 
tively engaged in furnishing supplies for the troops, on credit. 

It appears by letters from John Kean, another of the contractor's agents, that no moneys had been received by 
him on the eighth of May, and it appears that, on the twenty-third of March, there was advanced to William Duer, 
upon the last mentioned contract, from the treasury, the sum of fifteen thousand dollars; that there was advanced 
upon the first mentioned contract, the sum of seventy thousand dollars, in the following sums, and at the following 
dates, to wit: 

March 22d, - - - - - - 10,000 Dollars. 

April 7th, .--..-- 15,000 do. 

April 25th, ..-.-. 15,000 do. 

May 7th, -. . - - - - 20,000 do. 

July 20th, .--... 10,000 do. • 

It appears from the correspondence of General Butler with the Secretary of War, from the ninth of May to the 
ninth of June, repeated complaints were made of fatal mismanagements and neglects, in the quartermaster's and 
military stores department, particularly as to tents, knapsacks, camp kettles, cartridge boxes, packsaddles, &c. all 
of which articles were deficient in quantity and bad in quality. 

The packsaddles, particularly, were made in Philadelphia, which, with the transportation, amounted to more than 
double the price at which they migiit have been procured at Fort Pittj and were found, upon examination, to be un- 
fit for use; the arms sent forward appear not to have been duly exammedj and arrived at Fort Pitt extremely out of 
order, and many totally unfit for use, which circumstance rendered repairs absolutely necessary, and addea to the 
delay of the troops at Fort Pitt. 

It appears that a great proportion of the powder supplied for the use of the army, was not of good quality, though 
an experiment was made by Major Ferguson at Fort Pitt, with a howitzer, who reported in favor of the quality of the 
powder. On the ninth of June General Neville, another of the contractor's agents, informed General Butler that he 
had not, at that time, received any moneys from the contractors, for the purchase of provisions, &c. for the troops, 
and was obliged to supply them on credit; that the country furnished provisions in abundance at a cheap rate, when 
money was had for the purchase. That, shortly after this information was communicated to General Butler, at his 
request four hundred dollars were advanced to General Neville by the quartermaster, for the purchase of provisions 
for the troops. The troops arrived at Fort Pitt in the following order, to wit: 

• See Nos. 6 and 9. 



1792.] CAUSES OF GENERAL ST. CLAIR'S FAILURE. 37 

May 16th. Captain Slough sixty-nine men; 
May 18th. Captain Powers seventy-eight men; 

May 19th. Captain Cribbs forty men; same clay, Captain Guthrie twenty-three; 
May 25th. Captain Armstrong seventy-six; same day, Captain Kirkwood sixty-seven; 
May 28th. Captain Snowden one hundred and one; 
June 2d. Captain Sparks eighty-three; 

June 3d. Captain Butler sixty-one; same day, Captain Brock eighty-two; same day, Captain Vanswearineen 
eighty-eight; . " 

June 5th. Captain Pike seventy-three; total, including officers and privates, eight hundred and forty -two; and 
left that place in the following order: Major Ferguson, with Captain Aimstrong's company, about the first of June- 
Captain Snowden, with the troops under his command, on the — —day of ; Major Gaither, with about five hun' 

dred men, I2th of July; and on the 22d August the last of the troops under the command of Captain Phelon, and 
Genei-al Butler, with the Quartermaster General, on the 26th of August. 

It appears, that General Butler had orders from the Department of War to protect the frontiers with the troops 
under his commaiid. and that the delays in sending forward the troops from Port-Pitt arose partly from that cir- 
cumstance, and partly from the temporary want of supplies of provisions and other necessaries, and from the want 
ofthe necessary boats for their transportation, which were not in readiness as soon as the troops were. It appears, that 
General Butler acted with ability, activity, and zeal, in his command at Fort Pitt, and that the delays of the troops 
there cannot be imputed to his want of judgment, or his want of exertion. 

The troops met with considerable difficiilties and delays in going down the river from the low state of the water 
and arrived at Fort Washington in the following order. Captain Mumford, from North Carolina, with about fifty men 

on the dayof ; Major Ferguson, with Capt. Armstrong's company, on the day of ; Major Gaither, 

with the troopsunder his command, on the day of ; Colonel Darke, with the troops under his command, on the' 

day of ; and the Kentucky militia on the day of . 

The army, consisting of about two thousand non-commissioned officers and privates, moved from Fort Wash- 
ington, by orders from the commander in chief, to a place about five or six miles from thence, called Ludlow's sta- 
tion, where they continued till the seventeenth day of September, at which time the whole army amounted to about 
two thousand three hundred non-commissioned officers and privates fit for duty. That, the price of rations at 
Fort Washington, agreeably to contract, was 6J90ths of a dollar per ration; the price of rations at Ludlow's station 
was ]5j90ths of a dollar per ration. 

That the inducements of the commander in chief to this movement appear to have been to furnish green forage 
for the horses and beef cattle of the army, to instruct the soldiery in field exercise, and other necessary disciplin'e 
and to deprive them of the means of intoxication, which were very plentifully supplied at Fort Washington, and 
used to an excessive degree by the soldiery, to correct the excessive use of which the most rigid attention to dis- 
cipline was found incompetent. 

Mr. Hodgdon was appointed Quartermaster General in the month of March, and continued at Philadelphia until 
the 4th of June, he then proceeded to Fort Pitt, where he arrived the tenth of the same month. No sufficient causes 
have appeared to the committee to justify this delay, and his presence with the army appears to have been essentially 
necessary previously to that time; the duties of the commander in chief were much increased in consequence of the 
absence of the Quartermaster General, and after a continued expectation of his arrival at Fort Washington, for more 
than six weeks, the commander in chief gave him express orders, by letter, to repair to camp without delay. 

The receipt of the letter is acknowledged, but the orders contained therein were neither answered nor obeyed 
and his arrival at caiM was not until the tenth of September. The commander in chief, until that time, in'additioii 
to the duties of his ofnce, discharged those of the Quartermaster General, and the military stores furnished by that 
department were so deficient, from mismanagement and neglect, that many things essential to the movements of the 
army were either wholly made or repaired at Fort Washington, and even the tools fuv the artificers to work with: 
the Quartermaster particujarly informed the commander in chief that two complete travelling forges were sent for- 
ward, and, upon examination, both of them were found to be without an anvil; many other things equally necessary 
were either wholly omitted, or unfit for their intended use. There were six hundred and seventy -five stand of 
arms at Fort Washington the first of June, and most of those totally out of repair. The commander in chief appears 
to have been correct and attentive in all his communications with the Secretaiy of War, and to have dischart^ed the 
various duties which devolved upon him with ability, activity, and zeal. ^ 

The army moved from Ludlow's station on the seventeenth day of September, and arrived at the place where 

Fort Hamilton is now erected, on the dayof ; they employed about fifteen days building that fort, and 

then proceeded in their mardi to the plaie where Fort Jefterson is now erected, forty -four miles distant from 
Fort Hamilton, where thev arrived on the twelfth day of October, and commenced tlieir march from that place on 
the 24th of the same mqntn; that the army at this time consisted of about 1700 non-commissioned officers and pri - 
yates tit for duty; at this time the army had not more than three days' supply of flour, and were sometimes at one 
fourth, and sometimes at one half, allowance of that article, the deficiencies of which allowance were made up by 
increasing the quantity of beef, with which they were plentifully supplied. The armyjwas delayed five or six days, 
on the march from Fort Jeflerson, for the want of provisions, and the season was so far advanced that sufficient 
green forage for the horses could not be procured, from which circumstance many of the horses were totally lost, 
and others rendered unfit for service. 

The orders to the commander in chief to proceed with the expedition were express and unequivocal, so much so 
as, in the opinion of the committee, to preclude the commander in chief from exercising any discretion relatively to 
that object. 

On the 31st of October, about sixty ofthe Kentucky militia deserted in a body, and the first regiment, consisting 
of about three hundred effective men, was detached with a view to cover a convoy of provisions which was expected, 
and which it was supposed was in danger from the deserted militia, and to prevent farther desertions. 

On the third of November, after detaching the first regiment, the army consisted of about fourteen hundred 
eflFective men, and on the morning of the fourth, about half an hour before sunrise, a general attack was commenced, 
and in a few minutes thereafter, nearly the whole array was surrounded by the enemy; the action continued about 
four hours, during which several charges were made by part of the army, which caused the enemy to give way, but pro- 
duced no good effect; the attack was unexpected, the troops having been just dismissed from the morning parade: it 
commenced upon the militia who were in advance of the main army, and who fled through the main army, without 
firing a gun; this circumstance threw the troops into some disorder, which, it appears, they never completely recov- 
ered during the action; the fire of the army was constant, but tiot well directed, and it appears that a part of the 
troops behaved asjwell as could be expected from their state of discipline, 'and'the mannerand suddenness of the attack; 
the commander in chief appears to nave been cool and deliberate in the whole of the action, and the officers in gen- 
eral active and intrepid; the whole order of march, as far as the committee are capable of expressing on opinion, 
appears to have been judicious, and the ground for action well chosen; the retreat was disorderly in the extreme; 
after it commenced no orders were obeyed, if any were given, the men having lost all regard to discipline or control; 
all the precautions appear to have been taken for the safety and comfort of the wounded, which the circumstances 
ofthe case would admit of. 

The committee have had no competent evidence before them to ascertain the number of the enemy in action; there 
were various conjectures as to the number from diffei-eiit persons, from five hundred the lowest, to one thousand or 
twelve hundred the highest. 

Mr. Barton, a witness examined by the committee, conversed with a chief at Niagara, who was in the action, 
and was by him informed, that the number of the enemy in action was one thousand and forty, and that six hundred 
more had convened, but were engaging in hunting at the time of the action. He was also informed that the enemy 
had not collected in any considerable numbers, until a few days before the action. This information appears to 
be corroborated by some other circumstances, sufficient to induce a belief of the fact in the committee. 
6m. 



38 MILITARY AFFAIRS. [1792. 

The contractors for supplies, agreeably to tlie terms of contract, were to furnish liorses, &c. for the transportation 
of the supplies; in this condition of the contract there was a total failure, which compelled the commander in chief 
to direct between six and seven hundred horses to be purchased by Israel Ludlow, one of the contractor's agents, 
to draw bills on Mr. Duer, the acting contractor for payment, which bills were endorsed by the commander in chief, 
to the amount of about seventeen thousand dollars, were protested by the contractor, and paid at the treasury; the 
persons employed by the agents of tlie contractor to drive the horses appear to have been totally unacquainted with 
that business, and from the want of bells, hopples, and other necessaries of that kind, as well as from other gross 
mismanagement, many of the horses were lost, and others rendered unfit for service; from which causes there were 
not packhorses ^sufficient to transport the necessary quantity of flour from Fort Washington for the use of the army 
on their march;'this circumstance retarded the execution of the expedition. 

The officers, agreeably to the terms of contract, had an election of drawing the whole of the rations, to which 
their rank entitled them, or of receiving the contract price of them in cash; the contractor's agents, not being fur- 
nished with money for this purpose, gave rise to a general order, by which the officer was directed to receive a cer- 
tificate from the contractor's agent, called a due bill, of one of which bills the following is a copy: "Due Major ' 
H. Gaither, one hundred and seventy-three complete rations on the route to Miami village, as appears by Mr. Wil- 
son's certificate." 

MATT. EARNEST, for WM. DUER. 
Fort Washington, November %lth, 1791. 

This due bill issued upon the officers signing some acknowledgment of satisfaction for his whole retained rations, 
which acknowledgment of satisfaction forms a voucher for settlement to the contractor, with the treasury depart- 
ment; and the officer is refused payment for these due bills at the pay-office. All casualties, by \vhich these eviden- 
ces of debt Ijecome lost or destroyed, are the gain of the contractor, and the loss of the officer. 

It is suggested by the Secretary of the Treasury, though not with positive certainty, that a sufficient sum will be 
found due from the treasury to the contractors, upon a final settlement, to cover all these debts to the officers; the 
general order, \vhich had the operation before stated, continued in force about five or six weeks, and was abolished 
about the 19th of October. The privates of the levies received but three dollars pay each, from the time of their 
respective enlistments, to the time of their respective discharges, and were actually discharged without pay or set- . 
tlement; notes of discharge were given them, specifying the time of their service, and bearing endorsatious, that 
some advancements had been made to them in account, without stating the amount, the object of which is suggested 
to have been to prevent transfers; the intended effect was not produced by the measure; the notes were sold for 
trifling considerations, the real sums due on the notes were various, from ten to twenty-five dollars, and they were 
frequently sold for one dollar, or one gallon of whiskey; the moneys for the pay of the levies did not leave Philadel - 
phia till the 4th of December, nor arrive at Fort Washington till the 3d of January, 1792, some time after the last 
enlisted levies were known to be entitled to their discharges; two reasons have been assigned by the Secretary of 
"War for this ilelay of payment, the one, because there was no regular paymaster to the army, and the difficulties 
of transmitting moneys to the army at so great a distance, in consequence of the want of such an officer; the other, 
because it was supposed the army would be, at that time at the Miami village, so far advanced in the wilderness,' as 
not to admit of the practicability of discharging the levies, the total defeat of the army not having been previously 
counted upon. 

The clothing for the levies appears to have been of a very inferior quality, particularly coats, hats, and shoes, 
the last of which, in many cases, lasted not more than four days, and better clothing was furnished them upon their 
enlistin" into the regular service, which was for a time countenanced by the commander in chief- 
Various modes appear to have been pursued by the officers in enlisting the levies, which occasioned great un- 
easiness and some confusion; a considerable part of the Virginia battalion was so enlisted, that the terms of their 
enlistments appear to have expired the first of November; the orders to the recruiting officers appear not to have 
been sufficiently explicit upon this point, whether the terms of enlistment were to commence at the time of enlist- 
ment or at the arrival at a place of rendezvous. The militia appear to have been composed principally of substitutes, 
and totally ungovernable, and regardless of military duty or subordination. It appears that the commander in chiet 
had it in contemplation to commence the expedition at least one month earlier than it was commenced, with the 
force he then had, which was not very dilFerent from the real force in actionj but was prevented for the want of the 
quartermaster and contractor, and in consequence of the extreme deficiencies and derangements of the business of 
those departments, the person sent forward by the Quartermaster being totally incompetent for the business, and 
the contractor's agents not being sufficiently supplied with money to enable them to execute their duties. 

It appears to the committee, that, in the wildernessj where vegetables are not to be had, and the duties of the sol- 
dier uncommonly hard, the rations allowed by law, if completely supplied,' are insufficient. This circumstance, 
with others, produced discontent and desertion among the soldiers. 

It appears to the committee, that there were appropriated for the use of the War Department, for the year one 
thousand seven hundred and ninety-one, the sum of six hundred and fifty -two thousand seven hundred and sixty- 
one dollars and sixty-one cents, and that there have been advanced by the treasury to the War Department, upon 
that appropriation, five hundred and seventy-five thousand nine hundred and six dollars and fifty-seven cents, to 

Dolls. Cts. 

1791 February advanced ------- 15,000 00 

" March, do. -.-..-- 46,002 20 

'• April, do. - - - - - - - 100,106 30 

" May. do. ------- 30,109 80 

" June, do. ,--.-.. 55,387 44 

" July, do. -....-- 14,105 39 

" August, do. ----.-- 14,554 59 

" September, do. .----.. 14,796 53 

" October, do. r - - - - - - 184 81 

" November, do. ....... 107 28 

1792 January, do. - - - - - . - - 33,753 00 
" February, do. .... - . - - . 43,662 61 
" March, do. ..---.- 1,741 16 

Amotinting to, - - 419,311 01 

To which add moneys borrowed from the Bank of North America, on loan, without interest, 156,595 56 

575,906 57 

And that the treasury has always been in readiness to make the requisite advances upon the request of the Se- 
cretary of War. Itdoesnotappear to the committee, in what manner, anti to what amount, these advancements have 
been disbursed, the accounts not having been yet settled at the treasury ; nor was it possible, from the nature of the 
case that they could, at this time, have received any conclusive or satisfactory information on that point. 

From the foregoing state of facts, the committee suggest the following as the principal causes, in their opinion, 
of the failure of the late expedition under Major General St. Clair. 

The delay in furnishing the materials and estimates for, and in passing the act for the protection oi the frontiers; 
the time, after the passing of which, was hardly sufficient to complete and discipline an army for such an expedition, 
during the summer months of the same year. 



17-92.] ESTIMATES FOR THE YEAR 1793. 39 

• The delays consequent upon the gross and various mismanagements and neglects in the Quartermaster's and con- 
tractors' departments; the lateness of the season at which the expedition was undertaken, the green forage having 
been previously destroyed by the frost, so that a sufficiency of subsistence for the horses necessary for the army could 
not be procured. 

The want of discipline and experience in the troops. 

The committee conceive it but justice to the commander in chief, to say, that, in their opinion, the failure of the 
late expedition can, in no respect, be imputed to his conduct, either at any time before or during the action; but that 
as his conduct in all the preparatory arrangements was marked with peculiar ability and zeal, so his conduct during 
the action furnished strong testimonies of his coolness and intrepidity. 

The committee suggest, as reasons for leaving the numbers of troopas it particular periods, and the dates of some 
facts blank, the want of sufficient time to complete the report with minuteness, and, m some instances, the want of 
necessary evidence. 

The said report being read. 

Resolved, That this House will, early in the next session, proceed to take the same into consideration. 



2d Congress .] No. 6.* [2d Session. 

ST. CLAIR'S DEFEAT. 

COMMUNICATED TO THE HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES, NOVEMBER 14, 1792. 

War Department, 1st November, 1792. 
Sir: 

After the close of the late session of Congress, I saw, with much concern, the report of the committee ap- 
pointed to inquire into the causes of the failure of the expedition under Major General St. Clair, of the 8th of May, 
1792, which, having been presented to the House, in the last moments of its session, was, ordered to be printed, 
and has since circulated in the public newspapers throughout the United States, containing suggestions, most of them 
founded upon ex parte investigation, which have been understood in a sense very injurious to my reputation. 

Learning that the present day was appointed for taking into consideration the above mentioned report, I have 
waited, with anxious expectation, for some act of the House enabling me to attend the progress of the examination 
upon which they are about to enter, for the purpose of furnishing such information and explanations as niight con- 
duce to a right understanding of facts, in whicli 1 am so materially implicated. The failure of a proposition which, 
I am informed, was made to the House, with that view, has added to my solicitude and regret. Thus situated, I 
feel myself called upon to ask of the justice of the House, that some mode may be devised, by which it will be put 
into my power to be present, during the course of the intended inquiry, as well to hear the evidence on which 
the several allegations contained in the report are founded, as to offer the information and explanations to which I 
have alluded. To this step I am impelled by a persuasion that an accurate and satisfactory investigation cannot 
otherwise be had, with equal advantage, if at all. And my entire reliance upon the equity and impartiality of the 
House will not permit a doubt to exist, on my part, that such an investigation will be exclusively the object of their 
desire and pursuit. 

I have the honor to be, sir, with the highest respect, your most obedient, humble servant, 

H. KNOX, Secretary of War. 

The Speaker of the Honorable the House of Representatives of the United States. 



2d Congress.] No, 7. [2d. Session. 

ESTIMATES FOR THE YEAR 1793. 

COMMUNICATED TO THE HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES, DECEMBER 12, 1792. 

War Department, December II, 1792. 
Sir: 

The President of the United States has directed me to submit to the House of Representatives, in pursu- 
ance of their resolve of the 4th instant, the enclosed papers containing certain materials whereon the estimate of 
the contingenoies of the War Department, for the year 1793, has been founded; and, also, the explanation of cer- 
tain heads of articles in the general estimate, called " conjectural." 

I have the nonor to be, with great respect, sir, your obedient servant, 

H. KNOX, Secretary of War. 
The Speaker of the Honorable House of Representatives of the United States. 



Of the contingencies of the War Department, for the year 1793. 
In estimating the expenses of any given corps of troops, in a stationary situation, or upon a peace establishment, 
every probable demand may be foreseen, specified, and calculated. But, in estimating the expenses of an army, in 
the tune of war, designed for offensive operations, the case is materially otherwise. For, after all the stated and pro- 
bable expenses are estimated, there ought to be an allowance either to make up for short estimates of the several 
heads of supplies, or to serve as a fund to defray moderate losses by casualties. 

• See Nos. 5 and 9. 



40 MILITARY AFFAIRS. [1792. 

All active armies are liable to the loss of provisions, the means of transportation, ammunition, clothing, &c;, 
by numerous accidents attending on a state of war. But, in the case contemplated in the estimates, the chance of 
such accidents is greatly increased by the subtlety and activity of the enemy, and our ignorance of the wilderness 
in which the troops may operate. 

It has generally been considered as wise to appropriate a sum for casualties, to be applied to the public service in 
case of necessity. If no such case occurs, no expenditure will take place, and, of course, the money will remain in 
the treasury. But, if no contingent fund be appropriated, the operations of an army may be arrested at a critical 
moment, and the army itself lost, or the public service greatly injured, for the want of means which might be ac- 
quired, if authority and provision existed for the purpose. 

But futurity being inscrutable to the limited faculties for man, he is unable to ascertain the form or value of de- 
. niands which have not, and which never may have, any existence. 

All that can possibly be done, in the present case, is to exhibit the expenses of the late campaigns, and thence to 
infer the sum which may be judged proper to appropriate for the contingencies of the future, the strength and time 
nf service of the relative armies being cluly considered. 

It will appear, by paper No 1. that the claims for allowance, and the accounts actually settled, at the treasury, 
for the loss of horses, arms. &c. in the expeditinn under General Harmar, amount to seventeen thousand eight hun- 
dred and sixty -four dollars two cents, for which sum an appropriation was contemplated, by the act of the Uth day 
of February, 1791, embracing one hundred thousand dollars, for the said expedition. 

The estimates presented for the services of 1791 were embraced by two appropriations, the first of the Uth day 
of February, 1791, for fifteen thousand three hundred and six dollars, including the sum of ten thousand three hun ■ 
dred and six dollars, for the Quartermaster's department. 

The other, of the 3d day of March, 1791, for twenty-five thousand dollars, amounting, in all, for the said year, 
to forty thous;md three hundred and six dollars. 

The stores and other property lost in the defeat of the 4th of November, 1791, as stated in the paper No. 2, 
amount to thirty-two thousand eight hundred and ten dollars and seventy-five cents. 

In addition to these losses, it appears, by paper No. 3, that the contractors have a claim at the treasury for pro- 
visions and horses, amounting to fifty -four thousand six hundred and thirteen dollars and thirty-five cents, of which, 
perhaps, the sum of ten thousand dollars may be estimated for contingencies, the articles having fallen into the 
hands of the enemy. Whether this sum will exceed, or fall short of, the allowances which shall be made, will de- 
pend upon the proofs which shall be produced at the treasury. 

The other contingent expenses, for the year 1791, are contaiined in paper No. 4, amounting to nine thousand six 
hundred and twenty-one dollars and twenty cents. 

The total expenditures made, and allowances claimed, under the head of contingencies, for the year 1791, will 
probably amount to fifty- two thousand four hundred and thirty-one dollars ninety-five cents. 

The estimates for the services of the year 1792 also specified two sums for the contingencies of the War De- 
partment. The first, of twenty thousand dollars, was authorized by the act which passed the 23d day of Decem- 
ber, 1791, entitled "An act for making appropriations for the support of Government, for the year 1792." 

The otiier sum of thirty thousand dollars was authorized by the act which passed the 2d day of May, 1792, en- 
titled " An act for raising a further sum of money for the protection of the frontiers, and for other purposes therein 
mentioned," both sums amounting to fifty thousand dollars. 

The expenses already under this heacf are contained in paper No. 5, amounting to ten thousand two hundred and 
twenty-nine dollars nine cents. 

It is to be observed, that the fund appropriated to the Indian department having been exhausted by goods given, 
and payments made, to the Creeks, the Cherokees, the Choctaws, and Chickasaws, and also to the Six Nations, that, 
in addition to the above sum, expended in the year 1792, as contingencies, twenty-four thousand seven hundred and 
seven dollars and ninety-eight cents has been applied to the Indian department. 

The expenses of the Indian department are, at this critical period, as diflBcult to be previously calculated as those 
<jf the army, excepting the stipulated sums to the Creeks, Cherokees, and Six Nations, and the agents employed to 
the several tribes. Besides the said expenditures, the contractors of the present year lost, about the 5th of October 
last, one hundred horses, said to be captured by the Indians. If they prove this they will be entitled to an allow- 
ance by the terms of their contract. 

Hence it will appear, that the sum of fifty thousand dollars, requested to be appropriated for the year 1793, is not 
inordinate. 

For the sums which shall be expended vouchers will be required, in the usual manner of other accounts,' except- 
ing, always, the sums which may be expended, by the commanding general, for secret services, in which it woujdbe 
prejudicial to the public interests to disclose names- But this sum is notlarge, and his reputation stands pledged to 
rthe public for its just appropriation. 

H. KNOX, Secretary qf War. 



Bd,C0NGRK33.] No. 8. [2d SeSSIOW. 



ORGANIZATION OF THE ARMY IN 1792. 

COMMUNICATED TO THE HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES, BY THE SECRETARY OF WAR, DECEMBER 27, 1792. 

The President of the United States, by virtue of the powers vested in him by law, hereby establishes the follow- 
ing organization of the troops of the United States : 

The commissioned officers hereinafter designated, together with the non-commissioned officers, musicians, and 
privates, authorized by law, amounting to 5, 120, are to be denominated — 

The Legion of the United States, which is to be divided into four sub-legions. 

The liEGioNARV Staff. 

One Major General, or Legionary General, One Quartermaster, 

Two Aids-de-cair.p, One Deputy Quartermaster, 

One Adjutant and Inspector, One Surgeon, 

One Major Commandant of Cavalry, One Chaplain. 

One Major Commandant of Artillery, 



17-93.] 



CAUSES OF GENERAL ST. CLAIR'S FAILURE. 



41 



The Sub-Legions- 

Each Sub-legion to consist of the Officers hereinafter named, and 1,380 non-commissioned Officers, Musicians, and 

Privates, to wit: 



Staff. 

One Brigadier, or Sub Legionary General, 

One Aid-de-camp, 

One Brigade, or Sub-Legionary Major and Inspectoi-, 



One Quartermaster, 
One Surgeon. 



One Captain, 
One Lieutenant, 
One Cornet, 
Six Sergeants, 
Six Corporals, 

One Captain, 
Two Lieutenants 
Four Sergeants, 



0?»e Troop of Dragoons, consisting of 
One Farrier, 
One Saddler, 
One Trumpeter, 
Sixty- five Dragoons. 

One Company of .Artillery, to consist qf 

Four Corporals, 

Two Music, 

Fifty Privates, including ten Artificers. 



Two Battalions of Infantry, and one Battalion of Riflemen, each consisting of 



One Major, 
One Adjutant, 
One Quartermaster, 
One Surgeon's Mate, 



One Sergeant Major, 

One Quatermaster Sergeant, 

One Senior Musician, and 



One Captain, 
One Lieutenant, 
One Ensign, 
Six Sergeants, 
N. B. The Rifle Companies, one Bugler and eighty-two Privates 



Four Companies, each to consist of 

Six Corporals, 
Two Music, 
Eighty- one Privates. 



One Troop of Dragoons, ----.. 

One Company of Artillery, - - . - . 

Four Companies of Rifle, (95 each) - - - . 

Eight Companies of Infantry, (95 each,) - - - 

Aggregate, 
The Legion of the United States, non-commissioned Officers and Privates, 



80 

60 

380 

760 



1,280 
4 



5,120 



Summary view of the General, Field, Commissioned, and Staff Officers, of the Legion of the United States: 

General Staff. 



One Major General, or Legionary General, 
Four Brigadiers General, or Sub-Legionary Gen- 
erals, 
One Adjutant, 



Fourteen Majors, commissioned. 
Fifty-six Captains, 
Sixty Lieutenants, 

Four Surgeons, 

Twelve Surgeons' Mates, 



Meld. 



One Quartermaster, 
One Deputy Quartermaster, 
One Surgeon, 
One Chaplain. 

Forty-eight Ensigns, 
Four Cornets. 



Medical Staff. 



Six Surgeons' Mates, for Garrison duty and 
extra service. 



N. B. The Aids-de-camps are included in the number of commissioned Officers. 

The particular companies and Officers, who shall form the several Sub-Legions, respectively, will be pointed 
«ut to Major General Wayne, in subsequent instructions, after the President of the United States shall have ap- 
pnfved the same. 



Sd Congress.] 



No. 9. 



[3d Session. 



CAUSES OF THE FAILURE OF THE EXPEDITION AGAINST THE INDIANS IN 1791, UNDER 
THE COMMAND OF MAJOR GENERAL St. CLAIR. 



COMMUNICATED TO THE HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES, FEBRUARY 15, 1793. 

Mr. Giles, from the committee to whom was recommitted the report of the committee, appointed to inquire into 
the causes of the failure of the expedition under Major General St. Clair, together with the documents relating 
thereto, including the letter from the Secretary of War, and the memorial of Samuel Hodgdon, have proceeded to 
re-examine the documents formerly before them, as far as seemed necessary; to hear and examine other testimony 
produced to them; to hear and consider the written communications, made by the Secretary of Wqf, Samuel 
Hodgdon, and the commander in chief of the expedition; and, as the result of their further inquiries, made the 
following supplementally report: 

The original report commences in the follovnng words: 

" The contract for the supplies of the army, on the route from Fort Pitt, was made by Theodosius Fowler with 
the Secretary ot the Treasury, and bears date the twenty-eighth day of October, one thousand seven hundred and 
ninety; that, at the same time, a bond, in the penalty of one hundred thousand dollars, with Walter Livingston and 



42 MILITARY AFFAIRS. [1793. 

.Tohn Cochran securities thereto, was entered into for the due execution of the contract; that, on the third day of 
January, one thousand seven hundred and ninety-one, the contract was wholly transferred from the said Fowler to 
William Duer, a copy of which transfer was lodged in tiie office of the Secretary of the Treasury; that, by letter 
from the Secretary of War, bearing date the twenty-fifth day of February, one thousand seven hundred and nine- 
ty-one, addressed to William Duer, it appears that he was considered as contractor; that no correspondence ap- 
pears to have taken place subsequently to that time between Theodosius Fowler and either the Treasury or War De- 
partments." , • . . , 

From ilocuments received by the committee, since their last appointment, it appears, that the copy of the before 
mentioned transfer was not lodged in the office of the Secretary of the Treasury, until the seventh of April, one 
thousand seven hundred and ninety-one; at which time it was received by the Secretary of the Treasury, under co- 
ver of a letter from William Duer. informing him of the circumstance of the said transfer, and making requisitions 
for certain advances of money; that the Secretary of the Treasury, by letter in reply of the same date, agrees to 
make the advances required to William Duer, as the agent of Theodosius Fowler. 

It appears that all the warrants issued from the Treasury, for the purposes of this contract, were issued to Wil- 
liam Duer, as the agent of Theodosius Fowler. 

The Secretary of the Treasury has furnished the committee with the written opinions of the Attorney General 
of the United States, and several other lawyers of eminence, all of whom concur in opinion, that the securities to 
the bond, originally given by Theodosius Fowler, for the execution of this contract, are now responsible for all da- 
mages consequent upon any breach of that contract. 

The Secretary ot Wai-, who alone appears to have been the agent, on the part of the United States, in all things 
relating to the execution of the contract has always conesponded with William Duer as the contractor, and his 
correspondence commences at a date prior to that of the copy of the contract lodged at the treasury. 

The original report proceeds: — 

" That, on the sixth of March, one thousand seven and ninety-one, a contract was entered into by William 
Duer with the Secretary of War, for supplying the troops with provisions until their arrival at Fort Pitt, and at 
Fort Pitt. A bond was, at the same time, entered into by the said William Duer for the due execution of the said 
contract, in the penalty of four thousand dollars, without any security whatsoever." 

It appears, by a re-examination of the documents formerly before the committee, that the date and terms of the 
last mentioned contract were misrepresented; the date being the twenty-sixth, instead of the sixth, of April, and 
the terms of the contract being to furnish provisions for the troops until tlieir arrival at Fort Pitt, but not during their 
continuance at that place, 'fhe first of these mistakes appears to have been merely casual; the second appears to 
iiave arisen from paying greater attention to the manner in which the contract was really executed, than to the 
terms of the contract itselt; it having been conceived, by the committee, that Colonel Neville, the agent for sup- 
plying the troops during their continuance at Fort Pitt, acted under the last mentioned contract. This circumstance 
is remlared the less material, from the consideration that, according to the plan of the campaign, no delay of the 
troops at Fort Pitt was counted upon. The statement is otherwise correct. 

The Secretary of War, in his communication, states, that it was not the custom of the office to require other se- 
cu'ity than that of the contractor, for the due execution of contracts of small amount; and it appears, by a letter of 
the Secretary of the Treasury, written since the former report, that the Secretary of War consulted with him upon 
the- occasion alluded to, and that he agreed in opinion, that farther security was not necessary. 

It is stated in the original report, after speaking of one of the contractor's agents, that 



liim 
tne 



"It appears by letters from John Kean, another of the contractor's agents, that no moneys had been received by 
m on eighth of May, and it appears that, on the SSd of March, there was advanced to William Duer, on the last 
infioned contract, the sum of fifteen thousand dollars." 



Upon re-examining the letters of John Kean, it appears that he had received the sum of four hundred and fifty 
dollars, and no more, before the aforesaid eighth day of May, which was before overlooked by the committee. And 
it appears, from documents received by the committee since their report, that the sum of fifteen thousand dollars 
was not advanced to William Duer, on account of the last mentioned contract, on the 23d of March. The com- 
mittee were led into this mistake, by a document received from the Treasurer, representing the fact as stated in the 
original report, which document is still before the committee. The true state of this transaction, as recently stated, 

''''^A warrant issued in favor of Joseph Howell, on.the twenty-third of March, for the sum of fifteen thousand dol- 
lars" for the use of the War Department generally, and not for William Duer, as stated in the account rendered by 
the 'rreasurer: of which sum, were advanced to William Duer, on the twenty-sixth of March, four thousand dollars: 
on the eighth day of May following, were paid to James Smith, contracting agent for William Duer, one thousand 
dollars; aiid between the twenty-first of May and the twenty-third of July, were paid to John Kean, another agent 
for Wi'lliam Duer, four hundred and thirty -seven dollars and ninety-one cents; making the whole sum advanced on 
the last mentioned contract, five thousand four hundred and thirty-seven dollars and ninety-one cents. The resi- 
due of the fifteen thousand dollars is suggested to have been applied to the use of the War Department generally. 
The original report states, that 

'■ It appears from the correspondence of General Butler, from the ninth of May to the ninth of June, repeated 
complaints were made of fatal mismanagements and neglects, in the Quartermaster's and military stores' depart- 
ments particularly as to tents, knapsacks, camp kettles, cartridge boxes, packsaddles, &c. all ot which articles 
were deficient in quantity, and bad in quality. The packsaddles, particularly, were made in Philadelphia, which, 
with the transportation, amounted to more than double the price at which they might have been procured at Fort 
Pitt, and were found, upon examination,to be unfit for use." . ,r,, -^ , .-c ^ ^ m , 

Mr Hodgdon has produced to the Committee a number of ex-parte affidavits and certificates, to prove, that 
these several articles were furnished in sufficient quantities, and of good quality. Most ot these affidavits, however, 
were made by the mnnufacturers of the respective articles, or persons in the employment ot Mr. Hodgdon, and gene- 
rally written in a difterent hand writing from that of the subscribing deponents; and most of tne certificates, by per- 
sons unknown to the committee. But tiie testimony formerly taken by the committee, and the corroboration of it 



to the packsaddles, however, it is necessary to remark, that some quauncation oi me expression usea mxneougi- 
Ti-il reoort would be proper. They appear to have been made of different sizes: those ot the largest size are proved 
to have been wholly unfit for use, the horses used for packhorses being generally small. Some of the smaller pack- 
saddles, however, appear to have been used in the campaign, and to have answered the intended purpose better 
than was at first expected. 

It is stated in the original report, that 

" The ai-ms sent forward appear not to have been duly examined, and arrived at Fort Pitt extremely out of or- 
der, and many totally unfit for use, which circumstaace rendered repairs absolutely necessary, and added to the de- 
lav of the troops at Fort Pitt." , „ . , . , i, , ,1 1 • i. i-ii 

The committee are led to conclude, from authentic information recently received, that the complaint ot the arms 
intended tor the regular troops and levies is unfounded; some of the arms appear tohave been damaged, after they 
were put into the hands of the troops, from their inexperience or carelessness, though delivered to thein in good or- 

^"^The committee were induced to make the unqualified statement contained in the original report, from the un- 
qualified manner in which (his subject is spoken of by some of the witnesses, formerly examined by the committee; 



If93.] CAUSES OF GENERAL ST. CLAIR'S FAILURE. 4^ 

they not having stated, with suflScient precision, the causes of the arms being out of repair, nor specifying the proba- 
ble number requiring repairs. 

The original report proceeds with the following expression: 

' ' It appears, that a gieat proportion of the powder, supplied for the use of the army, was not of good quality, 
though an experiment was made by Major Ferguson, at Fort Pitt, with a howitzer, who reported in favor of the 
quality of the powder.'- 

The committee are satisfied, from experiments made since the ongmal report by Captain Ford, at Fort Wasii- 
ington, upon request of the Secretary of War, and by samples of the powder from thence, actually furnished the 
committee, that the powder was originally of good quality; but that a certain quantity of it was damaged by expo 
sure to the air and moisture after being issued to the troops. And it appears to have been powder of this descrip- 
tion, upon which experiments were made by some of the officers in the expedition, which produced unfavorable im- 
pressions as to the quality of the powder in general; for it is certain, a belief was currently entertained amongst the 
officers, that the powder in general was not of good quality. The insufficiency of the powder, after the army took 
the field, is accounted for from the bad quality of the tents. It is in testimony to the committee, that great quanti- 
ties of the fixed ammunition were actually rendered useless from that cause. 

It is stated in the original report, that 

" Mr. Hodgdou was appointed Quartermaster General in the month of March, and continued at Philadelphia 
until the 4th of June, he then proceeded to Fort Pitt, where he arrived on the 10th of the same month. No sufficient 
causes have appeared to the committee to justify this delay, and his presence with the army appeared to have been 
essentially necessary previously to that time." 

In this statement, the duration of Mr. Hodgdon's stay at I^ort Pitt was casually omitted, which appears to have 
been from the tenth of June till the twenty-sixtli of August. The insertion of this fact will sufficiently explain the 
sense of the committee, in the inference respecting the time, in which the presence of the Quartermaster General 
was necessary at the army. 

It is stated in tlie original report, that 

" There were sis hundred and seventy-five stand of arms, at Fort Washington, on the first of June, and most of 
those totally out of repair." 

These arms, the precise number of which appears not to be accurately ascertained, are admitted, by the Secretary 
of War, to have been at Fort Washington, in the situation described, but he suggests, that they were old and useless 
arms, which had been collected at that place, and were not counted upon as any part of the supply of arms for the 
expedition. It appears, that the regular troops and levies were completely supplied with arms, without recurrence 
to this stock; but a number of them was repaired, by orders of the commander in chief of the expedition, with a 
view, as he suggests, to arm the militia from Kentucky, who, it was expected, would arrive either insufficiently 
armed, or not armed at all: and he did not conceive the arrangements made by the War Department competent to 
arming the militia, together with the other troops. 

The original report states, that 

"The privates of the levies received but three dollars pay each, from the time of their respective enlistments to 
the time of their respective discharges, and were actually discharged witliout farther pay or settlement; notes of 
discharge were given them, specifying the time of their service, and bearing endorsations, that some advances had 
been made to them on account, without stating the amount, the object of which is suggested to have been to 
prevent transfers; the intended effect was not produced by the measure; the notes were sold for trifling considera- 
tions, the real sums due on the notes were various, from ten to twenty-five dollars, and they were frequently sold for 
one dollar, or one gallon of whiskey; the moneys for the pay of the levies did not leave Philadelphia, till the fourth of 
December, one thousand seven hundred and ninety-one, nor arrived at Fort Washington till the third of Jaimary 
one thousand seven hundred and ninety-two, some time after the last enlisted levies are known to have been entitled 
to their discharges." 

In addition to the reasons contained in the original report, respecting the discharging of the levies, without their 
stipulated pay, which are admitted by the Secretary of War to have been justly stated, he has, in his late commu- 
nication suggested to the committee,that, at thetime of the discharge of the levies, there was actually in the hands 
of the Quartermaster General the sum of sixteen thousand two hundred ninety-two dollars and seventy cents, which 
were subject to be applied to any object, agreeably to the discretion of the commander in chief of the expedition, 
and might have been applied, if he thought proper, to the payment of the discharged levies, and would have been 
sufficient for two months' pay to the officers, and four months' pay to the privates. This sum is admitted by the 
Quartermaster General to have been in his hands at the time of the discharge of the levies, aud would have been 
applied to their pay, if orders had been given by the commander in chief of the expedition for that purpose. But that 
no such orders ever were received by him. The Secretary of War infers, from these circumstances, that no censure 
should be imputed to the War Department for not having paid implicit attention to this subject. 

The circumstances respecting this transaction have been attentively examined by the committee, and appear to 
them to be the following: — The Quartermaster General, upon his leaving Philadelphia, was furnished with the sum of 
twenty thousand dollars for the use of that Department. He was afterwards furnished with two other sums, to wit, 
the sum of seventeen thousand eight hundred and forty four dollars and fifty cents, on the twenty-third day of July. 
and the sum of two thousand two hundred and twenty four dollars and sixty cents, on the seventh day of July^ 
making together the sum of twenty thousand and sixty nine dollars and ten cents. It appears, by letter from 
the Secretary of War, to the commander in chief of the expedition, that five thousand dollars of this sum were to be 
applied to the pay of the regular troops, if the commander in chief should deem that a proper application of the 
money, which, however, was not done. The remaining part of this money was intended to form a kind of military 
chest, to answer contingent expenses; subject, however, to the control of the commander in chief. It appears that 
the Quartermaster General, in additionlto these supplies of cash, was authorized to draw bills on the Secretary of War 
with this restriction— that the commander in chief should approve of all drafts, and certify the necessity or pro- 
priety of making them. The Quartermaster General commenced his drafts, at Fort Pitt, previously to his arrival 
at head quarters, to the amount of two thousand six hundred dollars, and continued them after his arrival- but it 
does not appear that those drafts were certified, or sanctioned, by the commander in chief: all which drafts were 
honored by the Secretary of War. 

It is suggested by the commander in chief, that he never considered the money, before mentioned, appropriated 
to the pay ol the levies, upon their discharges, nor that it was ever intended to be applied to that object. He further 
suggests a want of knowledge of the money, said to be on hand, at the time of the discharges of the levies, although he 
admits, that the Quartermaster General, shortly after his arrival at head quarters, tendered him a statement of the 
cash on hand, which he returned, without examination, observing, that he had already received sufficient informa- 
tion relatively thereto, from the Secretary ot War; that he was informed of the amount of moneys originally received 
by the Quartermaster General, and conceived that he could form some idea of the balance on hand, from the sums 
disbursed in consequence of warrants drawn by him, which, he expected, were paid from that fund; that his want 
of information, as to the real balance, arose from the circumstance of the bills drawn by the Quartermaster General 
without his knowledge, or the requiste certificate from him, which bills operated as a relief to that fund, for their 
amount. The commander in chief of the expedition further suggested, to the committee, in presence of the Quarter- 
master General, that, upon making drafts upon the fund before alluded to, he usually inquired of the Quartermaster 
Genera , whether it was sufficient for the purpose of answering the draft, and upon repeating this inquiry, just 
before the discliarge of the levies, he received for answer," that the chest was very low." This statement was ac- 
quiesced in, or, at least, not denied by the Quartermaster General. 



44 MILITARY AFFAIRS. [1793. 

The Quartermaster General has furnished the committee with a statement of his account, by which, it appears, 
that he had on hand, on the fifth day of November, one thousand seven hundred and ninety-one, cash to the amount 
of fifteen thousand nine hundred and twelve dollars and forty-two cents, and two thirds ofacent, which, he suggests, 
have been since applied to the use of his department. This balance is denied to have been on hand, by the comnian- 
■der in chief, at that time; and he has furnished a statement of disbursements from the original fund, which leaves the 
amount of the balance, at the time of the discharge of the levies, of one thousand four hundred eighty-three dollars 
eighty-six cents, exclusive of five thousand dollars appropriated to the pay of the old troops. 

The commander in chief further suggests, that there was no paymaster to the army, nor any person authorized 
to settle the accounts of the soldiers, and ascertain the real balances due to them, until the arrival of Mr. Swann, on 
the third day of January, one thousand seven hundred and ninety-two; and infers, that he had no authority to direct a 
settlement and order pay to the soldiers, until he was informed of the arrangements made at the War Office, relatively 
to that object. This suggestion is strongly confirmed by a letter from the Secretary of War, addressed to the com- 
mander in chief, and forwarded by Mr. Swann, which designates Mr. Swann as paymaster, and contains instructions 
relatively to the terms of settling the accounts of the soldiery. The same letter serves to show, that the twenty thou- 
sand and sixty -nine dollars and ten cents, put into the possession of the Quartermaster General, were not conclusively 
destined for the pay of the levies, nor so considered by the Secretary of War, because it is assei-ted in the letter, 
that Mr. Swann is furnished with a sum of money sufficient for the whole pay of the levies, without making any 
deduction in consequence of the moneys furnished the Quartermaster General. 

It is asserted by the Secretary of War, in his communication to the committee, that the time of the service of the 
levies did not expire until after the arrival of Mr. Swann at Fort Washington, particularly Gaither's and Rhea's 
battalions, the term of their enlistments having been to serve six months after their arrival at Fort Washington; 
which was deemed the place of rendezvous. The time which had elapsed from the period of enlistment, to their 
arrival at Fort Washington, or the evident impropriety of annexing such a condition to the enlistments, caused the 
condition itself to be dispensed with, and those levies were actually discharged shortly afterthe twelfth of November, 
one thousand seven hundred and ninety-one, in consequence of having served six months, which is the extent of the 
service authorized by law, and actually received certificates, at that time, of having performed six months' service. 

Upon a re-examination of the residue of the original report, and the evidence now before the committee, they are 
satisfied with the same, and find no material alterations or corrections necessary. 

A regard for candor has induced the committee to adopt this mode of reporting, because the original report is 
thereby preserved, mistakes existing in the same, and which are now corrected, and the causes of those mistakes 
trendered obvious, and the whole subject presented to view upon the fairest terms, in the opinion of the committee, 
o all persons in any degree concerned therein. 



id Congress.] No. 10. 1 1st Session. 

RETURN OF ORDNANCE, ARMS, AND MILITARY STORES. 

COMMUNICATED TO THE SENATE, BY THE SECRETARY OF WAR, DECEMBER 16, 1793. 

War Department, December lith, 1793. 

ir: 

I have the honor to submit a return of the ordnance, arms, and mditary stores, in possession of the United 

States. • ■ 

It resulted from the casual circumstances of the late war, that these stores were accumulated principally at the 
following points, viz: New London, in Virginia; Philadelphia; West Point, on Hudson River; and bpringfield, 
on Connecticut River; all|of which, perhaps, excepting Springfield, are improper places for permanent magazines. 

The important characteristics for magazmes and arsenals seem to be perfect security against enemies, internal 
and external, blended with an easy access by water. The expense of land transportation of heavy articles, for a 
series of years, compared with that by water, renders the latter quality indispensable for a magazine. 

The situation of New London, being destitute of water communication with the ocean, is not a proper place for 
a permanent magazine, and it would seem therefore necessaiy that some other position should be sought on James 
River, more suitable for the erection of proper buildings. , . , 

It may be questionable whether a populous city is a proper place ior the repository of large quantities of militai-y 
stores, on account of the accidents to which such places are liable by fire and other causes. Hence it is intended that 
a part of the stores, now deposited in Philadelphia, shall be removed to some safe position higher up the Delaware. 

West Point, on Hudson River, although a precious link in the chain which binds the States tpgether, has, on ac- 
count of the well known navigation of that river, and the easy access from the ocean, been considered as an impro- 
per place for an extensive magazine. For this reason part of the surplus stores have been removed temporarily to 

During the late war a number of valuable brick buildings were erected at Carlisle, in Pennsylvania, as well for 
the reception of stores, as to accommodate a number of workmen in the Ordnance Department; but these buildings 
were not much used after the apprehensions of invasion subsided, owing to the expense and delay occasioned by the 
land transportation. The same causes still prevent their use in any considerable degree. 

The situation of the United States would seem to require, that three capital magazines should be established per- 
manently, one for the southern, one for the middle, and one for the eastern States, with such subdivisions as 
may be deemed indispensable for general use. ..... tt -^ j o^ -. i u i 

It would also seem to be a dictate of sound national policy, that the United states should always possess one 
hundred thousand arms placed in their respective arsenals, and that the battering and field artillery and ammunition 
should be in ample proportion. ■ , , ,. tt ■. j o. . ■ l.l r. • . , 

It is presumed that all the cannon, arms, and ammunition required by the United States, might be fabricated 
among ourselves. It is possible the expense may be greater than if the articles were imported, but this circumstance 
is not of such moment as to be compared with the solid advantages which would result from extending and perfect- 
ing the means upon which our safety may ultimately depend. 

I have the houor to be, with the highest respect, sir, your obedient servant, 

H. KNOX, Secretary of War. 

The President qfthe United States. 



1793.] RETURN OF ORDNANCE, ARMS, AND MILITARY STORES. 45 

Return of Ordnance and Military Stores deposited at Spnngjield, Massachusetts. 



6 pounders, - 
3 pounders, - 



Brass Ordnance. 



Howitzers- 



8 inch. 

Do. unfinished, 
5| inch. 

Do. unfinished, 
4i inch cohorn and bed, - 
Iron beds for 13 inch mortars. 



Travelling Carriages. 



4 pounders, long, 
6 pounders, short, 
6s inch howitzers, French, 



AMMUNITION. 

Shot Strapt. 



9 pounders, - 


- 


6 do. 


- 


4 do. 




3 do. 


- 




Canisters Filled. 


12 pounders. 


. 


9 do. 


- 


6 do. 


- 


4 do. 


- 


3 do. 


- 




Quilted Grape. 


9 pounders, - 


~ 


4 do. 


- 




Iron Shot. 


24 pounders, - 


- 


18 do. 


- 


6 do. 


- 


4 do. 


-. 


3 do. 


- 




Shells. 


8 inch. 


. 


5| do. 


- 




Powder. 


Barrels, 


_ 


Half barrels. 


. 


Musket cartridges, 


- 


Powder horns. 


- 




Musket Ball. 


Boxes, 100 lb. each, 




Do. 1 lb. ball. 


- 


Do. grape shot, 2 


, 3, and 4 ounces. 


Lead, 211 bars, 


. 


Flints, 


- 




Cylinders. 


24 pounders. 


. 


12 do. 


- 


9 do. 


. 


6 do. 


- 


4 do. 


. 


3 do. 


- 




Caps. 


24 pounders. 


. 


12 do. 


. 


6 do. 


. 


•4 do. 


. 


3 do. 


- 



259 

192 

1,244 

457 



344 
449 
368 
554 
683 



18 pounders, - 
12 do. 

6 do. 

4 do. 

3 do. 



13 inch, 
10 do. 

8 do. 

5* do. 



New French arms. 
Old do. do. 
Carbines, 
Pistols, 



Brass hilted, - 
Marine cutlasses. 



Paper Cartridges. 



Fuzes Filled. 



Muskets, SfC. 



Swords. 



Military Stores. 



2,159 
3,535 
300 
3,500 
1,054 



4,985 
5,829 



- 1,393 

22 
74,799 

■ 847 



37 
- 153 

lb. 20,268 
815,115 



369 
993 
180 
946 
6,150 
2,400 



477 

355 

146 

1,644 



Ammunition wagons, 
Do. boxes. 

Worms, of sorts, 

Trail and common handspikes. 

Kegs yellow paint, ground in oil. 

Cask Spanish brown. 

Do. red lead. 

Gun worms. 

Sword belt, - 

Bayonet belts, 

Iron bottoms for grape, - 

Handsaws, 

Yards duck, - 

Bullet pouches, old. 

Carbine rods, chests. 

Gun rods, do. 

Tent, - - 

Scales and weights, pairs. 

Scales, without beams. 

Tin end pieces for cartridge boxes, - 
Tin cases, for do- do. 
Cartridge boxes and belts. 
Chests of cannon cartridge paper. 
Tube boxes. 
Fire hook, one. 
Turners' tools, sets, 
Beds for 13 inch mortars, unfinished, 
Hammerheads, of sorts. 
Sponges, for 4 pounders, 
Lintstocks, - - - 

Portfire stocks, 
Sheep skins, - 
Laboratory chests, 
Tompions for 4 pounders, 
Worms and ladles, 
Rope, 3i inch, fathoms, - 
161 Copper hoops. 
Saltpetre, barrels. 
Empty tubes, 
Fuzes, 13 inch, not fixed. 
Copper ladles, sorts, 
Emery, pounds. 
Tin lanterns. 
Buckles for pouches. 
Clasps for do. 
Fronts for do. 
Hooks for do. 
Wheels for 4 pounders, - 

Do. for 3 pounders, - 

Do. for wagons. 

Do. for travelling forges, 

Do. partly made. 
Carriage cheeks in the rough. 
Wagon tops, - - - 

Wagon boxes, 
Slowmatch, hhds. 

Felloes, ... 

Grindstones, 



920 I Chests of iron gun mounting, 



726 
727 
100 
70 
80 



2,171 
978 
978 

1,487 



6,678 
55 



406 
110 



- 267 

16 
88 
3 
1 
1 
3,529 
1 
21 

- 344 

2 
8 

- 369 

2 
6 
I 
2 
1 
1,370 

- 298 

- 271 

7 

38 

wt. lb- 80 

1 

6 

- 161 

29 
11 
14 
2 
1 
45 
6 
10 
lbs. 187 
2^ 
4,381 
1,184 
48 
H 
5 
- 649 
73 
20 
34 
28 
5 
12 
4 
9 
47 
2 
20 
2 
- 500 
2 
7 



46 



MILITARY AFFAIRS. 



[1793. 



Return of Ordnance, ^c. at iSJpnng/ieW— Continued. 



Cask tin, 

Empty cases for 6 pounders, 
Do. for 4 pounders. 
Copper and laboratory kettles, 
Large screws. 
Large screw plates, 
Brass gun mounting. 
Brimstone, pounds. 
Portfires, dozen. 
Portfire moulds and drifts. 
Gun locks, old. 
Iron hooks and thimbles. 
Iron chains, - 
Gun slings, - 
Drum sticks, 
Fifes, 

Iron stoves, - 
Iron pots. 
Spokes, 



Implements. 



Blacksmith's bellows, 
Beck irons, - 



1 

180 
136 
1 
3 
3 
168 
300 
70 
, 1 
250 
14 
5 
21 
1 
2 
2 
7 
5,300 



Boring mill, - 

Limbers framed, not ironed, 

Augers, 

Anvil, 

Armorer's tools, set, 

Bench vices. 



Damaged Stores. 



Old cartridge boxes. 

Tents, 

Jockey caps. 

Powder, barrel. 

Old camp kettles, 

Drum, 

Arm chests, - 

Armorer's shop, 
Blacksmith's do. 
Harness maker's do. 
Coal house, - 
Travelling forge, unfinished, 
Backs for travelling forges, 



Return of Ordnance and Military Stores, deposited at West Point. 



34 


pounders. 




la 


do. 




12 


do. 




6 


do. 




4 


do. 




3 


do. 




34 


pounders, 




18 


do. 




18 


do. 




>2 


do. 




12 


do. 




9 


do. 




6 


do. 




4 


do. 




3 


do. 




2 


do. 




8 inch, brass. 


5* 


do. 


do. 



bad 



13 inch, 



Brass Ordnance. 

dismounted, 

mounted, 

dismounted, 

do. 

do. 

do. 

Iron Ordnance. 

dismounted, 

mounted, 

dismounted, 

do. 

do. 

do. 

do. 

do. 

do. 

do. 

Howitzers. 

dismounted, 
do. 

Iron Mortars. 

mounted, 

Brass Mortars. 
dismounted. 



10 inch, 

Mortar beds, good, 

8 inch, 

55 inch, 

do. 
4? do. 
Mortar beds, good, 
8 inch mortar oed, good. 



13 inch, 
10 inch, 
8 do. 
55 do. 
41 do. 



dismounted, 
mounted, 
dismounted, 
do. 



Travelling Carriages. 



34 pounders, good 



18 
12 
4 



do. 
do. 
do. 
do. 



do. 
do. 
do. 



Ammunition. 
Bar Shot. 



24 pounders, 
18 do. 





12 pounders, - 


- 


- 331 




J 


do. 


- 


78 


3 










3 

8 
7 






Round Shot. 




24 pounders, - 


. 


- 1,466 


19 


18 


do. 


- 


- 3,778 


1 




do. too large for the gauge. 


- 1,391 




12 


do. 


- 


- 4,137 




9 


do. 


too large for the gauge. 


- 220 






do. - 


. 


- 2,307 


6 


6 


do. 


- 


- 2,884 


2 


4 


do. 


- 


- 2,382 


22 
3 


3 


do. 


■■ 


- 1,067 


2 
11 






Strapt Shot. 




2 


24 pounders. 


fixed, - 


- 200 


8 




do. 


unfixed, - 


- 92 


4 


18 


do. 


do. - 


7 


2 


12 


do. 


fixed, - 


- 233 






do. 


unfixed, - 


- 455 




9 


do. 


fixed, 


36 




6 


do. 


do. 


- 832 


13 




do. 


unfixed, - 


- 1,694 


5 


4 


do. 


fixed. 


- 1,349 , 






do. 


unfixed, - 


86 




3 


do. 


fixed, - 


- 748 


2 




do. 


unfixed, - 

Grape Fixed. 


- . 771 


9 


9 pounders, 


. 


95 


7 


6 


do. 


- 


- 166 


1 


4 


do. 


. 


55 


2 

8 


3 


do. 


- 


65 


7 
4 






Grape unfixed. 




1 


24 


pounders. 


. 


2 




18 


do. 


■ - 


- 344 




12 


do. 


. 


39 


181 


9 


do. 


. - - 


10 


499 


6 


do. 


. 


- 345 


1,562 


4 


do. 


. - - 


- 187 


458 


3 


do. 


_ 


- 257 


64 


Loose Grape 


- barrels 


11 


3 
IC 






Case fixed. 




24 


pounders, 


. 


- 133 


1 


12 


do. 


- - - 


119 


: 


9 


do. 


- 


43 


i( 


) 




Case Shot fixed. 






6 


pounders 




- 1,949 


3 


I 4 


do. 


- - - 


- 2,393 


4' 


r 3 


do. 


- 


- 921 



1793.] RETURN OF ORDNANCE, ARMS, AND MILITARY STORES. 



47 





Return of Ordnance, ^c. at West Poin<— Continued. 








Case unfixed. 




[lampart arms, 
Carbines, 


- 




- 348 

- 468 


24 pounders, - 


- 


- 108 


Pistols, 


- 




59 


18 do. 


- 


73 










12 do. 


- 


- 180 




Ladles. 






6 do. 


. 


- 491 










4 do. 


- 


- 393 


24 pounders, - 


. . 




8 


3 do. 


- 


- 193 


18 do. 
12 do. 


- 




39 
24 


Garrison Carriage 


s. 


9 do. 


- 




15 








6 do. 


. 




88 


24 pounders, 


good. 


6 


4 do. 


- 




45 


18 do. 


do. 


27 


3 do. 


- 




33 


12 do. 


- 


18 


2 do. - 


. 




9 


9 do. 


- 


2 










6 do. 


- 


16 




IVorms. 






Paper 


Cartridges, empty. \ 


24 pounders, - 


. 




15 








18 do. 


. 




50 


24 pounders, - 


- 


- 5,680 


12 do. 


- 




48 


18 do. 


- 


- 14,533 


9 do. - 


- 




45 


12 do. 


- 


- 6,633 


6 do. 


. 




68 


9 do. 


- 


- 3,805 


4 do. 


. ■ 




39 


6 do. 


- 


- 3,758 


3 do. 


. 




57 


4 do. 


- 


- 4,721 










3 do. 


. 


- 2,345 




Case shot. 






2 do. 


- 


- 559 










10 inch, 


- 


- 2,703 


8 inch, 
5^ do. 


- 




60 
- 533 


Flannel Cartridges, empty. 1 


4f 


- 




60 


24 pounders, - 


- 


- 697 




Sponges. 






12 do- 


. 


- 130 










4 do. 


- 


11 


24 pounders, - 


. 




38 


65 inch. 


- 


- 150 


18 do. 


_ 




70 


4f do. 


- 


- 202 


12 do. 
9 do. 


- 




83 
73 




Caps. 




6 do. 
4 do. 


- 




- 160 

86 


34 pounders, - 




- 818 


3 do. 


. 




- 100 


12 do. 


- 


- 2,065 


2 do. 


- 




28 


6 do. 


• 


- 525 


10 inch, 
8 do. 


- 




45 
35 




Cylinders. 




5| do. 
4f do. 


- 




41 

7 


34 pounders, - 


- 


- 900 










13 do. 


- 


- 1,850 




Bayonets. 






6 do. 


" 


- 793 


Spare, 






- 1,743 




Fuzes. 




Scabbards, 
Spears, 


- 




- 14,006 
- 641 


13 inch. 


- 


- 1,128 


Swords, 


. 




389 


10 do. 


- 


- 4,931 


do. scabbards. 


. 




40 


8 do. 


- 


- 5,633 


Espontoons, - 


. 




54 


4| do. 


Powder. 


- 1,075 


Musket, 


Cartridges. 




318,415 


Double barrels. 


~ 


- 146 


Blank, 


. 




-19,115 
70 


Single do. 


- 


- 762 


One pound paper filled, - 




Half do. 




- 2,123 


Pistol, 


. 




- 2,734 


Pounds, 


- 


4 










Meal, 


- 


- cwt. 6.0.19 


limitary Stores. 








Tins. 




Limbers to 12 pound 
Do. 18 do. 


ers, - 




8 
5 


Boxes, 


- 


2 


Do. 24 do. 


. 




1 


Barrels for cartridg 


e boxes. 


1 


5i inch mortar beds. 


good. 




2 


Barrels, 


- 


2 


Limbers to 8 inch mortars. 




7 


Sheets, 


- 


- 362 


Oil cloths, - 
Bags for grape shot. 


- 




13 

- 738 


Instruments, and 


book. 


Steel, 


- 


pounds 


, - 201 








Sulphur, 


. 


do. 


- 233 


Brass calipers, 


pairs, 


1 


Saltpetre, 


. 


do. 


6 


Wooden do. 


- do. 


2 


White lead, - 


. 


do. 


995 


Fuze engine, - 


- 


1 


Spanish brown. 


. 


do. 


37 


Brass shot gauges. 


- 


- set, - 1 


Thread, 


. 


do. 


4 


Field engineer. 


- 


1 


Iron of a 10 inch mortar bed. 


do. 


107 








Flints, 


. 




111,927 




Muskets. 




Cartouch boxes, 
Box of lock limbs. 


- 




- 177 
1 


Stands of arms. 


- 


- 7.058 


Drum shells, - 


. 




55 


Do. - 


- without ramrods, - 302 


Drum sticks, - 


. 


pairs. 


6 


French, 


- 


- 706 


Waist belts, - 


. 




653 


English, 


- 


12 


Frogs for do. - 
Coils slow matcli. 


. 




200 


- without ramrods, - 214 


. 




111 


Rifles, 


- 


. - 5 


Gun worms, - 


. 




477 


Smooth rifles. 


- 


20 


Powder measures. 


- 




18 



48 



MILITARY AFFAIRS. 



[1793. 



Return of Ordnance, ^c. at West Point — Continued. 



Pincers, 

Funnels, 
Gouge bits, - 

Priming wires. 

Gimlets, 

Screw belts, - 

Fire balls, 

Clasps for cartridge boxes, 

Woods for do. 

Tins, for do. 

Gunner's belts. 

Haversacks, 

Lantern, 

Lintstocks, - 

Portfire stocks, 

Lead aprons, . 

Powder horns. 

Drudge boxes, 

Tube do. . 

Tubes filled, . 
Do. empty. 

Fuze sets. 

Shell hooks. 

Kit ladle. 

Cannon spikes. 

Copper pans. 

Scale beams. 

Sets scales, 

Sets weights. 
Pounds rope. 

Budge barrels. 

Elevating screws, 

Linch pins. 

Washers, 

Cap square keys. 

Gins, 

Iron gin blocks. 

Wooden do. 

Pair of blacksmith's bellows, 

Port fires. 

Sponge caps. 

Gun locks. 

Tackle block, 

Tin canisters, 

Sets men's harness. 

Sets drag ropes. 

Rammer heads, 

Sponge do. 

Wooden wads. 
Junk do. 
Wooden tube boxes 
Fids for grape, 
Tompions, 
Packsaddle, 
Horsemen's swivels. 
Wagons, 
Tumbrels, 
Dive), 

Empty fuzes. 
Wooden tube boxes. 
Fire balls. 
Smith's vice. 
Hair pouches, 
Stands of colors. 
Sets of mounting. 
Cannon searchers, 

do. slings, 
Crucible, 
Tin canteens. 
Bayonet belts, 
Musket barrels. 
Pistol do. 
Sword blades. 
Straps for tompions. 
Hand grenade shells, 
Flat formers for cannon cartridges, 
Round do. for do. 

Musket formers. 
Toggles for drag ropes, 
Wooden marline spikes, 



1 

14 

- 212 

- 188 

2 
47 
29 

- 1,295 

10 

4 

74 

56 

1 

303 

258 

129 

473 

19 

42 

4,826 

6,222 

US 

45 

1 

87 

7 

5 

3 

2 

818^ 

33 

5 

64 

54 

23 

3 

9 

24 

1 

1,416 

109 

79 

1 

115 

33 

122 

41 

112 

739 

165 

54 

1,040 

184 

1 

114 

2 

15 

1 

1,575 

54 

248 

1 

248 

5 



4 

2 

1 

403 

590 

199 

301 

1,023 

11 

170 

17 

15 

152 

179 



Copper ladles. 
Brass belt buckles. 
Park stakes. 
Tins for strapt shot. 
Coffins for false fires. 
Boxes loose grape. 
Woods for case shot. 
Do. for strapt do. 
Travelling carnages, without boxes or wheels, 
Carriage wheels. 
Limbers, 

Copper hook for the magazine. 
Powder trays, 
10 inch carcass shells. 
Steel ramrods. 

Implements. 



Mallets, 
Shell scrapers. 
Hand bellows. 
Pair canhooks. 
Anvils, 

Boxes smith's tools. 
Chest with carpenter's tools, 
I'rail handspikes. 
Handspikes, 
Screw drivers. 
Hand vices. 
Tomahawks, 
Coopers' copper vices. 
Do. do. knives, 
do. adzes. 



Do. 



Damaged Stores. 



Round shot 6 pounders. 
Do. 12 do. 
Do. 18 do. 
Do. 24 do. 

Single barrels powder. 

Half barrels do. 

Muskets, 

Bayonets, 

Carbines, 

Pistols, 

Blunderbusses, 

Wall piece, 

Sworas, 

Smith's vices. 

Flints, 

Sets men's harness. 

Fuzes, 

Lanterns, 

Sets drag ropes. 

Tubes, , 

Portfires, 

Tumbrels, 

Travelling forges, 
8 inch carcasses. 

Gun worms, 

Gunslings, 

Fort cartouch boxes, 

Cartouch box belts. 

Dragoon do. 

Bayonet scabbards, 

Drumshells, 

False fires, 

Fifes, 

Cartouch boxes 

51 inch howitzer wheels. 

Travelling forge, and howitzer timber 

Hammers, 

Pounds of powder. 

Gin, 

Iron gin blocks. 

Size board for cannon shot. 

Truck carriages. 

Flannel cartridges empty. 

Musket cartridges. 



wheels. 



35 

40 

2 

40 

29 

131 

517 

704 

11 

14 

2 

1 

SO 

7 

600 



92 

47 

3 

1 

6 

2 

1 

165 

182 

2 

2 

45 

3 

2 

2 



60 
62 
233 
7 
19 
3 
8,617 
2,617 
112 
407 
3 
1 
62 
4 
15,942 
14 
2,885 
23 
5 
3,378 
852 
2 
3 
56 
81 
101 
91 
1,486 
47 
61 
1 
45 
6 
4,222 
2 
16 
2 
3231 
1 
2 
1 
1 



21,457 



1793.] RETURN OF ORDNANCE, ARMS, AND MILITARY STORES. 



49 



Return of Ordnance and Military Stores deposited at Fort Rensselaer, and its Dependencies. 




Iron Ordnance. 




9 do. 




2 








6 do. 


. 


5 


12 pounders, mounted, - 


- 


2 4 do. - 


. 


1 


9 do. do. 


- 


- 


3 3 do. - 


_ 


2 


6 do. do. 


. 


- 


7 






' 4 do. do. 


- 


2 


Sponges. 




3 do. do. 


- 


3 






6 do. dismounted. 


3 12 pounders, - 


. 


5 


3 do. do. 


] 


9 do. 


. 


2 








6 do. 


. 


8 




Brass Ordnance. 




4 do. 


. 


1 








3 do. 


. 


3 


4| mortar, mountet 


Round Shot. 


1 


4| inch. 


Military Stores. 


1 


12 pounders, - 


- 


- 165 


Spare garrison carriage, - 


1 


9 do. 


- 


- .550 


Lead aprons. 


- 


9 


6 do. 


- 


- 1,515 


Tubes, 


_ 


342 


4 do. 


- 


- 216 


Portfires, 


- 


8 


3 do. 


- 


96 


Portfire stocks. 


. . 


6 


6 and 9 pounders, at Fort Schuyler, - 


- 120 


Lintstocks, - 


. 


10 








Slow match, - 


. 


- lbs. 58 




Strapt Shot. 




Gunner's belt,. 


- 


1 








Priming wires. 


- 


38 


12 pounders, fixed. 


„ 


51 


Gouge bits. 


• . 


3 


6 do. do. 


. 


31 


Cannon spikes. 


. 


2 


3 do. do. 


- 


73 


Drag ropes, - 


. 


sets, 6 


12 do. unfixed, 


- 


28 


Sheep skins, - 


. 


7 


6 do. do. 


- 


1 


Twine, 


- . 


skeins, 4 


3 do. do. 


- 


27 


Junk, 


.. 


hhd.l 








Raw hides. 


- 


6 




Case Shot. 




Gin, 


. 


1 








Wooden gin blocks 


- 


2 


12 pounders, fixed, 


- 


62 


Powder horns, 


- 


5 


9 do. do. 


- 


- 119 


Stands of arms, 


. 


5 


6 do. do. 


. 


65 


Cartritlge boxes, 


. 


5 


3 do. do. 


. 


- 121 


Musket cartridges. 


- 


- 1,392 


12 do. unfixed 


- 


25 


Do. do. 


blank, 


- 1,320 


9 do. do. 


- 


15 


Paper, 


- 


quires, 26 


3 do. do. 


- 


16 


Thread, 


- 


-lb. ^ 








Budge barrel, 
Drudge boxes. 


- 


1 




Grape Shot. 




. 


3 








Kit brush, - 


. 


1 


6 pounders, unfixed, 


. 


21 


Kit ladles, - 


- 


2 








Tin funnel, - 


_ 


1 


Flannel Cartridges. 




Powder measures, 


- 


- set, 1 


12 pounders, filled, 
9 do. do. 


- 


8 
3 


Fuze, 

Gun worms, - 


* 


- sets, 2 
8 


3 do. do. 


. 


19 


Loose grape, - 


- 


boxes, 29 








Tube box, - 


- 


1 


Paper Cartridges. 
6 pounders, filled, 


12 




Implements. 




3 do. do. 


- 


6 


Hammer, 


_ 


1 


12 do. empty, 


- 


58 


Pincers, 


. 


1 


9 do. do. 
6 do. do. 


. 


- 263 

88 


Handspikes, - 
Chisel, 


- 


15 
1 


4 do. do. 


- 


33 


Mallet, 


. 


I 


3 do. do. 


- 


68 










Shells. 




Damaged Stores. 




8 inch, 

4| do. filled. 

Do. do. empty, 

Fuzes, 


- 


- 120 

: si 


Vluskets, 
Bayonets, 
jrun barrels, - 
Jun locks, - 
Juards, 


- 


44 
13 
6 

8 
4 




Tjidlei 


] 


Beech plates, - 


- 


4 




J-/IIUICO. 




3 pound empty paper cartridges, 
6 pound filled flannel do. 


31 


12 pounders, - 


- 


3 


1 


9 do. 


- 


2 


9 pound case shot, fixed. 


6' 


6 do. 


- 


3 I 


3 pound strapt shot, 
i'ubes, 


do. 


1 


4 do. 


- 


1 >• 


. 


- 160 


3 do. 


- 


4 ( 


Cartridge boxes. 


- 


■ - 150 






J 


klusket cartridges. 


- 


- 1,204 




Worms. 


6 


pound case shot, fixed, - 


11 


12 pounders, - 


- 


2 9 


pound empty paper 


cartridges. 


5 



50 



MILITARY AFFAIRS. 



[1793. 



Return of Ordnance and Military Stores deposited at Philadelphia. 



Brass Ordnance. 

Howitzers, 8 inch, mounted, 

2i do. do. 
Cannon, 4 pounders, do. 

3 do. do. 

2 do. do. 

Howitzers, 2? inch, dismounted, - 



Arms. 



Mortars, 44 inch, 
54 do. 
8 do. 
10 do. 
13 do. 
do. 



Cannon, 3 pounders, 
4 do. 
9 do. 



do. 
do. 
do. 
do. 
do. 
da 
do. 
do. 
do. 



Muskets, 

Fusees, 

Rifles, 

Carbines, 

Blunderbusses, 

Pistols, 

Gun slings, 

Cartouch boxes. 

Flints, 



- 11,434 

14 
1X0 

- 1,032 

43 

251 

300 

1,600 

- 592,450 



Iron Ordnance. 
24 pounders, mounted, loaned to State of Pennsylvania, 5 



18 do. do. do. 

12 do. do. 

Howitzers, 34 inch, dismounted, 
Cannon, 12 pounders, do. 



do. 



do. 



Powder. 



Single barrels, in the magazine at French Creek, 
f. do. do. do. do. 

4 do- do. do. do. 

J do. do. do. do. 

Double barrels, in the magazine at Schuylkill, 
Single 



9 do. 


do. 


6 do. 


do. 


4 do. 


do. 


1 do. 


do. 




Shells. 


Hand gienades. 


. 


10 inch shells. 


- 


8 do. do. 


- 


4i do. do. 


- 




Cannon Ball. 


24 pounders. 


- 


3 do. 




4 do. 


- 


6 do. 


- 


9 do. 


- 


12 do. 


- 


18 do. 


- 


24 do. 


- 


32 do. 


- 



Pounds of grape shot. 



Bar Shot. 



3 pounders. 


6 


do. 


9 


do. 


12 


do. 


IS 


do. 


24 


do. 


32 


do. 


2^ pounders. 


3 


do. 


4 


do. 


a 


do. 


9 


do. 


12 


do. 


34 


do. 


54 


inch, 


8 


do. 


3 


pounders, 


4 


do. 


6 


do. 


9 


do. 


12 


do. 


3 


pounders. 


4 


do. 


6 


do. 


9 


do. 


12 do. 


34 do. 



Case Shot Unfixed. 



Orape Shot Unfixed. 



Round Shot, Strapt, Unfixed. 



966 
4,562 
1,360 

138 



do. do. 
do. do. 
do. do. 


do. do. 
do. do. 
do. do. 




Lead. 


of lead, 


71 ton, 15 c. 



150 
13 
20 
12 
17 
36 

515 
1 



809 

6,938 

20,147 

3,352 

3,275 

5,543 

3,649 

958 

27 

96,913 



1 

1 

203, 

410 

17 



Musket ball, 53 boxes, of 100 
net each, is 

Canteens, 

Haversacks, 

Drums, 

Do. cases. 

Do. pairs of sticks. 

Do. cords, 

Do. heads. 

Do. shells. 

Fifes, 

Brushes and wires. 

Camp kettles. 

Sergeant's swords. 

Do. belts. 



Horsemen's Equipage. 



Saddles complete, 

Bridles, 

Halters, 

Valises, 

Nose bags. 

Swords, 

Do. belts. 

Fuzes, 10 inch, filled, 

8 do. 
Do. empty, of sizes. 



6 qr. 18 lb. 



363 

2,440 

21 

20 

39 

4 

16 

12 

21 

3,535 

42 

2,240 

80 



495 
495 
495 
495 
495 
396 
495 



Adzes, 
1 Ammunition boxes. 
Awl hafts, 
Do. blades, 
Auger, 
52 Axe-eye wedges, 
98 Brands, 
1,412 Bayonet mandrills, 
64 Do. blades, 

66 Do. frogs, 

175 Do. sockets, 
1 Book cases, 
9 Brass pistol barrels, 
47 Breech wrenches. 
Bullet nippers. 
Do. moulds. 
Button do. 
1,668 Brass weights. 
2,045 Belt buckles, 
1,040 Boring bits, 
109 Braces, 
353 Bags, (small sand) 

Back and belly bands. 
Buff belts. 

Blocks for horsemen's caps, 
724 Bridle bits, 
613 Bands for spears. 
747 Bellows pipes, 
12 Breast plates, 
446 I Brace stocks, 
9 \ Ball patterns. 



3,552 
1,670 
1,900 



50 

44 

1 

3 

35 

3 

1S« 

742 

133 



3,430 

2 

10 

9,100 

40 

11 

20 

3 

31 

4 

4 

6 

11 



1793.] RETURN OF O RDN ANCE, ARMS, AND MILITARY STORES. 



5! 



Return qf Ordnance, <J-c. at Philadelphia— Continued. 



Blind bridles, 
Bolts, with keys, 
Buckles lor halters. 
Barrel scraper, 
Breechines, 
Box handles, 
Buttress, 
Bundles of reeds. 
Cannon wads. 
Do. scraper. 
Caps and cylinders. 
Cannon drifts. 
Cutting knives, 
Copper pump, 
Canvas valise, 
Drills, 
Do. bow. 
Do. stock. 
Desks, 
Drawers, 
Drawing knives, 
Espontoons, 

Ferrules for tool handles. 
Fascine hatchet, 
Frows, 

Fire fenders, ■ . 

Fire balls. 
Gouge bits, 

Gin, tackle, and blocks, 
Grindstone, 
Gins, with blocks. 
Gun worms, 

Grenadier's match pipes. 
Halberds, 

Hooks and thimbles. 
Hatchets, 
Hinges for spears, 
Hoe, 

House chairs. 
Horseman's tent. 
Hinge hooks. 
Hand vice. 
Hay rake. 
Iron pistol barrels. 
Do- tripets. 
Do. crow bars, 
Do. skimmer. 
Do. pot. 

Ivory mouth piece. 
Ladles, (copper) 
Lintstocks, 
Lbs. stone emery. 
Do. cannon cartridge paper. 
Do. desk furniture, 
Do. wrought iron. 
Do. steel. 
Do. black lead, 
Do. antimony. 
Do. yellow ochre. 
Do. sulphur, 
Do. saltpetre, 
Lock plates. 
Linings for caps. 
Leather portfire cases, . 
Musket bai-rels. 
Do. locks. 
Do. butt pieces, 
guards, 

bands, _ . 

cocks, with pins, 
do. without pins, 
hammers. 



Do. 
Do. 
Do. 
Do. 
Do. 
Do. 
Do. 
Do. 
Do. 
Do. 
Do. 
Do. 
Do. 
Do. 
Do. 
Do. 
Do. 
Do. 
Do. 
Do. 
Do. 



pipes, 

side plates, 

jaws, 

trigger plates, . 

triggers, 

side and breech pins, 

cock pins, 

main and hammer springs, 

sears, 

tumblers, 

bridles, 

side springs, 

breechings, 

pans, 

stocks, 

splices, 



2 Musket cartridge formers, 
15 Marking irons, 
380 Mail pillions, 

1 Mortars for composition 

12 Marlinespikes, 

13 Needles, 
1 Nest of weights, 

22 Nail tools, 
936 Nose caps, 

1 Oil stone, 
3,000 Pistol locks, 

7 Do. trigger plates, 

2 Do. caps, 
1 Do. thumb pieces, 

1 Do. side plates, 

2 Do. pipes, 
1 Do. stocks, 

1 Do. cock pins and jaws, 
5 Do. guards, 

10 Do. cocks, 

12 Do. hammers, 

2 Do. main and side springs, 
30 Do. lock pins, 

1 Pairs of scales, 

13 Do. stirrup irons, 

2 Do. horse shoes, 
209 Do. drum hooks, 

44 Do. fire tongs, 
73 Do. andirons, 

1 Do. ox shoes, 

2 Do. handcufts, 
12,365 Paper cartridges, sizes, 

20 Portfire stocks, 

25 Priming wires, 

17 Powder horns, with strapi 

12 Powder proof, 

9 Plane, 

1 Palms, 

9 Pincers, 

1 Padlock, 

4 Quires writing paper, 

1 Do. musket C paper, 

1 Quadrants, (wood) 
190 Quoiler hooks, 

2 Rammer sponge, and ladle heads, 
6 Do. handles, 
1 Ramrods, iron, 
1 Do. borers, 
1 Do. reamers, 

104 Rivets, 
34 Regulation books, 
130 Pocket moulds, 
21 Do. formers and drifts 
400 Rifle sights, 
224 Rivets tor cartridge boxes 
7,840 Ragstones, 
224 Rifts, 
140 Rivet tools, 
65 Star shot, 
30 Sliding do. 
13,440 Sword blades, (old) 
830 Do. belts, unfinished, 
223 Do. do. 
2 Do. guards, 
300 Do. blades, forged, 
4,300 Saws, 
1,900 Smith's hammers, 
3,828 Staves for budge barrel 
6,000 Screw bits, 
1,900 Set shot gauges, 
1,219 Single do. 
1,405 Scrapers, 
1,559 Steel cores, for mounting, 
3,385 Stamps, 

595 Screw plates, 
2,848 Spring sets, 
1,159 Swages, 
18,111 Sets and Mallets, 

120 Do. scale chains 
4,324 Serpent moulds, 
464 Spindle for a lathe, 
390 Strap for breech band 
456 Spade belt, 
4,281 Spools for wheels, 
42 Standard cases, 
126 Sockets for spears, 
100 Spears, with handles, 
500 Do. without do. 



240 
7 
6 
1 
24 
20,000 
1 
21 
105 
1 
17 
49 
1,050 
7 
59 
1,741 
2,800 
400 
47 • 
160 
100 
400 
700 
3 
510 
7 
1 
2 
3 
49 
7 
11.144 
59 
100 
443 
1 
1 
2 
3 
1 
600 
1,360 
4 
99 
400 
30 
100 
12 
12 
300 
33 
2 
21 
16 
100 
3 
7 
1 
350 
13 
110 
42 
165 
378 
3 
3 
30 
200 
40 
1 
6 
3 
300 
17 
4 
I 
26 
31 

1 
1 
1 
1 
160 
23 
10 
51 
300 



I. 



52 



MILITARY AFFAIRS. 



11193. 



Return of Ordnance^ SfC. at Philadelphia— Continued. 



Scythe, 

Screws and wipers, 

Swivels for cartridge boxes, 

Shell hooks, 

Do. scrapers, 

Spear and socket for color poles, 

Sdk division colors. 

Do. tassels. 

Shot blocks, sizes. 

Scale dishes, 

Scythe rings. 

Do. nibs. 

Do. wedges. 

Staples, 

Smith's tongs. 

Swingle trees, without irons. 

Stoves, 

Stove feet. 

Stools, (sitting) 

Smith's vices, 

Shell pattern. 

Scale beam, 

Side bars for carbines. 

Shot patterns, 

Stock buckles. 

Tubes, sizes. 

Do. box, 

Ti-ail and handspikes, 

Tin powder measures, 

Tool handles, 

Tin cartouch boxes, 

Do. measures, sizes. 

Taps, for screw plates. 

Turner's tools. 

Tailpipe springs. 

Thumb pieces. 

Tire bales, 

Tin pipes for cartridge boxes, 

Tacks, 

Tables, 

Tin Canteens, 

Toggles for drag ropes, 

Thumb latches. 

Tomahawks, 

Tongue chains, 

Tackle blocks, with hooks, 

Do. do. without. 

Torches for signals, 

Tin canisters. 

Wad hooks, 



1 

100 

700 

19 

IX 

1 

16 

11 

1,500 

6 

95 

78 

100 

130 

11 

70 

3 

4 

20 

5 

1 

1 

127 

42 

288 

10,000 

1 

40 

50 

62 

200 

13 

-9 

2] 

168 

192 

2 

200 

1,000 

6 

20 

400 

16 

6 

3 

50 

60 

50 

80 

94 



Weights, 
Wood mallets, 
Do. screws, 



DAMAGED STORES. 



Ordnance. 



2| inch brass howitzers. 

Augers, 

Adze. 

Blunderbusses, 

Bayonet belts. 

Bayonets, 

Bar shot. 

Camp kettles. 

Drum shells, 

Dutch oven. 

Flannel cartridges, 

Fuses, 

Files, 

Fish kettle, 

Gunner's belt. 

Handsaws, 

Haversacks, 

Horsemen's spears. 

Do. caps, 

Lanterns, 

Muskets, 

Rifles, 

Musket locks. 

Do. barrels. 

Planes, 

Pistols, 

Ramrod borers, 

Sets men's harness, 

Swords, 

Do. blades. 

Tinman's shears. 

Watering pot. 

Color, 



Powder. 

3 double barrels, T 

14 single do. 5- say 2,800 lbs. 

6 half do. 3 

2 barrels,^ mealpH 

1 half do. 3 "sealed. 

A quantity of old iron, weight unknown. 



55 

80 

3,000 



5 

1 

76 

53 

100 

35 

65 

58 

1 

10,000 

106 

136 

1 

1 

3 

270 

15 

1,250 

52 

1,482 

76 

2,300 

1,125 

22 

3 

6 

15 

45 

103 

2 

1 

1 



Return of Ordnance and Military Stores deposited at Carlisle, in Pennsylvania. 



Iron Cannon. 




Half barrels, 






7 






Mealed, pounds. 


- 


- 


61 


4 pounders, 

do. nut finished, 


1 


Musket cartridges, boxes. 


- 


- 


7 


1 


Paper cartridges, bag sizes. 


- 




720 






Do. cylinders, do. 


- 


- 


4436 


Shot. 




Do. caps, for do. 


- 


- 


666 


12 pounders, case, fixed. 


4 


Military Stores. 






9 do. 


18 










4 do. 


9 


Set of drag ropes, - 


- 


- 


1 


3 do. 


26 


Ladles and worms, sizes. 


- 


- 


8 


6 pounders, grape fixed. 


6 


Sponges, do. 


- 


- 


4 


3 . do. 


11 


Lintstocks, 


- 


- 


4 


12 pounders, grape unfixed. 


36 


Portfire stocks, 


- 


- 


5 


9 do. 


142 


Sponge heads, sizes. 


- 


- 


118 


6 do. 


427 


Ladle heads, do. 


. 


. 


17 


4 do. 


120 


Rammer heads, do. 


- 


_ 


28 


3 do. 


202 


Tompions, do. 


- 


-. 


5 


3 do. for pateraroes 


37 


Blocks, of sizes, for round, gr 


ape, and 


case shot. 


650 


Pounds of grape, sizes. 


52,224 


Gun carriage, not finished, 


- 


. 


1 






Sides for do. 


- 


- 


26 


Round Shot. 




Old elevating screws. 


- 




3 






Do. wall pieces, 
Do. blunderbusses. 


. 


- 


12 


12 pounders, - . - 


122 


- 


. 


20 


9 do. 


1681 


Do. bayonets. 


- 


. 


163 


4 do. 


2095 


Do. do. scabbards. 


- 




768 


Round shot, strapt. 


152 


Old broken swords. 
Do. scabbards fordo. 


- 


' 


39 

27 


Powder. 




Do- Shot pouches, - 


- 


- 


12 






Do. Halberds, 


- 


- 


21 


Double barrels, 


3 


Do. Espontoons, 


- 


- 


2 


Single do. 


10 


New cartouch boxes and belts 




- 


29 



1793.] RETURN OF ORDNANCE, ARMS, AND MILITARY STORES. 53 



Return of Ordnance, SfC. at Carlisle — Continued. 



126 
41 

400 
21 
10 
10 

312 

300 

1,620 

2 



Old cartouch boxes, without belts, - 1,373 Old camp kettles, - 

Do. gun slings, - - - 13 Pairs of horse shoes, 

Do. bayonet belts, - - - 13 Fire buckets. 

Do. gun barrels, - - - 925 Long pine table. 

Do. locks, - - ■ - 1,801 Pairs of large scales. 

Walnut gun stocks, - - 919 Do. small copper do. 

New French gun locks, - - 447 Iron weights, 56 lbs. 

New Dutch do. - - 487 28 do. 

Pikes, with handles, - - 506 14 do. 

Do. for light horsemen, no handles, - 310 7 do. 

Sockets and hinges for do. - - 310 4 do. 

Sets bullet moulds, - - 2 3 do. 

Small do. - - - 4 Copper weights, 4 lbs. 

For wall pieces, do. - . 3 1 do. 

Tomahawks, with handles, - - 1,007 I do. 

Do. without do. 
Brushes and wires. 

Old flints, - - - 

Do. drum rims and hoops. 
Box of forged gun locks. 
Portfire cases, - 

Fuzes drove, 10 inch, 
5^ do. 
Sulphur, in hogsheads. 
Do. tierces, 

Do. barrels, 

Pounds of umber, - - . 

Do. antimony. 

Do. paper of cannon cartridges, sorts, 
Reams of musket cartridges. 

Box of small glass, - - - 1 

Sides of tanned leather, . . 36 

Travelling forges, not finished, - 1 

Pounds ot gun carriage iron, - - 125 

Do. of wrought iron, - - 1,680 

Gun scalps, -■ - - 173 

Pounds of gun carriage nails, - - 20 

Small bells, ... 1 

Back chains, - . . 7 

Pounds of new chain links, - - 25 

Bannet sockets, not finished, - - 1,077 

Hinges and hooks, for travelling forges, - 67 

Pump borers, - - - 2 

Mill irons, - - - 4 

Wagon and gun boxes, - 287 

Pounds of block tin plate forged, - 42 

Arm chest with cartouch box leather, - 1 

Do. with old gun furniture, - - 3 

Breech pans, - - - 7 

Carriage wheels, not shod, - - 25 

Do. shod, - - 46 

Iron frame, for furnace door, - - 1 

Iron pestle and mortar, - - 1 

Old writing desk, - - - 1 

Old tin canteens, - - - 6 

Wooden do. •• - - 11 

Old tin tube boxes, - - - 10 

Wooden mallets, . - - 101 

Pump iron, - - - 1 

Old gins and falls, - - - 2 

Stove plates, of sizes, - - 11 



Implements. 



4 

3 

1,007 

1,019 

41 

80 

8 Bellows for travelling forges, 

1 1 Stake anvils of sizes. 

Machine for boring gun barrels. 

Large wheels and frames. 

Small polishing wheels, 

Old gnndstones. 

Handbill hooks, 

Hand barrow. 

Cutting knives. 

Shoemaker's hammers. 

Plasterer's tools. 

Handsaws of sorts. 

Shovels, 

Brickmaker's flasks, 

Plamer for do. - 

Copper adze, 

Shoemaker's lasts, - 

Lastmaker's tools, - 

Box of armorer's do. 

Small do. do. 

Shoemaker's and saddler's benches. 

Branding irons. 

Spatulas, shod with copper. 

Pairs of tinman's shears. 

Old iron machine, - 

Stone mason's tools, of sorts, 

Powder muUers, 

Damaged Stores. 



Old guns. 

Single barrels powder. 

Tubes, - 

Musket cartridges, - 

Pounds wrought iron. 

Old guns. 

Old locks. 

Large wheels and frames, 

Small polishing wheel. 

Handsaws, 

Pairs of horse shoes. 

Box of small lasts. 

Old bayonets with scabbards, 



27 

141| 

50 

1 

1 

1 

15 

2 

3 

2 

1 

1 

1 

1 

1 



3 

6 

1 

1 

3 

2 
24 

1 

7 

8 
12 

9 

7 
12 

1 

138 
1 
1 
1 

39 

8- 



1 

24 



840 

5^ 

850 

628 

1,680 

167 

32 

1 

1 

6 

1411 

1 

50 



Return of Shot and Shells, the property of the United States, at the undermentioned places. 





NEW JERSEY. 




Shot. 1 pile. 


. 


. 


4,125 






Grape, 


- 


- 


5 


Mount Hope Furnace- 


Do. 


- 


- 


800 


Shells, 10 inch, 


_ 


2,160 


Batsto Furnace- 




8 do. 


. 


4,439 








5^0. 


- 


4,747 


Shells, 10 inch. 


. 


. 


114 


Shot, 18 pile. 


- 


6,849 


8 do. 


. 


- 


429 


6 do. 


- 


3,455 


Shot, 24 pile, 


. 


- 


938 


3 do. 


. 


140 


18 do, 


- 


- 


1,719 


Grape, 


Rockway Forge. 


20 


12 do. 






409 










PENNSYLVANIA. 




Shells, 10 inch. 


. 


2,835 










Carcasses,10 inch, 


- 


511 




Durham Furrmce. 




Shot, 18 pile. 


. 


2,265 










12 do. 


. 


2,399 


Shells, 10 inch. 


. 


. 


293 


9 do. 


- 


1,577 


8 do. 


- 


- 


105 


6 do. 


- 


1,103 


Shot, 24 pile. 


- 


- 


229 


4 do. 


. 


1,134 


18 do. 


- 


- 


227 


3 do. 


- 


1,099 


12 do. 


- 


- 


45 


8 


m 













54 



MILITARY AFFAIRS. 



[1793. 



Return of Shot and Shells, ^c. — Continued. 







Oley Furnace. 










MARYLAND. 




Shells 


10 inch. 


. 


, 


1 






Baltimore- 






8 do. 


- 


- 


75 


Shells, 


10 inch, 


. 


417 


Shot, 


32 pde. 


- 


- 


363 


Shot, 


24 pile. 


. 


50 




24 do. 


- 


- 


261 




18 do. 


. 


159 




12 do. 


Berkshire Furnace. 




130 




12 do. 


Johnston's Ferry. 


679 


Shells, 
Shot, 


10 inch, 
8 do. 
24 pile, 
18 do. 


- - 


- 


902 
256 
131 
912 


Shells, 
Shot, 


10 inch, 
8 do. 
24 pile, 
18 do. 
12 do. 


- 


1,876 
1,348 
3,906 
1,805 
134 



Shot, 12 pile. 



Grape shot. 



Cormvall Furnace. 



Mary Ann Furnace. 



3,555 



Shells, 10 inch, 
9 do. 

8 do. 
Shot, 24 pile, 

18 do. 

9 do. 



Elkton. 



3,436 
270 
969 
570 

1,405 
33 



Return of Ordnance and Military Stores, in the States of Delaware and Maryland. 



At Elkton. 
Iron Ordnance. 
18 pounders, 
12 do. 
9 do. 
6 do. 
2 do. 

1 do. ' - 

18 Cannonade, 

Military Stores. 

Copper ladles, 
Sponges and rammers. 
Worms, - 
Cartridge cases, 
Lintstocks, 
Bayonets, 
Cartridge boxes. 



Damaged Stores at Turner's Creek. 

Garrison carriages, 24 pounders, 
18 do. 
12 do. 

M Georgetown. 

Garrison carriages, 9 pounders, 
Travelling carnages, 24 pounders, 



18 

Cannonade carriage, 18 
Limbers with wheels, 24 
18 
12 
6 
Drag ropes. 
Slow match. 
Muskets, broken, 



do. 
do. 
do. 
do. 
do. 
do. 



I 

17 

lbs. 100 

15 



Return of Ordnance and Military Stores deposited at New London, Virginia. 



Brass Ordnance. 



8 Pounders, 
6 do. 

3 do. : 

Howitzers, 51 inch, 



6 Pounders, 
3 do. 



Amusette, 
12 Pound, 
9 do. 
6 do. 
4 do. 
3 do. 



6 Pound, 
4 do. 
3 do. 



Carriages and Wheels. 



SHOT. 

Round Fixed. 



Case Fixed. 



Grape Fixed- 



36 
20 
2 

1,561 
26 

1,144 



403 
6 

487 



WITHOUT CARTRIDGES. 



6 Pound, 
4 do. 
3 do. 



12 Pound, 
7 do. 
3 do. 
1 Box of mixed, 



12 Pound, 
6 do. 
4 do. 
3 do. 

Amusette, 



8 Inch, 
5i do. 
4§ do. 



6 Pound, 
3 do. 
Box of loose. 



6 Pound, 
3 do. 



Strapt Shot. 



Case Shot. 



Howitzers. 



Grape Shot. 



Round Shot, Loose. 



17 

588 

333 

1 



21 
106 
39 



21 
48 
138 



380 
360 



1793 



] RETURN OF ORDNANCE, ARMS, AND MILITARY STORES. 55 



Return qf Ordnance, ^c. at New London— Continued. 



Shells. 



Filled 4f inch. 
Do. handgrenades, 
Empty 51 inch. 
Carcasses 4f inch, 



Good fixed 10 inch, 
Do. 8 do. 

Do. H do. 

Empty 8 inch. 



Fuzes. 



CARTRIDGES. 



Flannel Filled. 



24 Pounders, 
18 do. 
12 do. 
6 do. 
3 do. 
Howitzers, 8 inch. 
Do. 5j do. 

Do. 4f do. 



24 Pound, 
18 do. 



do. 
do. 
do. 
do. 



Paper Filled. 



Empty Paper. 



32 Pound, 
24 do. 



do. 
do. 

do. 

do. 
Swivel, - ■ 

Empty canvas, 9 pound. 



6 Pound, 
4 do. 
3 do. 



6 Pound, 
4 do. 
3 do. 
9 do. 



Pound, 
Half pound. 
Serpents, 



Double barrels. 
Barrels, 
i barrels, 
5 barrels. 



Caps. 



Cylinders. 



Rockets. 



Powder. 



Muskets. 



British, wanting cleaning, • 
French do. 

Musket barrels, - 

Do. with parts of mountmg. 

Do. with locks. 

Steel ramrods, - " ■ 

Stocks unfinished, 
Fusee barrels, - - " 



Swords. 



Dragoon, 
Infantry, 
Scabbards, 
Espontoons, 



363 

174 

21 

620 



168 
18 
111 
138 
228 
139 
331 
400 



55 
105 

95 
398 

24 
158 



26 
75 
2,754 
358 
236 
145 
650 
29 



565 
525 
890 



565 
950 
800 
330 



41 
192 
43 



24f 
71 

7 
27 



993 
238 
889 
354 
166 
151 
25 
15 



Bayonets. 



Wanting cleaning. 
Broken, 



Military Stores. 

Common cartridge paper, ream, 
Do. do. quires, 

Musket cartridges, dozens in boxes. 

Do. dozens of good, included in 

the casks of damaged, 
Pistol cartridges, dozens, - 
Musket flints, - - - - 

Pistol do. - 
Gun locks wanting cleaning. 
Lock plates, - - - ' 

Gun swivels, - - - - 

Bands, - - - - 

Guards, - - - ■ 

Breech pieces, - - - - 

Box of side brasses, . - - 

Boxes of parts of locks, 

Bullet moulds, double, - - - 

Do. single, - . - 

Musket ball, boxes containing 100 each, 
Do. chest supposed 1,000 lbs. 

Bar lead, pigs, weight of each 150 lbs. 
Screw drivers, - - - " 

Gun worms, - - - " 

Double shot mould, _ - - 

Lead aprons, - - - - 

Kit, . . . - 

Kit brush, . . - - 

Kit ladle, . - - - 

Quick match, boxes. 
Slow match, - . - 

Portfires, ... 

Tubes, sizes, . , - 

Tube boxes, sorts. 

Drudging boxes, - - - 

Sponges, - - - 

Ladles, ... 

Worms, 

Men's harness, pairs. 

Drag ropes, do. 

Priming horns, - - - 

Gunners' belts, (incomplete) 

Portfire stocks, 

Lintstocks, 

Fuze engine, - - 

Fuze sets and drivers, sizes. 

Copper measures, do. 

Grenadier match pipes. 

Do. matches, 

Barrel shot bottoms, size, - 

Copper hoops, - - - 

Bullet nippers, pairs, 

Sheets of tin. 

Cannon cartridge formers, - 

Musket do. 

Meels, 

Portfire formers, - - ■ 

Do. drift sets. 

Do. moulds, - - - 

Sieves, . - - 

Shot gauges, set. 

Casting pot. 

Pound of Twine, - - - 

Earthen jug, - - - 

Shot ladle, 

Harnessmaker's benches, - 

Stocker's rounds, 

HoUowSji - - - 

LaboraWry chests. 

Keg paint, - - - 

Tackle blocks, pair, 

Small scales and weights, - 

Writing desk, - - - 



Implements. 



Ogee planes. 

Grooving plane, pair. 

Felling axe, 

Broad chisel. 

Hatchet, 

Square, 

Bevil, 



- lb, 



1,168 
60 



1 
11 

25,173 

11,160 

155 

18,250 

900 

725 

136 

1,080 

580 

250 

480 

1 

2 

.4 

5 

6 

1 

5 

688 

374 

1 

56 

lb. 34 

1 

1 

3 

470 

786 

3,800 

13 

6 

5 

7 

10 



11 

19 

22 

1 

24 

30 

60 

78 

1 

16 

2 

189 

4 

45 

3 

I 

1 

1 

2 

1 
1 
1 
1 
2 
15 
3 
3 
1 
1 
1 



56 



MILITARY AFFAIRS. 



[1793. 



Return of Ordnance, fyc. at New London — Continued. 



Double irons, 
Screw U. 
Brands U. S. 
Small chisels, 
Gouges, 
Brace stocks, 
Centre bits. 
Turner's tool. 
Drawing knife, 
Hand hammer. 
Breech wrenches. 
Screw plates and taps, 
Nippers, pair. 
Bow saw, 
Drills, 
Tongs, 

Riveting hammer. 
Bench vice. 
Swage hammer, 
Polishing brush, 
Gunsmitli's tool. 
Bayonet borers. 
Cast swage anvil, 
Spoke shave, 



Damaged Stores. 




Ordnance carriage, 


1 


Boxes of fuzes, .... 


2 


Empty flannel cartridges. 


220 


Muskets, (unfit for service) 


3,488 


Musket barrels, do. . 


105 


Fusees, do. . 


38 


Light infantry cartridge boxes. 


2,000 


Cartridge boxes wanting repair, 


867 


Do. unfit for service, 


3,300 


Musket cartridges, casks, . 


105 


Do. boxes, . 


24 


Gunlocks, 


100 


Barrels powder, . 


14 


Half barrels powder, 


37 


Gunner's haversacks, 


23 


Lanterns, 


3 


Files, 


7 


Drums, 


6 


Double barrels powder. 


4f 


Pistol cartridges, dozens, . 


. 3i 



Return of Ordnance and Military Stores deposited at Manchester, Virginia. 



Brass Ordnance. 

6 Pounders field pieces, - 

Howitzers. 

8 Inch shells, - . - 

51 Inch do. - 
4f Inch do. - 

Carriages. 

24 Pound field carriage, (incomplete) 
18 do. do. - 

8 do. do. (German) - 

6 do. do. - 
18 do. garrison do. 

"Wheel sizes, . - - 



18 Pound, 
6 do. 



24 Pound, 
18 do. 
12 do. 

9 do. 

9 do. 



24 Pound, 
12 do. 



Limbers. 



Shot. 
Case. 



Strapt. 



Grape. 



24 Pound, . - . 

18 do. - - - 

12 do. ... 

9 do. 
A quantity of loose shot not ascertained. 



Round Shot Loose. 



24 Pound, 
18 do. 
12 do. 

9 do. 

6 do. 

4 do. 
Bar Shot— sizes, 



69 
46 
100 



8 Inch, 
5s Inch, 
4f Inch, 



Shells empty- 



Fuzes, 



8 Inch, empty, 
55 Inch, fixed. 



24 Pound, 
12 do. 
Swivel, 



644 
54 
46 



202 
636 



710 
3,560 
1,457 
1,900 
1,288 
39 

156 



Paper Cartridges empty. 



Muskets. 



Wanting cleaning, - . 
Barrels oflF, - . . 

Butts of, with parts of mounting, - 
Steel ramrods. 

Swords. 

Dragoon, ... 

Scabbards, - t - 

Espontoons, - - - 

Pikes, - 

Bayonets wanting cleaning, 

Military Stores. 

Stand for flag staff", 

Gins, (incomplete) 

Gun worms, - - - 

Sponges, sizes. 

Ladles, do. 

Worms, do. 

Portfire, ... 

Pounds slow match. 

Tube, sizes, ... 

Box rocket staffs 82, 

Men's harness, sets. 

Drag ropes, sets. 

Gunner's belts, (incomplete) 

Priming horns. 

Priming wires. 

Shell hooks, ... 

Shell scrapers. 

Sheets of tin, - 

Copper hoops. 

Bag shot bottoms for 8 inch howitzers. 

Sponge caps, sizes. 

Budge barrel. 

Steel spikes, sizes, 

Shot ladle. 



76 
76 



32 

5 

2,110 



25 
172 

22 

54 
1 

75 

550 

1 

29 
6 
& 

13 
10 
7 
8 
4 
13 

225 
7 
J 



1793] RETURN OF ORDNANCE, ARMS, AND MILITARY STORES. 



57 



Return of Ordnance, ^c. at Manchester — Continued. 



Box old iron, 
Pair large scales, 
Washers, 

Do. with draghooks, 
Trail rings. 
Breast hooks, - 
Linch pins, 
Trunnion plates. 
Wheel box. 
Spades and shovel handles, 



Implements. 



Old smoothing plane. 
Hollow, 

Moving gouges, 
Chisels, 
Square, 
Cooper's cross. 
Nail tool. 
Buttress, 
Cole chisels, 
Breech wrench. 
Smith's tongs. 
Hammers, 
Smith's punch. 
Smith's anvil. 
Calking iron. 



1 


Cooper's copper driver. 


- 


- 




1 


Gouge, 


- 


- 




38 


Jack screw. 


- 


- 




10 


Brand U. S. - 


. 


. 




6 


Do. C. A. - 


_ 


. 




2 


Gunner's punches, 


. 


- 


10 


14 


Do. bits. 


- 


- 


12 


2 

1 

4f\Q 


Damaged Stores. 






i\JO 


Beds for cohoms, unfit for service. 


. 


11 




18 Pound limber. 


. 


. 


1 




Muskets, 


- 


. 


16 


1 


Pistols, 


. 


. 


3 


1 


Broken bayonets. 


- 


_ 


35 


4 


A quantity of bayonets 


belts, and scabbards, 




3 


unfit for service. 








1 


Locks, 


. 


. 


22 


1 


Cartridge boxes, 


. 


. 


80 


1 


Tube boxes, - 


- 


. 


2 


1 


Tin canteens, 


. 


. 


22 


4 


One budge barrel. 


. 


. 


1 


1 


Sheep skins, - 


- 


- 


24 


2 


Lantern, 


- 


- 


1 


2 


Drums, 


. 


_ 


2 


1 


Bugle horn, 


. 


. 


1 


1 


French horns, - 


. 


. 


2 


1 


Tinman's shears, 


- 


- 


2 



Return of Ordnance and MilUary Stores deposited at Fort Washington, Western Territory. 



Brass Ordnance. 



6 Pounders, 
3 do. 

Howitzers, 8 inch. 
Ditto, 5; do. 



4 Pounders, 

Cohoms, 



Iron Ordnance. 



Carriages and Limbers. 



6 Pounders, ... 

3 do. 

8 inch howitzers, - - - 

55 do. do. - - 

Carriage wheels, pairs. 

Fixed Ammunition. 

Rounds of 6 pound grape shot. 
Do. of 6 do. strapt shot. 
Do. of 3 do. do. 
Do. of 6 do. case shot, - 
Do. of 3 do. do. 

Unfixed .Ammunition. 

6 Pound shot, - . . 

4 do. 
3 do. 

Rounds of 6 pound grape shot. 
Do. of 3 do. strapt do. 
Do. of 3 do. case do. - 
Do. of case shot for 85 inch howitzers. 

Case shot, 5^ inch, in kegs, each containing 24, 

Loose grape shot, - 

Hand grenades, - - - 



Powder. 



Pounds of cannon, - 
Do. of musket, - 
Do. of rifle, 

Povvder horns. 

Artillery do. 

Pistol cartridges, dozens, 



Arma. 



Muskets, 
Bayonets, 



Bayonet belts. 

Bayonet scabbards, - 
3 Fusees and bayonets, 
5 f inch fusees, 

1 Cartridge boxes with belts, 

2 Do. without do- 
Infantry boxes and belts, 
Priming wires and brushes. 
Pairs ot pistols, 

1 Horseman's swords, 

2 Fusees, drove 8 inch. 
Do. do. bl do. 
Do. not drove 65 inch, 

Carbines, 

3 Drums, - - - 

4 Pairs drumsticks, 

1 Rifles, - 

2 Rifle pouches, 
7 Pouch belts. 

Belts and frogs. 

Bugle horns. 

Arms wanting repair, 
41 Infantry box belts without boxes, 
41 Old cartridge box belts, 

5 Blunderbusses, 

3 Tin boxes of cartridges, 
3 Haversacks, 

Gunner's belts, 

Military Stores, ^-c. 
3,287 

2,622 Sponges and rammers, 
783 Worms and ladles, - 
70 Lintstocks, 
60 Portfire stocks, 
12 Tube boxes, 
19 Tin lanterns, 
96 Trail handspikes, 
152 Lead aprons, 
262 Covering aprons, 

Ammunition kegs iron bound. 
Iron port-tire rammers, 
4 pound copper measures, 
8,203 Tompions and collars, 
12,7495 Dipping ladles, 
3,092| Pounds of lead dross, 
49 Set of ordnance types, 

9 Copper tube, 
506 New drag ropes, 

Old do. - 

Men's harness, 

Dark lanterns, 

689 Pounds of brimstone, 

831 I Pounds of antimony. 



143 

943 

12 

1,000 

341 

597 

1,060 

1,855 

15 

15 

5,564 

415 

500 

10 

6 

5 

64 

55 

12s 

35 

10 

251 

15 

372 

15 

1,214 

10 



10 

10 

10 

465 

10 

12 

10 

10 

10 

4 

4 

2 

10 

2 

300 

I 

I 

22 

16 

4 

12 

63 

85 



58 



MILITARY AFFAIRS. 



[1793. 



Return of Ordnance, ffc.at Fort Washington— ConimvL^A. 



Gin tackle and rigging. 

Wooden ditto. 

Rasps, 

Chisels, 

Scrapers, 

Knives for the laboratory. 

Pairs of scissoi-s. 

Pairs of shears. 

Drawing knife. 

Powder sieves, 

8 day clock, 

Wooden quadrants, . 

Astronomical ditto. 

Tin funnels, 

4 pound melting ladles, 

Axes for cannon. 

Brass portfire mould and clock, 

Pounds of musket ball. 

Pounds of lead. 
Do. of buckshot, . 

Flints, . 

Reams of cannon cartridge paper, 

Reams of musket ditto. 

Quires of do. ditto. 

Reams of packing paper, 

Gun worms, 

Screw drivers. 

Shot moulds. 

Drum heads, 

Drum cords, 

Drum cases. 

Rifle spear blades, 

Rifle ladles, 

Tomahawks, 

Scalping knives and scabbards, 

Musket bullet moulds, 

Pounds of lampblack. 

Buck shot moulds, . 

Yards of flannel. 

Founds of thread. 



1 
I 

2 
2 
2 
6 
20 
2 
1 
4 
1 
1 
1 
4 
2 
4 
1 
20,582 
3,854 
615 
73,519 
29 
40 
9 
14 
1,044 
2,113 
3 
16 
31 
8 
468 
13 
236 
68 
10 
10 
6 
233i 
45 



Sponge skins. 

Pounds of solder. 

Set of tinman's tools. 

Hammer springs. 

Hammers, 

Sear springs, 

Mainsprings, 

Musket cocks with pins. 

Sweet oil, gallons, 

Aquafoitis, pounds, . 

Drum snares. 

Mouth pieces for bugle horns, 

Howitzer packsaddles with pillions. 

Sheets of orass. 

Sheets of copper. 

Armorer's bellows, . 

Pounds of spun cotton for quick match 

Pounds. of portfire paper, 

Reams of brown wrapping paper for cartridges 

Pounds of saltpetre refined. 

Brass quadrants, without plumbs, 

Set of brass shot gauges. 

Coils slow match. 

Damaged Stores. 

Pounds of damaged powder, 

Musket balls. 

Old bayonets. 

Old muskets. 

Fusees and bayonets. 

Fusee bayonets. 

Pistols, . 

Belts, 

Scabbards, 

Horseman's brass covered caps. 

Swords, . 

Espontoons, 

Rifles, . . 

Cartridge boxes, 



12 

104 

1 

397 

260 

413 

600 

600 

30 

3 

17 

24 

16 

10 

22 

I 

20 

300 

99 

100 

5 

1 

222 



2,250j 

2,824 

240 

639 

3 

56 

11 

15 

15 

46 

10 

21 

4 



Return of Ordnance and Military Stores at Fort Hamilton. 



Iron Ordnance. 



6 Pounder, 
1 d9. 
Howitzer, 51 inch. 



Carriages. 



6 Pounder, 

1 do. 
Howitzers, Sj inch, 
Limbers, 6 Pounders, 



Fixed .Ammunition. 



Case, 6 pound, - 

54 inch. 
Grape, 6 pound, - 
Strapt, 6 do. - 
Shells, 54 inch, - 



Ur\fixed Ammunition. 



Case, 6 pound, - 
Grape, 6 do. 
1 do. 
Strapt, 6 do. - 
Shells, 55 inch, empty. 



Sponges and Rammers. 



6 Pounder, 
1 do. 
Howitzer, 51 inch. 



Worms and Ladles. 



6 Pounder, 
1 do. 
Howitzer, Sj inch. 



Tampions and Collars. 



6 Pounder, 
Howitzer, 5s inch, 



Dozens Cartridges. 



1 


Musket ball, 


. 


1 


1 


Buckshot, 


- 


547 


1 


Fusee, 


. 


87 




Pistol, 


.. 


72 




Blank musket cartridges 


- 


5,230 


\ 


Rifle powder. 


- 


- kegs, 2i 


1 


Military Stores. 




12 


Garrison flag. 


. 


1 




Trail handspikes. 


- 


2 




Lead aprons. 
Tarpaulins, 


- 


3 




- 


2 


1 


Gunner's belts, - 


. 


2 


10 


Portfire stocks. 


. 


5 


25 


Lintstock, 


. 


4 


23 


Tube boxes, 


. 


- . 2 


10 


Tubes, 


- 


6 




Portfires, 


. 


U 




Leather haversacks, 


. 


3 




Drag ropes. 


- 


3 


60 


Drudging box, - 


- 


1 


85 


Lantern, 


- 


1 


12 


Cartridge box belts, 


.. 


48 


85 


Bayonet belts, - 


- 


25 


33 


Muskets, 


- 


27 




Rifles, - 


. 


41 




Old swords. 


. 


2 




Powder horns, - 


. 


116 


1 


Pouch belts. 


. 


84 


1 


Musket ball, in boxes, 


. 


- lbs. 600 


1 


Lead, - 


- 


- lbs. 106 




Canteens, 


. 


17 




Flints, - 


- 


600 


1 

1 
1 


Artillery horns, - 


- 


2 


Damaged Stores. 




Musket, 


. 


45 




Rifles, 




11 




Cartridge boxes. 


. 


68 


1 
1 


Drum and pair of sticks. 


" 


1 



1793.] RETURN OF ORDNANCE, ARMS, AND MILITARY STORES. 



Return qf Military Stores deposited at Fort St. Clair. 



Musket flints, 
Do. cartridges, 
Do. do. 

Rifle flints. 
Do. powder. 

Bar lead. 

Slow match. 



(damaged.) 



59 



1,764 

7,448 

3,305 

200 

lbs. 351 

lbs. 249 

lbs. 8 



Return of Ordnance and Military Stores at Fort Jefferson. 



Iron Ordnance. 



6 Pounder, 
Howitzer, 5^ inch, 



Shot. 



Case, 55 inch, - - - 

Do. do. unfixed, 6 boxes, containing, dozens, 

Do. 6 pound, do. 8 do. do. rounds, 

Do. 3 do. do. 3 do. do. dozens, 

Grape, fixed, - - . rounds, 

3 lb- do. do. 4 boxes, containing dozens, 

3 lb. do. unfixed, 4 boxes, containing do. 

Strapt, fixed, - - . rounds, 

Do. unfixed, - - do. 

6 lb. do. do. 22 boxes, containing do. 

3 lb. do. do. 4 do. do. do. 



Shells. 

55 inch, fixed, - - - 

Do. do. 8 boxes, containing, 
Dead shells, 5i inch. 



6 Pounders, 
3 do. 



dozens, 



30 

120 

120 

10 

64 

96 

7 

2 

308 
120 



Cartridges. 

6 Pound, blank, - - - 40 

Musket cartridges, 61 kegs, containing dozens, 4,434 

Fusee, do. 3 do. do. ~ 235 

Pistol, do. - - - - 50 

Military Stores. 

Portfire, 

Drudging box, - - .. 

Tube box, - - . 

Haversacks, - -. . 

Sponges, - - . 

Ladle, - - . 

Musket flints, 

Muskets, - - . . 

Musket ball, 10 boxes, containing each 100 lbs 

Do. single. 
Buckshot, - - . . 

Slow match, . - 

Bayonets, - - . . 

Lead, - - . _ 

Set of copper scales and weights, 
Drag ropes, - - . . 

Sets men's harness, - - . 

Damaged Stores. 

Musket powder, 8 barrels, 
Rifle, do. 6 do. - 
Powder, - - . . 



sticks, 10 
1 
1 
2 
2 
1 
- 15,596 
16 
1,000 
385 
130 
;. 175 
12 



lbs. 



lbs. 653 
lbs. 437 
lbs. 107 



Return of Ordnance and Military Stores deposited at Pittsburg. 



Ordnance. 

Howitzers (brass) mounted, 
6 pounders (iron) do. 



12 pounders. 



6 pounders, grape, 
6 do. canister. 
Case shot unfixed, 



Ball. 



Shot. 



Powder. 



Double barrels cannon, - 
Single do. coarse musket, 
Do. do. fine do. 

Do. do. do. rifle do. 

.Srms. 

Blunderbusses, 

Rifles, complete. 

Muskets without bayonets, &c. 

Do. do. locks. 



1,458 



80 
85 
140 



10 
34 

275 
51 



Carbines, do. do. 
Fusees, - - . 

Espqntoon, - - . 

Musicians' swords and belts, 
Swords with belts and scabbards, 

Military Stores. 

Ladles, 6 pounders. 

Sticks, portfire. 

Ammunition boxes. 

Tin boxes for cartridges, 

Gun worms, - - . 

Brushes and wires. 

Box musket ball. 

Reams musket cartridge paper, - 

Set powder sieves, 

Bugle horns, - - . 

Slow match, pounds. 

Saltpetre, refined, do. - 

Brass shot gauges, set. 

Tumbrels, - - . 

Lead, pounds, 

Sheet lead, do. 

Rifle flints. 

Musket do. - 

Cartouch boxes without belts, damaged. 



14 
3 
1 

4 
46 



6 
14 
12 
345 
210 
166 
1 
7 
1 
3 
58 
44 
1 
2 
13,358 
171 
13,009 
39,838 
97 



60 



MILITARY AFFAIRS. 



[1793. 



Returns qf Ordnance and Military Stores deposited at Fort Franklin. 



l'« ' 

^rms on hand. 




Military 


Stores in use. 




Rifles, 


6 


Cartridge boxes. 


. 


19 


Muskets, - - - 


18 


Musket cartridges, 


. 


91 


Bayonets, 


11 


Powder horns, 


■• 


9 


Flints, 


360 








Musket balls, pounds, - 


1,500 


Smiths^ 


Tools in use. 




Powder kegs. 


10 












Anvil, 


- 


1 


Military Stores on hand. 




Beck horn, 


. 


1 






Sledge, 


- 


1 


Cartridge boxes. 


24 


Hammers, 


- 


4 


Musket cartridges. 


- 2,912 


Screw plate, 


- 


1 


Powder horns, 


8 


Tongs, 


- 


J 


Bullet mould, 


1 


Pincers, 


- 


1 


Melting ladle, 


1 


Burnishers, 


- 


1 


Bayonet belts. 


44 








Cartridge paper, quires. 


U 


Damaged Stores- 




Steel, pounds, 


14 








Iron, do. - - - 


104 


Muskets, 


- 


6 






Bayonets, 


- 


7 


^rms in use. 




Cartridge boxes, 


. 


12 






Melting ladle. 


. 


1 


Rifles, 


10 


Bellows, 


- 


1 


Muskets, . - - 


21 


Vice, 


.. 


1 


Bayonets, - - - 
Flints. 


20 
30 


Files, 


.. 


6 



'.Aggregate abstract of the principal art ides contained in the foregoing returns. 



Iron cannon, of different sizes, - - 214 

Iron' howitzers, - - - 49 

Iron mortars, - - - 2 

Iron cohorns, - - - 2 

Brass cannon, ... 153 

Brass howitzers, - - - 43 

Besides the last mentioned cannon, there are now 

casting at Springfield, 30 pieces brass ordnance 

and 20 brass Sj inch howitzers. 
Brass mortars, - - - 63 

Brass cohorn, - - - 1 

Muskets, - - - 31,015 

Bayonets, - - - - 4,022 

Pistols, - - - - 805 

Flints, - - - 1,610,119 

Powder, barrels, - - 4,460^ 

Lead, - - 87 tons, 7cwt. 1 qr. 18 lbs. 



Musket ball. 
Cannon cartridges. 
Musket do. 
Pistol do- 



6 tons, 16cwt. Iqr. 3lbs. 

1 5,263 

905,460 

10,716 



Damaged. 



Iron cannon, - 


. 


. 


21 


Brass howitzers. 


. 


- 


3 


Muskets, 


- 


. 


15,670 


Bayonets, 


- 


- 


- 3,035 


Pistols, 


- 


- 


- 423 


Flints, 


- 


- 


15,942 


Powder, barrels. 


- 


- 


-• 136J 


Musket ball, 


- 


Iton, 


5cwt. 24 lb. 


Musket cartridges. 


- 




- 5,137 


Do. do. 


boxes. 


- 


34 



Delivered of the principal articles since last General Return, dated 1th October, 1789. 



Brass cannon, .-.-.- 

Iron Ordnance, ...--- 

Muskets, forwarded to the army, . - 

Do. do. to the State of Georgia, - . - - 

Do. do. to the Southwestern territory, .... 

Do. sold to the State of South Carolina, . - - - 

Do. to the Minister of France, 4th October, 1791, for the use of the French colonies. 

Powder, forwarded to the army, .... 

Do. do. to the State of Georgia, - 

Do. do. to the Southwestern territory, 

Musket ball, forwarded to the army, ... 

Do. do. to the State of Georgia, - . 

Do. do. to the Southwestern territory. 

Pig Lead, forwarded to the army. 

Do. do! to the State of Georgia, - - - 

Do. do. to the Southwestern territory. 



7,619 
2,000 
1,000 
600 
1,000 





36 
3 
3 


bbls. 844^ 
75 
40 


tons. 


10 3 21 
3 1 16 

2 2 


tons, 


23 

4 



1 1 27 
5 1 9 

18 1 18 
28 



12,219 

9594 

16 3 9 



War Department, December 14, 1793. 



H. KNOX, Secretary qf War. 



1794.] FORTIFICATIONS. Qi 



3d Congress.] No. 11. [1st Session. 

PURVEYOR OF PUBLIC SUPPLIES. 

COMMUNICATED TO THE SENATE, JANUARY 7, 1794. 

Gentlemen qfthe Senate and^ofthe House of Representatives : 

Experience has shown that it would be useful to have an officer particularly charged, under the direction of the 
Department of War, with the duties of receiving, safe keeping, and distributing the public supplies, in all cases in 
which the laws and the course of service do not devolve them upon other officers, and also with that of superin- 
tending, in all cases, the issues in detail of supplies, with power, for that purpose, to bring to account all persons 
entrusted to make such issues, in relation thereto. An establishment of this nature, by securing a regular and 
punctual accountability for the issues of public supplies, would be a great guard against abuse, would tend to ensure 
their due application, and to give public satisfaction on that point. 

I therefore recommend to the consideration of Congress, the expediency of an establishment of this nature, under 
such regulations as shall appear to them advisable. 

GEO. AVASHINGTON. 

United States, January 7, 1794. 



3d Congress.] ]Vo. 12. [Ist Session. 



PURVEYOR OF PUBLIC SUPPLIES. 

communicated to the house of representatives, FEBRUARY 19, 1794. 

The select committee, to whom was referred the messMe received from the President of the United States on the 

7th January last, relative to the appointment of an officer for receiving, safe keeping, and distributing the public 

supplies, made the following report: 

That an officer, similar to that contemplated by the President's message, existed during the late war. 

That the effects of order and accountability in the department of military stores were then of such eminent utility 
as induce a hope in your committee, that similar benefits will result from such an establishment at this time, ft 
is of great importance, that the deposites of ordnance and military stores should be annually visited and inspected: 
and that the quality, as well as the quantity, of such stores should exactly correspond with the returns transmitted 
to the War Office. This object appears the more desirable, if not indispensable, in the present distributed state of 
the public arsenals, which extend from Springfield, in Connecticut, to New London, in Virginia, and which are now 
superintended by persons of little or no accountability. 

With the duties of receiving and safe keeping the public supplies, it is also of importance that particular attention 
should be paid to the issues, in detail, of such supplies,* and that the officer superintending the same should be 
vested with powers, not only that the application of such supplies is consonant to the object Government had in view, 
but to call to an account all persons entrusted to make such issues, and to cause a settlement to be thereof made. 

From which considerations, your committee are of opinion, that it is expedient such an establishment should be 
made; and thereupon submit the following resolution: 

Resolved, That a committee be appointed to bring in a bill providing for the compensation which will be required 
in the establishment of an office, under the Department of War, for the receiving, safe-keeping, and distributing of 
military stores and supplies. 



3d Congress.] No. 13. [1st Session . 

FORTIFICATIONS. 

COMMUNICATED TO THE HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES, FEBRUARY 28, 1794. 

Mr. Fitzsimmons made the following report: 
The committee directed to report on such of the ports and harbors of the United States as require to be put in a 
state of defence, with an estimate of the expense thereof, report, as their opinion, that the following ports and 
harbors ought to be put in a state of defence, to wit: 

Portland, Maine, New York, 

Portsmouth, New Hampshire, Philadelphia, 

Cape Anne, "^ Baltimore, 

Marblehead, >Massachusetts, V^Umington, North Carolina, 

Boston, J Ocracoke Inlet, 

Newport, Rhode Island, Charleston, South Carolina, 

New London, Savannah, Georgia. 
9 m 



62 



MILITARY AFFAIRS. 



[1794. 



That, in their opinion, the fortifications ought to be of a nature to defend the several ports and harbors against 
surprise by naval armaments; and that the parapets of the batteries and redoubts should be formed of earth, where 
circumstances will admit . , . , r, 

That the several places, to be fortified, be garrisoned by troops in the pay ol the United States. 

The estimates, submitted herewith, will show the expense as well of erecting the fortifications, as for providing 
the cannon and military stores, and the annual expense of supporting the troops. The number of troops to be em- 
ployed, in each port, is likewise specified. 

From these estimates it appears that the sums necessary to erect the fortifications, amount to - $76,053 52 j 

That it will be necessary to provide two hundred cannon, which, together with their carriages, 
&c. amount to -------- - 96,645 00 



Making, together - 



$172,698 52 



And that the annual expenses of the troops, necessary to garrison the several fortifications, including pay, sub- 
sistence, &c. amount to ------- - $90,349 25 

It may be proper for the committee to remark, that, in their opinion, it will be necessary, for the security of the 
United States, to provide the number of cannon above specified, even if the fortifications, before mentioned, should 
not be erected. 



^n estimate of the probable expense of fortifying the following Harbors in the manner specified: 



Portland, Maine,' TweZtje heavy Cannon. 

The formation of a parapet of earth, for twelve pieces. 

The facing twelve embrasures, at $14 98 each. 

The expense of twelve platforms, at $25 75, . 

A redoubt constructed of a form, to be adapted to the nature of the ground, to be equal 

to an hundred feet square, ..... 

A magazine, . . ... 

Embrasures and platforms, for four field pieces, .... 
A block house or barracks, for fifty men, .... 

For pickets, palisadoes, and to provide for articles difiScult to foresee or enumerate 

Portsmouth, New Hampshire, Fifteen Pieces. 

A parapet, for fifteen pieces. 

Embrasures and platforms, for fifteen pieces, at $40 73, . 

A redoubt, ...... 

Embrasures and platforms, . . .. . , 

A magazine, ...... 

Block house or barracks. 

Pickets, palisadoes, and contingencies. 

Cape Ann, Eight Pieces. 

Expense of the construction of the parapet, embrasures, and platforms, 
A block house, . . . . . . 

A magazine, . ... 

Contingencies, . . . 



Dollars. Cts. Dollars. Cts 



The expense the same. 



Salem, Eight Pieces. 
Masblehead, Eight Pieces. 



The expense the same, ....... 

Boston, Castle Island, TTiirty-six Pieces. 
To put the works in order, estimated at, . ... 

Governor's Island, Twelve Pieces. 
The same as at Portland, ....... 

Newport. 
Four pieces on travelling carriages, so that no battery may be necessary to be erected. 

Goat Island, Twenty Pieces. 
To put the works in order, ....... 

New London, Twelve Pieces. 
The same as at Portland, . . . . . . . 

Groton, Twelve Pieces. 
The same as at Portland, ....... 



375 00 
179 76 
309 00 

650 00 
200 00 
160 52 
500 00 
375 00 



468 75 
609 95 
650 00 
160 52 
200 00 
500 00 
375 00 



573 84 
500 00 
200 00 
150 00 



1,423 84 



1,423 84 



1,423 84 



6,000 00 



2,749 28 



2,749 28 
3,749 28 



2,749 28 



2,964 32 



13,020 80 



3,000 00 



5,498 56 



1794.] 



FORTIFICATIONS. 



63 



New York, (Govei-nor's Island,) Twenty-four Pieces. 

The expense of constructing batteries, embrasures, and platforms, for 24 pieces, 
A redoubt with embrasures, ... . . 

Magazine, ....... 

Block-house or barracks, ...... 

Contingencies, ....... 



Paulus Hook, Sixteen Pieces. 

Parapets, embrasures, and platforms for batteries of 16 pieces. 

Redoubt, ..... 

Four embrasures, and platforms for ditto, 

A magazine, .... 

A block- house, .... 

Non-enumerated articles and contingencies. 

New York. 

Batteries for several parts of the city for 42 pieces, 

The expense of the materials and executing platforms and embrasures for 

42 pieces at $40 73, . 
Three magazines, . . . 

Two block-houses, or other buildings equal thereto. 
Contingencies, ...... 



$1,151 68 
650 00 
160 00 
200 00 
500 CO 
500 00 



$1,312 50 

1,710 66 

600 00 

1,000 00 

1,000 00 



Twenty of these pieces may be on travelling carriages, so as to be moved as circum- 
stances might require. 

The Delaware, (Mud Island,) Forty-eight Pieces. 

In order to complete the present works for 48 pieces, and a garrison of fifty men, 

Baltimore, Twenty-eight Pieces. 

Parapets, embrasures, and platforms for batteries, for 28 pieces, 
A redoubt, with four embrasures. 

Two magazines, ..... 
Block-house or barracks, .... 
Contingencies, . .... 

Norfolk, Twenty-four Pieces- 

Batteries, embrasures, and platforms. 
Redoubt, with embrasures, 
A magazine, 
Block-house or barracks. 
Contingencies, 

Wilmington, Tivelve Pieces. 

Batteries, embrasures, and platforms, for 12 pieces, 
Redoubt, with embrasures, .... 
Magazine, ..... 

Block-house or barracks, .... 
Contingencies, ..... 



1,727 52 
810 00 
200 00 
500 00 
500 00 



OcRAcoKE, Eight Pieces. 



Batteries for 8 pieces, embrasures, &c. 

Magazine, 

Block-house or barracks. 

Contingencies, 



$573 84 
200 00 
500 00 
500 00 



Charleston. 

To be fortified with 72 pieces, which may be divided into three sets of batteries and 
redoubts, ........ 

Savannah. 

The same works and expense as for Norfolk, ..... 

Total amount, 



3,737 52 



3,161 68 



5,623 16 



2,015 44 
810 00 
400 00 
500 00 
500 00 



1,727 58 
810 00 
200 00 
500 00 
500 00 



863 76 
810 00 
200 00 
500 00 
500 00 



2,873 76 



1,773 84 



13,522 36 



8,737 94 



4,225 44 



3,737 .58 



4,647 60 

11,212 32 

3,737 52 

$76,053 62 



Portland, 

Portsmouth, 

Cape Ann, 

Salem 

Marblehead, 

Boston, 

Castle Island, - 
Governor's Island, 

Newport, 



TTie number of cannon required for the before mentioned places, to wit: 
12 New London and Groton, 



. 


15 


New York and its dependencies. 


- 


« 


The Delaware, 


. 


8 


Baltimore, 


. 


8 


Norfolk, 


- 




Wilmington, North Carolina, 


36 




Ocracoke, 


12 




Charleston, 


— 


48 


Savannah, 


- 


24 





24 
82 
48 
38 
24 
12 



64 



MILITARY AFFAIRS. 



[1794. 



The number which might be furnished from the public arsenals, - - - 150 

Supposed may be furnished by the respective States, and which would require to be new mounted, 150 

Deficient, ..-.....- 145 



But, as the precise number of those which are supposed may be furnished by the respective States are uncer- 
tain, it would seem most prudent to have cast 200 heavy pieces, of the caliber 24 and 36 pounders. 
An estimate of the expense of one hundred twenty-four pound cannon,each weighing 2 tons — 200 tons at $80, $16,000 
100 of the caliber of cannon of 36 pounders, at 3 tons— 300 tons, at $80, . . - 24,000 

200 garrison carriages and implements for the said cannon, at $60, - - - - 12,000 

150 carriages and implements for the cannon supposed to be furnished by the respective States, at $50, 7,500 

The expense of mounting the 150 cannon proposed to be furnished from the public arsenals, are al- 
ready included in the general estimate of the War Department, for the year 1794. 
200 tons of twenty-four pound ball, at $40, ... . . 8,000 

360 tons of thirty-six pound ball, at 40 dollars, - - - - - 14,400 

The expense of powder is not estimated, as a considerable quantity is in possession of the public, as 

will appear by the returns. 
For paper for cartridges, slow-match, port-fires, drag-ropes, carriages to move the cannon from place 

to place, and all contingencies relatively to the artillery, - - - - 6,000 

For transportation of the cannon and shot from the public arsenals, and also from the furnaces where 

they may be cast, to the several fortifications stated in the foregoing estimate, - - 6,000 

Four engineers, to be employed six months to construct and direct the works, with the pay, subsist- 
ence, and forage, of lieutenant colonels commandant, - - - - - 2,745 

$96,645 

Summary of the foregoing estimates. 
Fortifying the several enumerated haibors, . . . . . . $76,053 62 

Expense of 200 battering cannon, to be purchased, with carriages and implements, ball, transpor- 
tation of cannon and ball, pay, &c. of engineers, and all other contingencies relative to the ar- 
tillery, ......... 96,645 00 

Total amount, . $172,698 62 



./?« estimate of t/te number of Troops required as the ordinary protection of the aforesaid Fortifications. 





A 
s 


c 

•a 
o 


03 a 






3 1 

S-3 




Portland, 






1 


1 


2 


2 


17 


Portsmouth, 












1 


I 


2 


2 


17 


Cape Ann, 












1 


1 


2 


2 


17 


Salem, 












1 


1 


2 


2 


17 


Marblehead, 












1 


1 


2 


2 


17 


Boston, Governor's Island, . 












1 


1 


2 


2 


17 


Castle Island, 










1 


1 


2 


2 


2 


24 


Newport, 












1 


2 


2 


2 


24 


New London, 












1 


1 


1 


2 


17 


Groton, 












1 


1 


1 


2 


17 


New York, 










1 


2 


6 


6 


2 


81 


Delaware, 










1 


2 


6 


6 


2 


81 


Baltimore, 












1 


2 


2 


2 


24 


Norfolk, 












1 


2 


2 


2 


24 


Wilmington, 












1 


1 


1 


2 


17 


Ocracoke, 










1 


1 


2 


2 


2 


34 


South Carolina, 










1 


2 


6 


6 


2 


81 


Savannah, 












1 


2 


2 


2 


24 


To act as inspectors to be constantly employed in visiting 
















the posts, ..... 


2 






















2 


5 


21 


39 


45 


36 


550 



If the several works should be garrisoned in ordinary by a part of the legion of the United States, now in service, 
the expense is already calculated in the general estimate of the War Department for the year 1794. But, in order 
to save references thereto, the expense of the number of troops proposed is here specified. 

It will not escape notice, that the proposed troops are not artillery, but infantry. It is, howeverj supposed, that 
some of the artillery officers in service might be used on the present occasion, and that part of the infantry officers 
might be chosen for the purpose, who would soon acquire a tolerable degree of knowledge in the use of cannon. 



ir94.] 



ARSENALS AND ARMORIES. 



65 



Estimate of the expenses of the number of troops to be posted in the aforementioned works, as their ordinary pro- 
tection, for twelve months. 



2 Majors, to act as Inspectors, &c. at $50 per month, 
5 Captains, . . . 40 " 



H Lieutenants, 
10 Ensigns, 
39 Sergeants, 
45 Corporals, 
36 Music, 
550 Privates, 



26 " 

20 " 

6 " 

5 " 

4 " 

3 " 

SUBSISTENCE. 



2 Majors, four rations per day, . . 

5 Captains, three rations per day, 
11 Lieutenants, two rations per day, 

10 Ensigns, two rations per day, .... 
670 Non-commissioned officers and privates, one ration per day, 



268,275 rations, at fifteen cents per ration, 

FORAGE. 

2 Majors, at ten dollars per month, 

CLOTHING. 

670 Suits, at twenty dollars per suit, 



2,920 

5,475 

8,030 

7,300 

244,550 

368,275 



$1,200 
2,400 
3,432 
2,400 
2,808 
2,700 
1,728 

19,800 



$36,468 00 



40,241 25 



13,400 00 



$90,349 25 



War Department, February 28, 1794. 



H. KNOX, Secretary of War. 



3d Congress.] 



No. 14. 



1st Session. 



ARSENALS AND ARMORIES. 



COMMUNICATED TO THE HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES, MARCH 5, 1794. 

Mr. FiTzsiMONS, from the committee to whom was referred so much of the President's speech of the third of De- 
cember last, as relates to arms and military stores, magazines and arsenals, made the following report: 

That, in addition to the arsenal at Springfield, there ought to be erected two other arsenals, with magazines and 
other necessary buildings, at such place as may be directed by the President of the United States, and so as to ac- 
commodate the Southern and Middle States. 

That, in addition to the arms and military stores on hand, there ought to be provided, 

7,000 muskets, with bayonets, 

2,000 spare bayonets, 

1,000 large horsemen's pistols, 

100 tons of salt-petre, or 60 tons of powder, 

200 tons of lead. 

That there ought to be established a national armory for the purpose of making and repairing arms. 

The committee submit, herewith, estimates of the expense of erecting two additional arsenals and magazines, 
amounting to, . . . . . . . . $59,000 00 

Of the cost of the additional arms and military stores necessary to be provided, amounting to . 143,640 00 

And of the annual expense of a national armory, from which may be expected 4,200 muskets, and 
bayonets annually, amounting to . . . . . . 22,865 20 

In conformity with the foregoing opinions and estimates, the committee beg leave to offer thefoUowingresolutions: 

Resolved, That the President of the United States be authorized to direct two arsenals and magazines to be 
erected, in proper situations, to accommodate the Southern and Middle States; and that a sum, not exceeding fifty- 
nine thousand dollars be provided for that purpose. 

Resolved, That a national armory be erected; and that a superintendent, and two master armorers be appointed 
by the President of the United States, to superintend the same. That so many persons may, from time to time, be 
employed therein, as the Secretary for the Department of War may judge necessary; and that a sum not exceeding 
twenty-two thousand eight hundred and sixty-five dollars be provided for defraying the expense thereof. 

Resolved, That a sum, not exceeding one hundred and forty-three thousand six hunare and forty dollars, be 
provided for the purpose of purchasing an additional quantity of arms and ammunition. 

No. 1. 

Estimate of the expense of purchasing the follounng articles. 

7,000 muskets, at 9 dollars each, . 

2,000 bayonets, at 1 do. 

1,000 large horsemen's pistols, at 4 dollars each, 

100 tons saltpetre, at $400 00 per ton, 

200 do. lead, 173 20 do. 



Dollars, 



$63,000 

2,000 

4,000 

40,000 

34,640 

143,640 



66 



MILITARY AFFAIRS. 



[1794. 



No. 2. 

Estimate for two sets of Arsenals and Magazines. 

A brick building, three stories high, one hundred and seventy-five feet long, and forty-two feet wide, would con- 
tain twenty thousand muskets, artillery and carriages in proportion, together with all the light appendages thereof. 
Such a building has been estimated, at the present rate of workmanship, to cost . . $15,000 

An arched brick magazine, capable of containing two thousand five hundred barrels of powder, . 2,500 

Brick barracks, and workshop for one hundred armorers, and barracks for the necessary guard, . 10,000 

Purchase of the necessary ground, ...... 2,000 



Dollars, 



29,500 



There is, at present, at Springfield, an excellent brick magazine, and a variety of wooden buildings, which, with 
repair, may serve the purpose ot securing the public stores at that place, for several years. 

If, therefore, two principal arsenals and magazines should be erected at present, besides subordinate ones, they 
might be sufficient. For the expenses of the latter, the sums contained in the general estimate of the War Depart- 
ment might be adequate. 

Two sets of magazines and arsenals, workshops and barracks, each at 29,500 dollars, . . $59,000 

No. 3. 

.^n estimate of the annual expense of the institution of a National .Armory, of one superintendent and seventy 

workmen, and thirty boys. 

Dolls, per. atin. 

One superintendent, at 60 dolls, per month, ........ '720 00 

Two master armorers, 40 . do. . . . . . . . . . 960 00 

Sixty-eight journeymen, 15 . do. . . . . . . . . . .• 12,240 00 

Thirty boys, as apprentices, clothing annually, at 20 dollars each ... . 600 00 

14,520 00 
Rations. 

One superintendent, three rations per day ..... 

Two master armorers, two each, ...... 

Sixty-eight journeymen, one and half each, ... ... 

Thirty boys, one and a half each ...... 

Rations 56,210 at 12 cents. 
Rent of workshops and barracks, estimated at ........ 

Barrack utensils, annually, for one hundred men and boys, beds, blankets, fuel, &c. 



1,095 

1,460 

37,230 

16,425 



6,745 20 

600 00 

1,000 00 



Dollars 22,865 20 



Pro I 



28,350 00 



5,484 80 



Muskets and bayonets which the above workmen may make monthly, 350, annually, 4,200, at 
9 dolls, each . . . . . . . . . Dollars, 37,800 

Deductfor materials on each, 2 dolls. 25 cts. . . . . . . 9,450 

Hence it would appear, that the probable profit of the labour of the above mentioned number 
of men and boys, would amount annually to ...... . 

Economy and experience may even increase the profit, especially where the proposed apprentices should be ren- 
dered expert workmen. But were there no profit at all, but a loss incurred, it is numbly conceived, an institution of 
this nature, by disseminating the knowledge of so valuable an art, would, in a just political view, amply compen- 
sate the expense. 

War Department, March ith, 1794. 

H.KNOX, Secretary of JVar. > 



3d Congress.] 



No. 15. 
MILITIA. 



[1st Session. 



COMMUNICATED TO THE HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES, MARCH 24, 1794. 

Mr. Cobb, from the committee appointed to report whether any, and what, alterations are, in their opinjon. neces- 
sary to the act. " more effectually to provide for the national defence, by establishing an uniform militia through- 
out the United States," made the following report: 

That they are impressed with the importance of a more energetic system for the establishment of an uniform 
militia than what is contemplated by the present existing law of the United States; but, in viev.ing this subject, as 
applied to the Constitution of the United States, and the powers therein expressly reserved to the different States, 
they have their doubts how far Congress can, consistent tnerewith, make any important alterations or amendments 
to the present law; and as the right of training the militia is constitutionally reserved to the States, if they can be 
impressed with the importance of exercising this power, and directing its operation, more especially to the light in- 
fantry and grenadier companies of each regiment, an efficient force may be thereby created, and equal to any that 
can probably be obtained by any additionaUaw of the United States, made under the constitutional powers of Con- 
gress^ Under this view of the subject, and until further experience shall be had under the existing law, the com- 
mitted are of opinion that no amendment is necessary to the act for establishing an uniform militia throughout the 
United States. 



1794.] MILITARY FORCE IN 1794. 57 



3d Congress.] No. 16. [1st Session. 



INCREASING THE ARMY, AND CALLING INTO SERVICE 80,000 MILITIA. 

COMMUNICATED TO THE HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES, MARCH 27, 1794. 

Mr. Sedgwick, from the committee to whom it was referred to report the means of rendering the force of the 
United States more efficient, made the following report: 

That eifectual measures ought to be adopted to complete the present military establishment of the United States, 
and that provision ought to be made that the same may be kept full. 

That an additional corps of artillery, not to exceed eight hundred men, officers included, and also including one 
chief and four assistant engineers, ought to be raised, garrisoning the fortifications which are or may be erected for 
the defence of the sea coast. 

That the President be authorized and empowered to call on the Executives of the several States, to take eifec- 
tual measures, as soon as may be, to organize and hold in readiness to march, at a moment's warning, eighty thou- 
sand efiFective militia, (officers included,) to be apportioned to the States respectively, in proportion to the whole 
number of white inhabitants, that is to say: 

To the State of Georgia, ...... 1^333 

South Carolina, ------ 3,550 

North Carolina, ------ 7,331 

Kentucky, - - - . - - 1,532 

Virginia, ---..- 11,377 

Maryland, ------ 5,418 

Delaware, ---..- 1,256 

Pennsylvania, ------ 10,768 

New Jersey, ----..- 4,318 

New York, ------ 7,971 

Vermont, .---.. 2,139 

Connecticut, - - . - - . 5,881 

Rhode Island, --.-.. 1,697 

Massachusetts, ---.... 11,885 

New Hampshire, ... - - 3,544 

80,000 
which detachment of militia shall be officered out of the present militia officers, or others, at the option and discre- 
tion of the constitutional authority of the States respectively. 

That any independent corps of cavalry, artillery, or infantry, may be accepted as part of the said detachment 
of militia, provided they shall voluntarily engage, and jirovided the same shall be deemed eligible by the President. 

That the President be desired to request the Executives ol the several States to take effectual care that the men, 
detached as aforesaid, be armed and equipped according to law. 

That provision ou"ht to be made by law for organizing and raising a military force under the authority of the 

Government of the United States, to consist of rank and file, with the proper officers, to serve for the term 

of years, or during a war which may break out between the United States and any foreign European power, 

and that the President be authorized to take the measures necessary for raising the same: Provided, That no such 
measures be taken by the Executive, until war shall be actually commenced oetween the United States and some 
foreign European power- 



3d Congress.] No. 17. [1st Session. 

MILITARY FORCE IN 1794. 

COMMUNICATED TO THE SENATE, JUNE 5, 1794. 

W^AR Department, June 5th, 1794. 
Sir: 

In obedience to the order of the honorable the Senate of the United States, of yesterday, I respectfully submit a 
statement of the troops of the United States, according to the last returns. 
I have the honor to be, with great respect. Sir, your most obedient servant, 

H. KNOX, Secretary of War. 
The honorable the President pro tempore qfthe Senate. 



Return of the Non-commissionea Officers and Privates belonging to the Legion of the United States. 

2,843 with General "Wayne, including garrisons of Fort Washington, Fort Hamilton, Fort Knox, &c. 

189 Georgia 

42 Fort Fayette, (Pittsburg) 

24 Fort Franklin 

16 Big Beaver 

30 Wheeling 

75 South Western Territory 

359 Recruits on the march, and at the diflerent rendezvous. 

3,578 



War Department, June 5, 1794. H. KNOX, Secretary ^of War. 



68 MILITARY AFFAIRS. - [1794. 



3d Congress.] No. 18. [2d Session. 

MILITARY FORCE IN 1794. 

COMMUNICATED TO THE SENATE, NOVEMBER 25, 1794. 

United States, November 25, 1794. 

Gentlemen of the Senate and of the House of Representatives: 

I lay before you a statement of the troops in the service of the United States, which has been submitted to me 
by the Secretary of War. It will rest with Congress to consider and determine, whether further induceme nts 
shall be held out for entering into the military service of the United States, in order to complete the establishment 
authorized by law. 

GEO. WASHINGTON. 



Department of War, November 24, 1794. 
Sir: 

I have the honor to submit to your view a statement of the non-commissioned officers and privates at present 
in the service of the United States, specifying the places where they are, and the periods which they have still to 
serve. 

The force immediately under Major General Wayne is much lessened by the expiration of the services of his 
troops, and is inferior to the demand of existing circumstances. Unless, tlierefore, he be reinforced early in the 
ensuing spring, the advantages which he has gained in the course of the present year, which ought to be perma- 
nently secured, must be in danger of being relinquished. 

The experiments which have recently been made to engage men for military service, on the present inducements, 
evince, decisively, tiiat no expectation can be indulged of completing the numbers authorized by law without fur- 
ther encouragement. 

I have the honor to be, with perfect respect, your obedient servant, 

H. KNOX, Secretary of War. 
The President of the United States. 



Statement of the Non-commissioned Officers and Privates in the service of the United States, specifying the 
places where they are, and the periods whi ch they have still to serve. 



Under General Wayne, and at the posts on the lower part of the Ohio, 
Posts on tlie upper parts of the Ohio and on the march. 
Southwestern territory, ..... 
Georgia, ..... 

Fortifications on the sea coast, and recruiting rendezvous. 



Enlisted in 1791, and will expire in 1794, 
Ditto in 1792, and will expire before 30th June, 1795, 
Ditto ditto, will expire from 1st July to the 31st December, 
Ditto in 1793, will expire in 1796, 
Ditto in 1794, will expire in 1797, 

Muster rolls wanting, estimated to be enlisted in 1793 and 1794, 



Department of War, iVovemfter 24, 1794. 



2,643 

398 

73 

146 

369 

3,629 



158 
3,629 



H. KNOX, Secretary of War. 



3d Congress.] No. 19. [2d Session. 

FORTIFICATIONS. 

communicated to the house of representatives, DECEMBER 4, 1794. 

Mr. FiTzsiMMONs, from the committee to whom was referred that part of the message of the President wiiich re- 
spects the fortifying the ports and harbors of tlie United States, made the following report: 

That by the report of the Secretary at War, it appears, tliat in pursuance of the act of the last session, the forti- 
fications of the different ports and harbors are in considerable forwardness, excepting only the port of Boston, and 
Wilmington, in the State of Delaware, suspended for reasons assigned by the Secretary, in his report.* 

That contracts have been entered into for the ordnance necessary, and measures taken for progressing in the for- 
tifications, as soon as the season will permit. , . 

That from the necessity of enlarging the plan of defence in some instances, and the enhancea price ot labor and 
materials, since the first estimate was made, a sum not less than 225,500 dollars, will be necessary to complete the 
plan of defence contemplated, admitting tlie fortifications to be constructed ol timber and earth; and if executed with 
stone, to a much larger sum. , • , , • , . , , • • j ^i 

The committee, taking into view the circumstances connected with this subject, and having received the neces- 
sary information from the Secretary of War, submit the following resolutions: 

Resolved, That the necessary works for fortifying the ports and harbors of the United States ought to be con- 
tinued, and constructed of the most durable materials, so as best to answer the purposes ofdefence and permanency. 

Resolved, That a sum, not exceeding 500,000 dollars, (over and above the sums already appropriated) be appro- 
priated for the purpose aforesaid; and that a sum, not exceeding 100,000 dollars per annum, be provided lor the 
service aforesaid. .... 

Resolved, That the President of the United States be authorized to give preference, in point of time, to the com- 
pletion of such of tlie said fortifications as he may think adviseable. 

•This report is not now to be found — See No. 34. 



1 



1794.] MILITIA. QQ 

3d C0MGRE65.] No. 20. [2d Session. 

PURVEYOR OF PUBLIC SUPPLIES. 

COMMUNICATED TO CONGRESS, DECEMBER 11, 1794. 

Gentlemen of the Senate and of the House of Representatives: 

I transmit to you, for consideration, a representation made to me by the Secretary of the Treasury, on the sub- 
ject of constituting an officer to be specially charged with the business of procuring certain public supplies. 

GEORGE WASHINGTON. 
United States, December 11, 1794. 



Treasury Department, December 2, 1794. 

The Secretary of the Treasury has the honor respectfully to make the following representation to the President 
of the United States, in order that he may determine on the expediency of laying the subject of it before Congress. 
The procuring of military supplies generally is, with great propriety, vested by law in the Department of the Trea- 
sury. That department, from situation, may be expected to feel a more habitual solicitude for economy ^an any 
other, and to possess more means of information respecting the best modes of obtaining supplies- It is, however, 
important that the particular arrangement should be such as to enable the department to execute the trust in the 
best manner. This branch of the public business forms a very considerable one of the public expenditure. Includ- 
ing supplies for the Navy, it is so extensive as, to be well executed, would occupy the whole time and attention of 
one person possessing the requisite qualifications. This, with the growth of the country, must be every year more 
and more the case. It cannot, therefore, be conducted in detail by the head of the department, or by any existing 
officer of it, now charged with other duties, without being less well executed than it ought to be, or interfering with 
other essential duties, or without a portion of both these inconveniences, to the material detriment of the public 
service. Experience has already verified the position. 

It must tlien, of necessity, either be confided to a special agent employed by the head of the department, or to 
a new officer of the department, to be constituted by law, and to act under the direction and superintendence of 
that head. The last mode is preferable to the first, tor obvious reasons. 

Wherever an object of public business is likely to be permanent, it is more fit that it should be transacted by an 
officer of the Government, regularly constituted, than by the agent of a department specially entrusted. The officer 
can be placed, by law, under more effectual checks. In the present case that idea is particularly important. The 
person entrusted ought to be prohibited, under penalties, from all dealing on his own account in the objects of sup- 
ply. The duration and emoluments of a mere agency being precarious, a well qualified man, disposed to make the 
necessary sacrifices of other pursuits, and to devote himself exclusively to the business, could with much greater 
difficulty, if at all, be found. 

The compensation to such an officer ought, it is conceived, to weigh nothing as an objection. Independent of 
the equivalent expense arising from the necessity of employing and compensating an agent, it is morally certain that 
the close, constant, undivided attention, of a person charged exclusively with this object, and in condition, for that 
reason, to make the minute as well as extensive inquiries and investigations which are often requisite, would pro- 
duce savings to the United States, with which the salary of the officer could bear no comparison. It is equally evi- 
dent that it would contribute greatly to punctuality, despatch, and efficiency in procuring the supplies. 
Respectfully submitted, 

ALEXANDER HAMILTON, Secretary of the Treasury. 



3d Congress.] No. 21. t2d Session. 



MILITIA. 

communicated to the house of representatives, DECEMBER 11, 1794. 

Department of War, December 10, 1794. 
Sir: 

In obedience to the orders of the President of the United States, I have the honor to submit to the House of 
Representatives, a statement of such difficulties and inconveniences as have occurred in the execution of the act, 
entitled " An act more effectually to provide for the national defence, by establishing an uniform militia throughout 
the United States." 

I have the honor to be, with great respect, your obedient servant, 

H. KNOX, Secretary of War. 
The Speaker of the House qf Representatives of the United States. 



The Secretary of War, in obedience to the orders of the President of the United States, respectfully submits the 
following statement of such difficulties and inconveniences as have occurred in the execution of the act, entitled 
"An act more effectually to provide for the national defence, by establishing an uniform militia throughout the 
United States." 

That a difficulty of primary importance appears to oppose the execution of the first section of the before recited 
act. The militia are requested to arm and equip themselves, at their own expense; but there is no penalty to en- 
force the injunction of the law. 
10 m 



!70 MILITARY AFFAIRS. [1?94, 

The subscriber is informed, that several States have passed auxiliary laws to the act of Congress. The laws of 
the following States, upon this subject, are in his possession, to wit : Massachusetts, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, 
Maryland, and North Carolina. 

The penalties, by these, for non-equipment and armament, appear to be according to the following extracts: 

Massachusetts— pa«serf the 22d June, 1793. 

" And be it further enacted by the authority aforesaid— That every non-commissioned officer or private of the 
infantry, who shall neglect to keep himself armed and equipped, as aforesaid, or who shall, on a muster day, or at 
any other time of examination, be destitute of, or appear unprovided with, the arms and equipments herein directed, 
(except as before excepted,) shall pay a fine, not exceeding' twenty shillings, in proportion to the articles of which 
he shall be deficient, at the discretion of the justice of the peace before wTiom trial shall be had. And all parents, 
masters, and guardians, shall furnish those of the said militia, who shall be under their care and command, with the 
arms and equipments, before mentioned, under the like penalties for any neglect. And whenever the select men, 
of any town, shall judge any inhabitant thereof, belonging to the militia, unable to arm and equip himself in man- 
ner as aforesaid, they shall, at the expense of the town, provide for, and furnish, such inhabitant, with the aforesaid 
arms and equipments, which shall remain the property of the town, at the expense of which they shall be provided. 
And if any soldier shall embezzle, or destroy, the arms and equipments with which he shall be furnished, he shall, upon 
conviction before some justice of the peace, be adjudged to replace the article or articles which shall by him be so 
embezzled, or destroyed, and to pay the cost from the process arising against him. And if he shall not perform the 
same, wiihin fourteen days, after such adjudication, it shall be in the power of the select men, of the town to which 
he shall belong, to bind him out to service, or labor, for such term of time as shall, in the discretion of the said jus- 
tice, be sufficient to procure a sum of money equal to the value of the article or articles so embezzled or destroyed, 
and pay cost arising as aforesaid." 

New Jersey — passed June 5, \793, 

"And if any such militia -man shall appear, when called out to exercise or into service, without a musket or a 
rifle, he shall forfeit and pay the sum of three shillings and nine pence; and for want of every other of the aforesaid 
articles six pence. Each and every man so enrolled as aforesaid, and providing himself with the arms, ammuni- 
tion, and accoutrements, required as aforesaid, shall hold the same exempted from all suits, distress, executions, or 
sales for debt, or the payment of taxes. Provided always, That whenever the majors of any battalion shall judge any 
person, enrolled therein, unable to arm and equip himself, as aforesaid, such person shall not be subject to any fine 
for not arming; any thing herein contained to the contrary notwithstanding." 

Pennsylvania — passed the llth April, 1793. 

"•Provided always. That whenever ih^Jield- officers of any regiment shall judge any person enrolled therein 
unable to arm and equip himself as aforesaid, such person shall not be subject to any fine for not arming; any thing 
herein contained to the contrary notwithstanding." 

It does not appear that any specified penalty is imposed by this act on persons neglecting to arm and equip them- 
selves. 

Maryland — passed at November sessions, 1793. 

"And any non-commissioned officer or matross in the artillery, and any non-commissioned officer or dragoon, 
who shall so refuse or neglect to attend on any of the said days, armed and accoutred as aforesaid, (except as before 
excepted,) shall forfeit a sum not exceeding two-thirds of a dollar per day; and all other non-commissioned officers 
and privates who shall refuse or neglect to attend, armed and accoutred as herein before directed, (except as before 
excepted,) shall forfeit and pay one cent per day, unless excused for appearing without arms and accoutrements, by 
the commanding officers of their respective companies for the day." 

North Carolina— passes? the ISth July, 1794. 

"And every non-commissioned officer and private who shall fail to appear on the said occasions, shall forfeit for 
every such failure or neglectj ten shillings, or, if appearing, he be not armed and provided in manner as directed by 
this act, shall, for such deficiency, forfeit and pay five shillings. And if the officers of a cornpany, or any two of 
them, after an examination upon oath, shall adjudge any person or persons, enrolled as aforesaid, to be incapable of 
providing and furnishing him or themselves with the arms, ammunition, and accoutrements required by this act, they 
shall make report thereof to the next battalion court-martial, as the case may be, who may, if it should appear 
necessary, exempt such person or persons from the fines and forfeitures by this act imposed, until such annsand 
accoutrements shall be provided and delivered him or them by the court-martial, who shall take security for the 
safe keeping of such arms and accoutrements, to be returned when required." 

But it is certain that, were the penalties greatly enhanced, an insuperable difficultv would occur in obtaining the 
requisite number of arms in any reasonable period. The numbers comprehended in the act, from eighteen to forty- 
five years of age, inclusively, deducting the exempts and mariners, may be estimated probably at about four hundred 
and fifty thousand men. Of these, probably not one hundred thousand are armed as the act requiies, although a 
greater number might be found of common and ordinary muskets, without bayonets. The deficiency cannot be 
supplied from Europe, uniler the present circumstances- The only solid resource to obtain a supply, is the establish- 
ment of manufactories within each state. 

The deficiency of arms cannot be more forcibly exemplified than that, to arm the militia lately called info service, 
estimatecl at fifteen thousand, the number of ten thousand arms have been issued from the public arsenals. Loss 
and injury must be expected to arise upon the articles issued. 

No adequate provision appears to be established by the act, for securing the obedience of the militia to the call 
of the Executive of the United States. 

It would seem essential, that any law which the Congress should pass upon the subject of the militia, should 
contain within itself all the necessary provisions for its complete execution. 

The late experiment proves, at least in some parts, that the laws were inefficient, and had it not been fi)r volun- 
tary zeal, which came to its aid, the community might have experienced great evils. 

It would appear to be essential, that when the militia are in actual service, they ought to be bound by the military 
code of the United States. 

The enrolment of men of the ages specified in the act, notwithstanding the exemptions, holding them responsible 
for military service, and enforcing the same, appears to be a circumstance which may operate injuriously to the 
industry and convenience of the community. 

Of the returns enjoined by the tenth section of the said act, the following only have been received. 

Irom sixteen to forty. Forty to sixty. Total. 

Massachusetts, - 54,428 - 32,819 - 77,247 

Connecticut, - - - - - 15,851 

New'Jeisey, - - - - 25,887 

Georgia, - - - - - 10,120 
Whether the act in question is susceptible of such alterations and amendments, on its present principles, as will 

secure the advantages to be derived from a well organized militia, or whether a limited, but select, and efficient 



1794.] FORTIFICATIONS. 71 



corps of milifia, formed on a principle of rotation, or otherwise, and taken from the classes least injurious to the 
industry of the community, would not better fulfil that object, and at the same time better comport with economy 
are questions which the wisdom of Congress alone is competent to decide. 

All which is submitted, 

H. KNOX, Secretary of War. 
War Department, 10th December, 1794. 



3d Congress.] No. 22. [ad Session . 

FORTIFICATIONS. 

COMMUNICATED TO THE HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES, DECEMBER 19, 1794. 

Department of War, December 19, 1794. 

In pursuance of the instructions of the President of the United States, the Secretary of War respectfully sub- 
mits to the House of Representatives copies of the instructions to the engineers, for erecting the fortifications for the 
defence of the sea ports of the United States, and their reports thereupon. 

It is respectfully suggested, that the plans which accompany these papers are considered as essential parts of 
the reports of the engineers; but as it is not practical to have them copied in any reasonable time for the use of the 
House, the originals are submitted, with the hope, that the House will please to order their return to this office, as 
soon as the subject of their inquiry shall be finished. 

North Carolina has ceded certain places to the United States, conformably to the act hereunto subjoined, and 
the Legislature of Maryland has passed a resolve, giving permission for the erection of fortifications; a copy of which 
is also nereunto subjoined. And it is also understood that the Legislature of Rhode Island has passed an act, ceding 
the jurisdiction of Goat Island, in the harbor of New York. 

No particulars were given to any superintendents from the subscriber; they were appointed generally by the 
Governors, and were to superintend the actual execution of the works, under the orders of the engineers. 

The agents were appointed in the line of the Treasury Department, for the purchase of materials and obtaining 
the labor, and to receive from, and to account to, the treasury, for sum? expended for the fortifications. 

The mounting of the artillery being an incidental expense of the Ordnance Department, has been paid by war- 
rants from this office. 

All which is respectfully submitted, 

H. KNOX, Secretary of War. 



LAWS OF NORTH CAROLINA. 

At a General Assembly, begun and held at Newbern, on the seventh day of July, in the year of our Lord one thou- 
sand and ninety-four, in the nineteenth year of the independence of said State, being the second year of the said 
Assembly. 

Chap. I. 

.^n act to cede to the United Slates certain Lands, upon the condition therein mentioned. 

Whereas the Congress of the United States have passed an act to provide for the defence of certain ports and 
harbors in the United States, in which is comprised Cape Fear river, and Ocracock inlet, and also to erect a light- 
house on the head land of Cape Hatteras: And whereas it is expedient that the United States should have the ex- 
clusive jurisdiction of a sufiicient quantity of land, on which said forts and light-houses shall be erected: 

Be it enacted by the General .Assembly of the State of North Carolina, and it is hereby enacted by the authority 
of the same. That part of the public ground, laid out by the commissioners of Smithville for a fort on Cape Fear 
river, including part of the ground whereon Fort Johnson formerly stood, with the exclusive jurisdiction thereof, 
shall be, and the same is hereby, ceded to the United States of America, under the condition hereinafter mentioned. 

jind be it further enacted by the authority aforesaid, That the exclusive jurisdiction of Beacon Island, in the 
harbor of Ocracock, and four acres of land at the head land of Cape Hatteras, and also as much of the town of Smith- 
ville, adjoining Fort Johnson, as may be found necessary for the said fort, not exceeding six acres, shall be ceded 
and stand vested in the United States, as soon as the proprietors of said lands shall convey the same to the United 
States. 

.And be it further enacted. That the above mentioned lands are, and shall be, ceded to the United States upon 
the express condition, that the fortifications, light houses, and beacons, for which the said lands are ceded, or to be 
ceded, shall be erected within three years, and be continued and kept up forever thereafter, for the public use. 

JInd be it further enacted. That nothing herein contained shall be so construed as to debar or hinder any of the 
officers of this State from serving any process, or levying executions, within the limits ceded by this act to the 
United States, in the same manner, and to the same effect, as if this act had never been made. 

MARYLAND. 

By the House of Delegates, December 25, 1793. 
Whereas the United States may think it necessary to erect a fort, arsenal, or other military works or buildings on 
Whitestone Point, for the public defence: 
Therefore, Resolved, That, upon the application of the President of the United States to the Governor, for per- 
mission to erect a fort, arsenal, or other military works on the said point, for the purpose aforesaid, the Governor 
shall, and may, grant the same, with the consent of the owner of the soil. 

By order: WM. HARWOOD, Clerk. 

By the Senate, December 25, 1793. 
Read the first time and ordered to lie on the table- By order: 

WM. PERRY, JuN. Clerk. 



Read the second time and assented. By order: 

True copy from the original. 
True copy. 



By THE Senate, December 28, 1793. 

WM. PERRY, JuN. Clerk. 

WM. HARWOOD, Clerk. 

JOHN KITTY, Clerk of the Council. 



72 MILITARY AFFAIRS. [1794. 

Plans and Maps respecting the Fortifications, and which accompany the within statements. 

By Rochefontaine. 

Portland, No. 1. 

Portsmouth, No. 1. 

Rhode Island, Nos. 1 to 8, and memoir. 

New London and Groton, Nos. 1 to 6, and memoir. 

Town and harbor of New London. 

Governor's Island, New Fork, Nos. 1 to 6.— By Vincent. 
(These are contained in a tin case.) 
No. 1. Plan and profiles of proposed floating batteries, with a memoir. 
No. 2. Two plans and one profile of Bedloe's Island, and a memoir. 
No. 3. Three plans, one profile of Oyster Is'land, and a memoir. 
No. 4. One plan and two profiles on Governor's Island. 

No. 5. Plans and profiles at the Narrows, Nos. 1 to 13. N. B. No. 11 wanting. 
No. 6. Two profiles of Forts Putnam and Clinton, West Point, and a memoir, with general observations. 

Fort Mifiiin, one, and a memoir. — By L'Enfant. 

Fort Nelson, and the ground round it, 1. ^ 

Fort Norfolk, 2. I 

Elizabeth river, and its defences, 3. )>By Rivardi. 

Fort on Craney Island, 4. I 

Fort and Map, at Baltimore, 5 and 6. J 

Annapolis, land 2 | gy Vermonnet. 
Alexandria, 1 and 2. 3 ^ 

Ocracock bar, No. 1, , T 

Fort on Beacon Island, 2, V- By Martinon. 

Profile of do. 3. 3 

Fortifications, Charleston, No. 1. — By Perrault. 

Sketch of Fort Putnam.— By D. NivEN. 

Note. The above plans and maps were returned to the War Department. 



FORTIFICATIONS FROM NEW LONDON TO PORTLAND, INCLUSIVE. 

Instructions to Mr- Bechet Rochefontaine, acting as temporary Engineer in the service qf the United States. 

In pursuance of the directions of the President of the United States, you are hereby appointed an engineer, for 
the purpose of fortifying the ports and harbors herein after mentioned, viz: New London, in the State of Connecti- 
cut, Newport, in the State of Rhode Island, Boston, Marblehead, Salem, Gloucester, and Portland, in the State of 
Massachusetts, and Portsmouth, in the State of New Hampshire. 

You are therefore immediately to repair to the ports to be fortified iu the said States, respectively, and in case 
the Governors should be near any of the said ports, you are to wait upon them and exhibit these instructions. But 
if the Governors should be at any considerable distance from your route, you are respectfully to notify them of 
your appointment, enclose them a copy of these instructions, and inform them that you have repaired to the ports 
aforesaid, in order to make the necessary surveys and investigations relatively to your mission, which you will sub- 
mit to their consideration, and take their orders thereon. 

As soon as you shall receive their approbation of your plans, you are to construct the works, and to execute 
them with all possible vigor and despatch. . ^ . . 

The following is an extract of the estimate on which the appropriations for the fortifications have been founded. 
The proportion of expense, therefore, herein stated for the ports aforesaid, must not be exceeded, viz: 

New London, Twelve heavy Cannon. 
The formation of a parapet of earth for twelve pieces, - 

Facing twelve embrasures, at fourteen dollars ninety-eight cents each, - 
The expense of twelve platforms, at twenty-five dollars seventy -five cents each, 

A redoubt, constructed of a form to be adapted to the nature of the ground, to be equal to 100 feet square, 
A magazine, - - -" - " " '," 

Embrasures and platforms for four field pieces, - . . - . 

A block house, or barracks, for fifty men, . - . - - 

For pickets, palisadoes, and to provide for articles difficult to foresee or enumerate. 



$375 


00 


179 


76 


309 


00 


J, 650 


00 


200 


00 


160 


52 


500 


00 


375 


00 


$2,749 


28 


«2,749 28 


$3,000 00 



To be garrisoned by 1 subaltern, 1 sergeant, 1 corporal, 2 musicians, 17 privates. 

Groton, Twelve Pieces. 
The same expense as at New London, and to be garrisoned by the same number of troops, 

Goat Island, Eight Pieces. 
To put the works in order, .--..--- 

Newport, Three Pieces. 
On travelling carriages, so that no battery may be necessary to be erected. 

Garrison to consist of 1 subaltern, 2 sergeants, 2 corporals, 2 musicians, 24 privates. 

Boston, Castle Island, Thirty-six Pieces. 
To put the works in order, estimated at ..---- $6,000^ 

Governor's Island, Twelve Pieces. 
The expense the same as at New London, .-.--- $2,749^8 



1794.] FORTIFICATIONS. 



$573 84 
500 00 
200 00 
150 00 


$1,423 84 


$1,423 84 



The Castle to be garrisoned by 1 captain, 1 subaltern, 2 sergeants, 2 corporals, 2 musicians, 24 privates. 
Governor's Island, 1 2 2 17 17 

Marblehead, Eight Pieces. 
Expense of the construction of the parapet, embrasures, and platforms, 
A block house, -----... 

A magazine, .-----.. 

Contingencies, - - - - - - - - 

Garrison to consist of 1 subaltern, 1 sergeant, 2 corporals, 2 musicians, 17 privates. 

Salem, Eight Pieces. 
The expense the same as at Marblehead, . . - . . 

Garrison to consist of 1 subaltern, 1 sergeant, 2 corporals, 2 musicians, 17 privates. 

Cape Ann, Gloucester, Eight Pieces. 
The expense the same as at Marblehead, -...-. $1,4 23 84 

Garrison to consist of 1 subaltern, 1 sergeant, 2 corporals, 2 musicians, 17 privates. 

Portland, Twelve Pieces. 
The expense the same as at New London, ------ $2,7 49 28 

Garrison to consist of 1 subaltern, 1 sergeant, 2 corporals, 2 musicians, 17 privates. 

Portsmouth, Nine Pieces. 

A parapet for nine pieces, ----..-. $281 75 

Embrasures and platforms for nine pieces, - - . . - . 360 57 

A redoubt, - - - - • - - - - - 650 00 

Embrasures and platforms, . - - . . - - 160 52 

A magazine, -.-----.. 200 00 

Block house or barracks, -------- 500 00 

Pickets, palisadoes, and contingencies, - - - : - - - 375 00 



Garrison to consist of 1 subaltern, 1 sergeant, 2 corporals, 2 musicians, 17 privates. 



$2,527 34 



But the peculiar situation of Newport, and its importance to a marine enemy, will justify a greater portion ot 
expense than is contemplated in the estimate. A strong redoubt or two, upon the heights near the town, ought to be 
constructed; the experience of the American, English, and French troops, who successively occupied that place 
during the late war, will have pointed out the spots most proper to be occupied. Upon mature consideration, there- 
fore, it appears that Newport, or rather the ground in its neighborhood, ought to be so fortified as to prevent any 
sudden possession of that place by an enemy, from which our commerce would sufler excessively. 

It will be readily perceived, by the lowness of the estimate, that the parapets of the works intended to be erect- 
ed are to be of earth, or where that cannot easily be obtained of an adhesive quality, the parapets may be faced with 
strong timber, and filled in with such earth as can be had. 

It is, however, conceived that, in most cases, earth may be procured, and that a parapet made thereof, will not 
only form a solid defence, but even be durable, if the earth be tenacious, and properly sloped and sodded inside and 
out, and the seed of knotgrass sown, so as to bind the earth and sods together. 

It is, however, apprehended that the embrasures, made in this manner, would suffer from the explosion of the 

Eowder from the cannon, and that, therefore, where the batteries are not m barbette, that the embrasures ought to 
e framed with joist, and faced with plank of two inches thick. 
When the batteries are to be erected on points of land, islands, or other places at a distance from the towns in- 
tended to be defended, they ought to be covered or secured by a redoubt, or other enclosed work, in which the gar- 
rison should reside constantly, either in a barrack or a strong block house, as shall be judged most expedient. But, 
in general, as the garrisons will be weak in numbers, a block house, mounting one or two small pieces of cannon in 
its upper story, will be more secure, and therefore to be preferred. These, however, ought not to be much, if any, 
exposed to the fire of heavy cannon. A block house will not contain more than fifty men; if the garrison, therefore, 
should be enlarged, tents must be used. 

The redoubts, in general, ought to be of a size to contain five hundred men, so as to resist a sudden enterprize 
of an enemy; and, perhaps, the idea ought to be embraced, in the first instance, that they should be of such extent 
as to admit timber casemates to be erected hereafter, so as to enable the garrison to resist, in some tolerable degree, 
a bombardment. 

But it is not proposed at present to erect such casemates, excepting for a magazine, which must be formed of massy 
timber, and be six feet thick on the roof, exclusive of the earth, and jointed and calked in such a manner as to be 
perfectly tight. Care must be taken to have these m^azines properly ventilated and free from dampness. They 
are to be of a size suiBcient to hold one hundred and fifty rounds of powder for each piece of cannon intended to be 
served from it. The spot at which a magazine of this nature shall be fixed, will require great judgment, so as to 
combine security against an enemy, either open or subtle, or any danger from common accidents. 

Your judgment will also direct what part of your works shall be protected by frieze, and what by palisadoes, or 
whether your redoubts shall have embrasures, or fire en barbette with small cannon. As the redoubts are to cover 
the tjatteries, they would certainly secure and resist better without embrasures. The batteries are to annoy. 

The choice of the ground, on which the batteries and works are to be erected, with all the combinations and 
effects depending thereon, will rest upon your judgment, under the directions of the Governor. 

It has not been intended, by any thing herein specified, to point out the particular manner in which the works 
should be executed. Outlines only have been given, to serve in regulating the expense, which is limited by the 
sums before mentioned. 

Some person, in whose ingenuity and industry confidence can be placed, will be appointed at the said ports, 
respectively, to superintend the actual execution of the works according to your directions. Arrangements will 
also be made by him, or some other person, to obtain the necessary workmen, implements, and materials, which 
will be required in this business: but every thing must be previously calculated and estimated by you. 

Although the business herein entrusted to your charge, is, of itself, of an highly honorable nature, and strongly 
evincive of the confidence of the President of the United States, which would probably enhance your reputation 
yet it is explicitly to be understood by you, that the employment is only temporary, and not conferring or involving 
any military rank whatever. 

For a compensation of your services and personal expenses, you will be allowed and paid at the rate of four dol- 
lars per day, while you shall be employed. For all reasonable extra expenses, such as necessary boat hire, and 
persons to assist in your surveys, you will be allowed: but for those you must keep regular accounts, and take 
receipts. 



74 MILITARY AFFAIRS. D1P94. 

You are to deliver to the Governors copies of all your plans, surveys, soundings, &e. and also transmit copies of 
the same to this office. 

You are also to make a weekly report to this office of your proceedings. 

A reverberatory furnace, for red hot balls, must be erected for each battery. 

You are hereby authorized to have made, in all cases where your judgment shall direct, new semi-circle car- 
riages for cannon, now used on the sea-coast of France, instead of the old garrison carriages. 

This improvement of firing en barbette will prevent the necessity of embrasures, which, in most cases, servfi na 
other purpose but as a trap to catch the enemy's balls, and kill the defenders of a battery. 

It IS true, the expense will be greatly enhanced by adopting this improvement, but this will be lessened in some 
degree by saving the expense of the embrasures and platforms. 

It will be proper, in most cases, where the earth works are to be erected, to have them done by contract. I have 
written to the agents upon this subject, and I also request your attention thereto. 

It is probable that one or two sub-engineers may be appointed under your orders, as your line will be very 
extensive. 

Given at the War Office of the United States, this 29th day of March, 1794. 

H. KNOX, Secretary of War. 

■A General Return of the Situation of the Fortifications of the Seaport Towns in the States of New England. 

STATK OF CONNECTICUT. 

New London. — On the 12th April, his Excellency the Governor of the State came from Norwich to New 
Lond.on, to visit the two sides of the harbor, and was pleased to approve of the plan of fortification, which has since 
been partly executed. 

It consists, on the New London side of the harbor, of a citadel in stone masonry, bomb proof, covering a powder 
magazine, and will serve for the garrison to live in in time of peace. The citadel is surrounded with batteries and 
glacis, to cover it from the direct fire of ships of war, and to scour the entrance of the harbor and the neighborhood 
of the citadel with cannon and musketry. 

The artillery consists of six eighteen and twenty -four pounders, on coast carriages; four nine and six pounders, 
on travelling carriages. 

There is also a reverberatory furnace for heating balls. 

The foitification of that side is nearly completed, and requires only to be trimmed, which will be done either 
this fall or early in the next spring. 

On the Groton side of the harbor, the fortifications consist of a fort, made of earth and sods, containing a citadel, 
of brick masonry, covering a powder magazine, bomb proof, and serving for the garrison to live in; and a battery, 
near the harbor, under the protection of the fort, with a covered way, communicating from one to the other. The. 
battery is also to be defended by a guard house, of brick masonry, with a powder magazine, bornb proof, under it. 

The artillery of the fort will consist of three eighteen and twenty -four pounders, on coast carriages, and four six 
pounders, on travelling carriages; that of the battery, of five eighteen and twenty-four pounders, to be mounted on 
coast carriages. A reverberatory furnace will also be erected in it- 

The fortification of that side of the harbor is far from being' complete; the want of labor has been, in a great 
measure, the cause of the delay. 

The citadel will be completed and covered before winter, as well as the powder magazine. The repairing of the 
old fort is only begun, and will be continued in the beginning of next spring. 

The sum granted by Congress was - - • - . . $ 5,498 56 

That expended to this day, is about - - - - $ 4,500 00 

To complete New London Fort, - - - - 300 00 

Do. Groton Fort, - - - - 1,798 56 

6,598 56 



Sum to be provided to complete the defence of New London, - - - - $ 1,100 00 

For the mounting of the artillery, the Secretary of the Treasury has granted a first sum of - 250 00 

It will cost for the mounting of the guns, stating, upon an average, 90 dollars for every 

coast carriage, and 60 dollars for every travelling carriage, for guns or howitzers, $1,740 00 

For a reverberatory furnace, for the battery of Groton, that of New London being erected, 100 00 

■_ $1,840 00 



The sum to be provided for these two objects, - - - - - $1,590 00 

Total sum to be granted for New London, - - - - - $ 2,690 00 

The garrison on the New London side will consist, in time of peace, of twenty -two men. 

In time of war, fifty men. 

The fort and citadel may aftbrd a cover, in case of an attack, to one thousand men. 

The garrison of the fort and battery, on the Groton side of the harbor, in time of peace, twenty-two men. 

On account of the battery and guard house, in time of war, eighty men. 

In case of an attack by an enemy, eight hundred men. 

There is in the fort and batteries, a sufficient number of good cannon for the armament of New London and 
Groton. 

The land occupied by the fortifications is the same that was formerly fortified, and is the property of indivi- 
duals. The agent at New London has, in consequence of a requisition for the purpose, attempted to buy it. The 
extravagant price set upon it, and other difficulties in the way of procuring it, have induced the agent to make an 
application to the Legislature of the State for the purpose. 

It is to be observed, that the object of the fortifications on the two sides of the harbor of New London is, the 
defence of the entrance of the harbor, by a cross fire of heavy cannon, with red hot balls, on shipping attempting to 
force their way through, and the protection of the trade in the harbor. Those batteries are well secured against a surr 
prise, or any sudden attack. In order to take possession of them, or to operate their destruction, the enemy must 
undertake a regular attack: in that case, the whole force of the countiy ought to be brought against liim. 

STATE OF RHODE ISLAND. 

Newport. — On the 8th of May, his Excellency the Governor of the State visited the harbor and the ports on 
Rhode Island, to l3e taken possession of. The security of the harbor and island, which consists in the defending 
the entrance of the harbor, and securing, by all means, a free and open communication with the interior parts of the 
State, for the militia to come to the assistance of Newport in case ot an attack. 

The Governor was pleased to approve of the system of defence, which has since been partly executed. 

It consists of a fort on Goat Island, with a cita<lel, in stone masonry, bomb proof, serving for the garrison to live 
in, and having under it two powder magazines. The whole is nearly completed. 

At Tomany Hill, a citadel in brick masonry, serving for the garrison to live in, with a powder magazine, bomb 
proofV under it. This will be completed before the winter. 

At Butts Hill, a citadel in every respect equal to the above on Tomany Hill, This by want of means, has been 
postponed to another year. 



1794.] FORTIFICATIONS. 75 

At Howland's Feriy, a battery and a guard house, 111 brick masonry, with a powder house, bomb proof, under it. 

The guard liouse and powder magazine are executed. The battery is contracted for, and will be erected before 

the spring. 

Thesumjjranted by Congress was, ...... $5,000 

Expended 19 this day, or contracted for to complete the works begun as above mentioned, 6,104 

There remains unprovided for, a sum of ....... $1,104 

Also, to erect the citadel, magazine, &c. at Butts Hill, ..... 1,200 

Total of the sum to be provided to complete the above defence of Newport, Rhode Island, . $2,304 




The artillery of the works will consist, at the fort on Goat Island, of 16, 18 and 34 pounders, on coast carriages, 
and two 6 pounders, on travelling carriages. 
A reverberatory furnace is erected there. 

At Tomany Hill, of four 12 pounders, or howitzers, on travelling carriages. 
At Butts Hill, of four 12 pounders, or howitzers, on travelling carriages. 

At the battery at Howland's Ferry, of four 18 and 24 pounders, on coast carriages, a reverberatory furnace is also 
to be erected there. 

The mounting of the above artillery and the furnace will cost, .... $2,600 

The first sum granted for the same by the Secretary of the Treasury, . . . $500 

There remains to be provided for that object, a sum of .... 2,100 

Total of the money to be provided, for the fortification and artillery, above stated, . . 4,404 

The possession of Rhode Island, and the harbor of Newport, is so important to an European nation at war with 
the United Stales, that it will perhaps be thought necessary to increase its defence, and to provide it even against a 
regular expedition; in that case it would be necessary to cover the fort, on Goat Island, with a glacis, and covered 
way all round, which will produce the double advantage of securing the parapets of the fort against the direct fire of 
the guns of ships forcing their passage up, and of alTording a cover for a larger garrison in case of an attack. This 
proposed addition to the fortifications of Goat Island being executed, it might then withstand even a regular attack. 
The additional expense would be — 

The glacis and covered way, .... .... $3,000 

For tlie mounting of twelve pieces of cannon, 12 and 18 pounders, on new garrison carriages, and 
six 6 pounders, or howitzers, on travelling carnages, . . . . . 1,560 

Total of the additional expense, ..... $4,560 

The garrison of Goat Island will be, in time of peace, . ... 

In time of war, ........ 

In case of an attack, if executed as it is now, without any additional works, 

With the additional works, ..... . . 

The garrison of Tomany Hill will consist, in time of peace, .... 

In time of war. 

In case of an attack of all the inhabitants of Newport, and of the Island, the garrison at Butts Hill will consist 

In time of peace, of ...... ... man, 1 

In time of war, ......... men, 60 

In case of an invasion of the militia of the State, the garrison of Howland's Ferry battery will be of one man in 

time of peace, and in time of war, ten men of the garrison of Butts Hill will be stationed rhere monthly. 

The grounds occupied by the fortifications, now erected with leave of the owners, have not yet been bought, 

owing to the exorbitant demand of some, and other difficulties referred to the Secretary of War. 

It is to be observed, that there are, at present, but eight guns at Rhode Island, viz . three 24's, three 18's, and 

two 6's. 

STATK OF MASSACHUSETTS. 

Boston. — On the 25th of May, his Honor the Lieutenant Governor, elected, since that time, Governor of the State 
of Massachusetts, declared to the engineers, that he did not find himself empowered to approve of the execution of 
the law of the United States, respecting the fortification of the seaport towns in the State, without the advice of the 
Legislature, meeting a few days afterwards. His Excellency, however, gave orders to the oflBcers of the Executive 
of the State, to the State garrison of the Castle Island, and to the gentlemen, select men of every seaport town, 
directed to be fortified, to assist, every one in his capacity, the engineer in his reconnoitering and surveys. 

On the first of June, his Excellency was furnished with a general plan of defence for the harbor of Boston. 

On the 4th of June, a committee of the Legislature, appointed for the purpose, called on the engineer, to be pre- 
sent at one of their conferences respecting the fortification of the harbor, and that of Castle Island particularly. 

On the Bth, the said committee visited Castle Island, with the engineer, that being the only post in the State that 
Ihe Legislature would have any thing to do with as to fortifying. . 

On the 11th, his Excellency permitted the engineer to visit the seaport towns of Salem, Marblehead, and Cape 
Ann, until the Legislature should come to a determination on the questions, proposed in the address of the Governor, 
respecting the fortification of the harbor of the State. 

On the 20th, his Excellency authorized the engineer to proceed to the State of New Hampshire, the Legislature 
of the State of Massachusetts having not yet come to any vote on the subject of fortifications. 

On the 24th of June, the Secretary of War having directed the engineer to repair to Portland as soon as possi- 
ble, his Excellency was informed by the engineer, that he should go to Portland from Portsmouth, agreeable to the 
Secretary's orders, and as the local situation of the former would render it very long to wait for his Excellency's 
approb.ation, after the plan of fortification should be foimed, the engineer proposed, as most advisable, to act in con- 
cert with the select men of that town, and even to begin the construction of fortifications, such as should be approved 
by (hose gentlemen: his Excellency's further orders would, hovyever, regulate the conduct of the engineer, and his 
silence on the subject would be construed as a consent to the engineer's proposal. 

PORTLAND. 

On the 14th of July, the selectmen of Portland, previously advised by the Governor of the arrival of the engineer, 
visited the harbor. On the 15th, the citizens, in a legal town meeting, authorised the select men to purchase, in be- 
half of the town, and for the United States, the ground necessary for the erecting of the fortifications for the defence 
of the harbor. 

The 21st July, the select men having approveil the plan of fortification, and the Governor having made no objec- 
tion to the plan of conduct proposed as above, the engineer began the works, which consist of — 

A fort erected on the hill, formerly occupied by the fort, with parapets, supported by stone walls and sods. 

A citadel of brick masonry, serving for the garrison to live in, and covering a magazine, bomb proof. 

A battery near the harbor, with a guard house, in brick masonry, to defend with musketry the guns of the bat- 
ter}^ and a poTvder magazine, bomb proof. Also, a covered communication from the fort to the battery. 

The sum granted by the United States, was ...... $2,749 28 

The Secretary of War has granted in addition, . . . . _ _. . 900 00 

The artillery of the fort will consist of four 6 and 12 pounders, mounted on travelling carriages. 

■At the battery of ten pieces, 32, 18, and 12 pounders, mounted on coast carriages. 



76 MILITARY AFFAIRS. [1794. 

Also, a reverberatory furnace, for heating balls. 

The works are completed, or will be so before the winter, with the sum above mentioned. 

The mounting of the artillery will cost, ...... $1,200 

The Secretary of the Treasury has granted, ...... 250 

Sum to be provided for the artillery, ....... $950 

The garrison of Portland, in time of peace, is to be twenty-three men. 
In time of war, it ought to be one hundred men. 

In case of an attack, it will be the rendezvous of the militia, and may contain five hundred men. 
If it were thought necessary to cover that post, which is now secured against any sudden attack, against a regu- 
lar expedition by land and sea, it would be necessary to surround the fort with two advanced posts and glacis. 
The two advanced posts and glacis would cost . . . . . $5,000 00 

The mounting 13 pieces of cannon on howitzers, in addition to the above, in garrison and travelling 

carriages, . , . . . . . . . . 700 00 

For 4 gun boats, two of them with furnaces, ...... 2,80000 

Total of the additional expense, on that plan, . . . . . . 8,500 00 

The garrison of Portland, with the additional works, above mentioned, might be 2,000 men. 

The artillery now in the fort and battery at Portland, is to be replaced, except one 18 pounder, as soon as 
good ones can be procured, but if the said guns can bear proving, there is a sufficient number for the armament of 
the works now executed. 

Four acres of land, for the fortifications, have been bought for $68. 

On the 29th Julj^, the engineer waited on his Excellency the Governor of Massachusetts, at Boston: the Legisla- 
ture not having decided any thing respecting the fortifications of the State, his Excellency could not give any appro- 
bation to the erecting of any throughout the State, even at Portland, where the select men, and town meeting, had 
irregularly acted, in purchasing land for the United States, without being authorized to do it by the Legislature of 
the State. 

On the 16th of August, the Secretary of War authorized the engineer to erect fortifications, according to the law 
of the United States, at Salem, Marblehead, and Cape Ann. 

Salem. — The inhabitants of Salem, in a legal town meeting, unanimously voted a cession to the United States 
of the ground which should be thought necessary for the defence of their harbor; immediately thereupon the works 
were begun. They consist of a fort, erected on the old fort called Fort William, in masonry and sods; a brick 
citadel, calculated for the garrison to live in, and covering a powder magazine, bomb proof. 

The artillery of that fort will consist of six pieces; 24, 18 and 12 pounders on coast carriages; four pieces, 6 and 
12 pounders, on travelling carriages; a reverberatory furnace; also, two pieces, 18 and 24 pounders, to arm the 
battery on Juniper's Point in time of war. 

A number of old guns, now there, will serve, if they bear proof, until good ones can be provided. 

The sum granted by the United States for the fortifications, was, . . . $1,423 84 

The Secretary of War has granted a sura of . . . . . . 600 00 

Total, $2,023 84 
That sum will nearly complete the works intended to be erected. 

The mounting the artillery and furnace will cost, ..... $1,06000 

The Secretary of the Treasury has granted a first sum of .... 250 00 

Sum to be provided for the artillery, ...... $810 00 

The garrison of Salem is to be, in time of peace, of 23 men. 

On account of Juniper battery, in time of war, ought to be 60 men. 

In case of an attack, the militia will occupy the above fort. Juniper's battery, and the old Fort Lee, securing 
the passage to tlie neck. In tiiat case, 12 or 15 hundred men may fight with great certainty of success. 

The situation of Salem is such, that it would not be advisable to spend more money, than what is necessary to 
complete the fort actually begun. 

Marblehead. — For the reason alluded to above, the fortification at Marblehead was not commenced before the 
1st September. It consists of a battery to defend the entrance of the harbor, and citadel, of brick masonry, to defend 
the battery erected on the spot occupied by the old fort, covering a powder magazine, bomb proof, and calculated 
for the garrison to live in. 

The artillery will consist of six 42, 18, and 24 pounders on coast carriages, and four 6 and 9 pounders, or howit- 
zers, on travelling carriages. 

Also, a reverberatory furnace. 

The sum granted by the United States for the fortifications, was . . . $1,423 84 

The Secretary of War has granted an additional sum of .... 900 00 

$2,323 84 
That sum will nearly complete the works intended and begun. 

The mounting the artillery, and furnace, will cost, . . . . . $700 00 

The Secretary of the Treasury has already granted . . . . 250 00 

Sum to be provided for the artillery, . . . . . . . 450 00 

The gai-rison of Marbleliead, in time of peace, is to be 23 men. 

In time of war it ought to be 40 men. 

In case of an attack there may be covered in the fort and citadel two or three hundred men. 

The situation of Marblehead is such, that the works erecting now are sufficient to put the harbor in a respectable 
state of defence. 

There is a number of old guns in the fort which, after being proved, may serve until good ones can be provided; 
there are also four good travelling carriages, and many implements of artillery, which have been deducted from the 
expense contemplated for mounting the artillery. 

The ground was the property of the town; the inhabitants, in a town meeting, have ceded it to the United 
States. The property of a citizen was blended with that of the town, and was necessary for the citadel, and for the 
use of the garrison; it has been bought for the sum of 310 dollars. 

Cape Ann. — On the first of September the fortifications at Cape Ann were begun; the delay is to be ascribed to 
the same cause as above mentioned. , • ., 

The defence of Cape Ann consists of a fort erected on the spot where the fort formerly was, and a citadel 
covering a powder magazine, bomb proof, and calculated for the garrison to live in. 

The artillery consists of six 18 and 24 pounders, mounted on coast carriages, and two 12 and 9 pounders on 
travelling carriages. 

Also a furnace for heating balls. 

The sum granted by the United States was ...-.- $1,423 84 

The Secretary of War has granted an additional sum of - - - - - 600 00 



1794.] FORTIFICATIONS. 77 

This total sum of $3,033 84 is thought to be equal to the expense to be incurred by the works begun. 

The mounting of the artillery and furnace will cost . - . . . $760 00 

The Secretary of the Treasury has granted - - - . - - - 250 00 

Sum to be provided for that object, - - - - - - - $510 00 

The garrison at Cape Ann, in time of peace, is to be of 33 men. 

In time of war it ought to be of 50 men. 

In case of an attack, the militia might defend the fort and citadel, and man a battery at the mouth of the harbor 
with 500 men. 

It is to be observed, that the resources of the three last places, in mechanics and laborers, are so small, that it 
has been utterly impossible, eve» by granting higher wages, to make up for the unforeseen delay above mentioned, 
and it is, therefore, very uncertain whether they will be put in a state of defence before the winter. 

Boston. — The defence of the harbor has, by order of the Secretary of War, been left to be erected at another 
time. 

Upon a general view, the defence of that harbor will consist in fortifying Castle Island and Governor's Island. , 

The repairing of the battery on Castle Island, and erecting in the centre of it a fort, with bomb proof, for the 
garrison, will cost - '"■. ". "..". " " $20,000 

The repairing of the fort on Governor's Island, erecting batteries, and building a citadel, bomb proof, 

and a powder magazine, will cost ------- 6,000 

The artillery will consist, on Castle Island, of 20 pieces of cannon on coast carriages, - - 1,800 

12 pieces of light artillery, or howitzers, on travelling carriages, - _ - - 720 

4 mortars, - - - - - - - -- - 300 

3 reverberatory furnaces, - "." '." " " ■ ^^^ 
On Governor's Island, 20 pieces of heavy artillery, on coast carriages, . - . 1,800 

4 light pieces, or howitzers, on travelling carriages, . . - . - 240 
3 mortars, - - - - - - -- - - 100 

3 reverberatory furnaces, - - - . - - - - - 200 

Implements of artillery for the two Islands, ------ 1,100 

For the armament of Dorchester's battery. Fort Hill battery. Noddle's Island battery, and Charleston 

Point battery, which are to be erected in case of war only, eight pieces of cannon, on coast car- 
riages, - ;■ " " . " ■ " ' " " '^20 
Also four gun boats, with furnaces, for heating balls, •■ - - - -. 3,200 



4f- 



Total, - . - - 36,180 

It is to be observed that there is the number of 300 pieces of good artillery in the ports of Boston; the above com- 
putation, therefore, only comprises the expense of mounting. 

PoRTSMonTH, New Hampshire. — On the 30th June, his Excellency, the Governor of New Hampshire, visited 
the harbor, and has approved of the plan of fortification which has since been executed. 

It consists of a fort of rnasonry and sods, erected on the point where the light house stands, with a citadel cal- 
culated for the garrison to live in, and covering a powder magazine bomb proof. 

The artillery consists of seven pieces of heavy cannon, 42, 24, and 18 pounders, on coast carriages, and six 
pieces of light artillery, to be mounted on travelling carriages. 

Also, a reverberatory furnace. 
The sum granted by the United States is . . . . . . $3,527 34 

The Secretary of War has granted the additional sum of •. . . . 900 00 

$3,427 34 



The total sum of $3,427 34 will probably complete the works, before the winter. 
The sum granted to mount the artillery is . . . . . . • $250 00 

The mounting of a 42 pounder has cost ...... 169 

The probable expense for the others, and for the reverberatory furnace, will be . . 1,180 

Sum to be provided for the mounting of the artillery, ..... 1,099 

The garrison of that fort is to be, in time of peace, of .... men, 23 

In time of war, as that garrison will be left almost entirely to its own strength, and has also to 

watch over the little harbor, it ought to be of . . . . . 200 

In case of an attack, the militia ought to have there . . . . . 600 

The peculiar situation of the harbor of Portsmouth renders any expense for its security, over the sums calculated 
above, almost entirely useless; yet, if any addition were contemplated to be necessary, it would be, to put the fort, 
which defends the entrance of the harbor perfectly well, in a condition to withstand an attack by land. That might 
be done, by covering the side of the fort looking toward the little harbor by a glacis and covered way. The expense 
attending that additional defence may be calcuFated at $2,000. 

A gun boat might also be stationed in the little harbor, for the protection of coasters. 

The ground occupied by the fort is the property of the United States. 
It ought to be remarked, after viewing the state of defence of the seaport towns in New England, that the only ob- 
ject aimed at has been the security of the harbors against an attack by water, by rendering their entrance as danger- 
ous as possible to an enemy, and the protection of the trade in the same, which end is supposed to have been attain- 
ed. Every battery is secured against a sudden attack and surprise, by a citadel, in masonry, almost within reach 
of the bayonet from the guns. But none, except the harbor of Newport, has been secured against a combined and 
regular attack by land and by water. It is, particularly, when the enemy shows a disposition to lay siege to the forts 
above mentioned, that the force of the countiy ought to be turned out against him. 

New London, October 26/A, 1794. S. ROCHEFONTAINE, Engineer, P. J. 

P. S. For any details respecting the fortifications of the several ports alluded to in the above memorial, the Sec- 
retary of War is referred to the plans arid other documents transmitted, from time to time, to the War Office. 



FORTIFICATIONS, NEW YORK. 

Special instructions to Charles Vincent, acting as a temporary Engineer in the service of the United States. 

Sir: 

The President of the United States, considering the importance of New York, from its local situation, and 
the difficulty of fortifying it with small means, is desirous of having the separate opinions of several engineers upon 
the subject. You will, therefore, please to repair to that city, and, if the Governor be present, show him these in- 
structions. If, however, he should be still absent, you will wait upon General Lamb, the collector of the port, 
and request of him a boat and hands to attend you in your inquiries, and he will, also, be so good as to obtain some 
gentlemen to accompany you who are perfectly acquainted with the harbor. In order to assist you in your judgment, 
I transmit you herewith a map of the harbor from Sandy Hook up to the city, 1 1 also enclose you. the estimate of the 
sums which have been appropriated by Congress to this object. 
H m 



$3,737 52 



78 MILITARY AFFAIRS [1794. 

New York, Governor's Island, Twenty-four Pieces. 

The expense of constructing batteries, embrasures and platforms, for 24 pieces, , - $1,727 52 

A redoubt with embrasures, - - - - - - 810 00 

Magazine, • - - - - - - - 200 00 

Blockhouse or barracks, --.... 50000 

Contingencies, ----- i - - 500 00 

Paulus l^oov., Sixteen Pieces. 

Parapets, embrasures, and platforms, for batteries of 16 pieces, 

Redoubt, ' . " , " 

Four embrasures and platforms for do. - - _ - 

A magazine, ...-...- 

A block house, - - - 

Noil enumerated articles and contingencies, - - - . 

3,161 68 $3,161 

■ New York. 

Batteries for several parts of the city, for 42 pieces, - - - - $1,312 50 

The expense of the materials, and executing platforms and embrasures for 42 pieces, at $40 73, 1,710 66 
Three magazines, .------.. 600 00 

Two block houses, or other buildings equal thereto, _ .. - . 1,000 00 

Contingencies, - - - - - - - - 1,000 00 



3,737 


52 


$1,151 


68 


650 00 


160 


00 


200 


00 


500 


00 


500 


00 



5,623 16 5,623 16 



$12,522 36 



Twenty of these pieces may be on travelling carriages, so as to be moved as circumstances might require. 
It will be readily perceived that the amount of this appropriation will not effectually fortify an harbor so circum- 
stanced as New York. But this sum cannot be exceeded, and all your estimates are to be conformed accordingly. 

The works that are the most important are to be pointed out in your plans, and every thing which shall be un- 
dertaken is to form hereafter a part of the general plan. 

The parapets which have been contemplated, have been of earth. It is conceived that, in most places, earth may 
be procured of a tenacious quality, and that a parapet formed thereof, would be respectable, as well for its defence 
as its duration, more especially it it is properly stopped and sodded, and sown with a certain species of grass called 
knotgrass. 

It will depend upon your judgment at what places to have embrasures, or what to fire en barbette with the new 
carriage, such as are used on the sea coast of France- 
It is, however, apprehended, that in all cases where embrasures are necessary, they ought to be framed of 
joist, and faced with two inch plank. Embrasures formed of earth are too liable to be injured- 
It will be necessary that each plan should be accompanied with an estimate of the expense, and pointing out the 
number of cannon required, and also stating the number of men which would be necessary to finish the work with- 
in a given period, say three months. ' 

The batteries which are to be erected on points of land, islands, or other places at a distance from New York, 
ought to be covered or secured by a redoubt, or other enclosed work, in which the garrison should reside constantly, 
either in a barrack, or a strong blockhouse, as shall be judged most expedient. But, in general, as the garrisons 
will be weak in numbers, a block house mounting one or two small pieces of cannon in its upper story will be more 
secure, and therefore to be preferred. These, however, ought not to be much, if any, exposed to the fire of heavy 
cannon. A block house will not contain more than fifty men- If the garrison, therefore, should be enlarged, tents 
must be used. 

The redoubts in general ought to be of a size to contain five hundred men, so as to resist a sudden enterprise of 
an enemy, and perhaps the idea ought to be embraced in the first instance, that they should be of such extent as to 
advnit timber casemates to be erected hereafter, so as to enable the. garrison to resist, in some tolerable degi-ee, a bom- 
bardment. 

But it is not proposed at present to erect such casemates, excepting for a magazine, which must be formed of 
massy tlniber, and be six feet thick on the roof, exclusive of the earth, and jointed and calked in such a manner as 
to be perfectly tight. Care must be taken to have the magazines properly ventilated, and free from dampness. 
They are to be of a size sufficient to hold one hundred and fifty rounds of po\yder for each piece of cannon intended 
to be served from it. The spot at which a magazine of this nature shall be fixed, will requiregreat judgment, so as 
to combine security against an enemy, either open ov subtle, or any danger from common accidents. 

Your judgment will also direct what parts of your works shall be protected by a fraize, and what by palisadoes, 
or whether your redoubts shall have embrasures, or fire en barbette, with small cannon. As the redoubts are to 
cover the batteries, they would certainly secure and resist better without embrasures — the batteries are to annoy. 

The choice of the ground on which the batteries and works are to be erected, with all the combinations and 
eff"ects depending thereon, will rest upon your judgment, under the directions of the Governor. It has not been in- 
tended by any thing herein specified, to point out the particular manner in whicii the works should be executed. 
Outlines only have been given to serve in regulating the expense, which is limited by the sums before mentioned. 
A reverberatory furnace tor red hot balls must be erected for each battery. 

Having finished your plans, you are to lay one copy before the Governor, and to transmit another to me, with full 

details of the reasons for your opinions. It is to be desired that you instantly undertake this business, in order that 

you may be ready to receive further orders, which will be given to you as soon as you shall be able to execute them. 

I enclose you two letters, the one for the Governor, and the other for General Lamb, the Collectoi', who, you will 

please to observe, is requested to advance you one hundred dollars, if you request it. 

, Given at the War Office of the United States, this 1st day of April, one thousand seven hundred and ninety-four. 

H. KNOX, Secretary of War. 



General observations on the defence of the Harbor and City of New Fork, by Mr. Vincent.— New Fork, 1794. 

There is no need of a long meditation on the means of defence to be employed in New York, to obtain a certi- 
tude that they ought to tend only to ensure the safety of the harbor; and this place has no attack to fear from troops 
landed or arrived in the extent of the State of which it is the metropolis. The difficulties to keep the necessary 
communications between an army landed andi ts fleet, the repeated combats which these troops, when landed, should 
have to maintain against men provided with all necessaries, and the number of which would be daily increasing, 
against men defending their properties, with that valor and enthusiasm which nothing but a just and well known 
cause can inspire, offer so many insuperable obstacles, that they leave no room to believe that an enemy will ever 
attempt a landing that could not but prove fatal to him. 



1794.] FORTIFICATIONS. 79 

We can easily form the same judgment of all enterprises from ao enemy already master, of land communications 
with the State of New York, and without supporting our opinion with the glorious events of the late war. number . 
of reasons demonstrate the absurdity of an attempt of this nature, which will never be thought of against this flour- ^•■ 
ishing city. 

We will not, consequently, consider in this moment the city of New York as susceptible to be attacked by an 
enemy, reduced to make long approaches by land, but we shall be taken up with the only thought of ensuring the 
safety of its harbor, which being at this moment entirely open for ships of the first rate, gives too much foundation 
to fear lest an enterprising enemy might come to an anchor in it with very indifferent forces, destroy all defence- ^ 
less merchant vessels, and, at the best, lay the city under enormous contributions. 

Such an unheard of calamity is not only possible, but much to be dreaded at the present moment; and when we 
reflect on the risks one of the finest harbors in the world is exposed to; one that nature, and the social institutions of 
the inhabitants it enriches, leads by long strides to become the greatest and most flourishing; emporium of the two 
worlds; we cannot forbear a sentiment mixed of dread and regret, when we see that nothing has been done yet to- 
wards the safety of a point of such importance, and we feel a pressing desire to see its defence established, towards 
which has proved more generous than we generally observe it to be. 

Effectively, on casting one's eyes on the map, we see that the signal man placed in the light house, can long befoi'e 
hand give notice of the forces discovered by him in sea. Signals agreed upon can give an instantaneous warning to 
all persons committed to the defence of the city and harbor; of the imminent danger, first important advantage to be 
obtained, and would highly facilitate the dispositions of defence. 

Arrived at the entrance of Sandy Hook, tlie hostile ships will have yet twenty miles to run before they can annoy 
the city and the vessels in its harbor, and to how many obstacles is not that long passage subjected.' they must by 
day, and only during high water, follow with a steady attention, and winds infinitely variable, follow a winding 
channel, before to arrive to that part of the same channel where the contracted current increases its rapidity, and 
where the wind leaves generally the entering ships, and abandons them to all the means of defence so easy to 
establish in that part.* 

If we suppose the first difficulties presented by nature to be conquered, and they cannot be so without subject- 
ing the enemy to a great loss, when art will join its resources, it is, we think, out of doubt, that the new obstacles 
laid in the enemy's way, by means of^ the islands so happily situated in the river, will oblige him to give up any 
idea of forcing the entry of the port, or will be at least sufficient to make him repent his- temerity, if he should dare 
to attempt it, what we cannot believe. 

Having thus delineated a ti'ue picture of the numerous advantages offered by nature for the defence of New 
York harbor, we will immediately enter into particulars on what additicms we think art ought to make to it. 

One should, in reading this, have constantly the map before one's eyes, as we have it in writing; after having, 
however, sufficiently reconnoitred the ground. 

There is no doubt but the soonest one may annoy the epemy attempting to force the entrance Of the harbor, the 
best it will be; and this idea creates naturally a desire to establish crossed fires on the narrow entrance of the chan- 
nel, ahead of Sandy Hook; but the difficulties and expenses arising from constructions exposed to an open sea 
which must be terrible at certain times, combined with the hardships a garrison exposed in the middle of the waves 
and difficult to provide, should be subjected to. have led to think, that on a channel of such length, and presenting 
such good positions, though more approached, it would be better at the present moment to establish nothing ahead 
of that point; it will be advantageous, however, to have at Sandy Hook's tower, two pieces mounted in battery, the 
use of which will be to give the signals agreed upon, these signals will be repeated by Stag Stake Fort, and succes- 
sively by Beedle's and the city. 

By means of these signals, the city and the defences, whatever they may be, will be readily informed of the mo- 
ment when the hostile ships will enter Sandy Hook's bars, and the first obstacle destined to oppose them in the 
narrows will be ready to be displayed in all their latitude. 

They will consist on the left shore of the battery, served as well as all other ones to be constructed, with red 
hot balls, and mounting fifteen pieces of the largest caliber on coast carriages, having their motions in the horizontal 
and vertical plans; to these fifteen pieces will be added four ten inch mortars for this battery, the gorge of which 
will be slightly shut, as it ought to be commanded and fully seen by an earth redoubt to be established on the steep 
shore superior to it; this battery will besides be founded on the rising ground advancing two hundred fathoms in 
the narrows, and covered only with five or six feet water at low water; it seems useless to say tliat the use of this 
battery and of the redoubt will be to procure crossing fires on the channel, by means of the batteries placed on the 
opposite shore; two pieces on field carriages should also be placed on the lowest point of the same left shore, where 
the passage widening forms the beginning' of New York Bay. These two pieces, which would discover the whole 
bay. might be protected by a second redoubt, which being connected with the first hyaline well traced, should 
form a kind of entrenched camp, where might repair the militia troops, if, against all likelihood, the enemy should 
attempt a landing in York Bay to come and take the batteries. This act of temerity should lay him under the ne- 
cessity to master the entrenched camp, which would give a considerable advantage over him, for nothing can be of 
greater moment than to cause the enemy to lose a precious time, during which forces may be collected to complete 
his destruction. 

We think that the means of defence, to be established on the left shore of the Narrows, can be reduced to what 
we have mentioned; and although we have spoken of two redoubts, a joining line to form an entrenched camp, it is 
easily understood that this powerful means of defence is no way necessary at this present moment, and even'that 
until the low battery be established, it will be sufficient to erect earth batteries, which may be constructed with 
very little expense, and in a short while, on the steep shore, the elevation of which is far better adapted to the de- 
fence to be obtained than the level of the sea, that will always expose such low batteries to all shots directed below 
the horizon, either by the enemy, either by our own batteries of the opposite shore; these shots making generally 
ricochets with great success; but the establishing of the low battery, shortening by two hundred fathoms the distance 
of the files, we have thought it our duty not to neglect the advantage. 

Having spoken of the defence to be established on the left shore of the Narrows, we shall now take in considera- 
tion the right shore, which is much more interesting on account of the vessels coming much closer to it, driven by 
the currents, and endeavoring to avoid the advancing high grounds. 

A battery mounted with fifteen pieces of the largest caliber will be established in Sandy Bay, above the level of 
the highest tides, its gorge will be shut, and it will have four mortars and flanks, mounted" with two four pounders 
to defend it. 

Above this battery and the steep bank, will be erected Fort Stag Stake, covering the inferior battery, and form 
ing very advantageous crossing fires with those of the opposite shore; it will be, besides, connected by a covered 
way with a redoubt to be erected on the extremity of the steep bank, where formerly stood a block house. Mortars 
will be placed in the covered way joining the fort and redoubt; this last will be defended by six pieces of the laro^est 
caliber. These mortars, combined with the defences already designed, will complete the protection necessaiy'for 
the channel in the narrows; but as it is prudent to calculate all possibilities in cases of such high importance, we will 
suppose that the enemy should attempt a landing in order to master the right shore's defences. This determines us 
to propose to occupy by a red(iubt the heights ot Cherry Hill, connecting this redoubt with Fort Stag Stake, by a 
double covered way, traced with intelligence, and seizing, by another covered way, an important ground below Fort 
Stag Stake, which is susceptible to receive a number ot men sufficient to oppose any enterprise of the enemy on 
Staten Island, the object of which might be to possess the defences therein established, or what is not so likely to 
attack the city and harbor. 

Thus, in our opinion, should be ensured the defence of the right shore of the Narrows; the intrenched camp we 
have mentioned, useless for the present moment, might be of veiy little expense, and present to the militia of the 
island a point of rendezvous, which the enemy would not, without danger, leave behind. 



80 MILITARY AFFAIRS. [1794. 

Of all these works, the most urging ones are also the plainest; the block house redoubt Fort Stag Stake, and the 
intermediate batteries, should be constructed immediately. These first defences would cost but little; and, com- 
bined with those established on the opposite shore, might already present a very respectable opposition to the 
enemy. 

Supposing, however, he might succeed in forcing this first passage, he should find new obstacles on approaching 
Bedloe's Island, situated so as to face the channel, and whose tires might cross, with great advantage, those of Go- 
vernor's Island, and concur with those of Oyster Island; a new battery should, consequently, be erected on that 
Island, mounted with six pieces of the largest caliber, and two mortars- 
After Bedloe's, and on the same side of the channel, we find a very low Island, (Oyster Island,) which'its 
proximity to the city, to Bedloe's and Governor's Islands, renders infinitely precious; it will be necessary to place 
there the same defence as on Bedloe's Island, making use of coast carriages; the right hand shore being protected 
in this manner nothing will be wanting to its defence. 

Considering now the left hand shoi'e, of which there is but one point occupied in the narrows, it will suggest 
the necessity to bestow the greatest attention in forming a solid protection on Governor's Island, the happy position 
of which can procure crossing fires with most of the points taken on the right hand shore, being equally distant 
ti'om Bedloe's and Oyster Islands, and the city, with which it is possible to obtain crossing fires on the entrance of 
East river, where should, probably, retire all the riches of the harbor, should the coast come to be attacked. 

This point will be consequently the object of the nicest attention; it will be occupied by at least twenty pieces 
of the largest caliber, and four mortars, the whole distriibted with cautious knowledge. 

All the works to be made in Bedloe's, Oyster Island, and Governor's Island, will be ot'Iittle cost; the execution 
of them may be undertaken immediately; they cannot be ordered too soon. 

The defence of the channel, established as we have expressed, we think that no fleet should ever undertake to 
force it; and we are of opinion that there would be no subject of fear on account of the town; this will dispense 
from seeking to add to the proposed works batteries, connected with the place; the surest effect of similar establish- 
ments would be to draw the fire of the ships; and, should the enemy be so far advanced as to beat on them, the 
city would run the risk of being destroyed; the object of defence would be frustrated, and there is no sacrifice but 
v/ould seem of no consequence to avoid such a calamity. 

It is then in front of the city that we must look for its defence, which seems to be assured by the means of the 
works designed along the channel; but, should it here remain, yet some fears, which nothing but the importance of 
the object might justify, we might propose to anchor, ahead betwixt Governor's and Oyster Islands, an unsubmer- 
sible floating battery, that might combine for its defence all the advantages of land batteries, such as red hot balls, 
and other defensive resources. Such batteries would be lasting and of little expense in this country; they appear 
even the most natural means to be employed for the protection of the United States' harbors. The advantage which 
these ambulatory forts enjoy, by being able to be removed from one place to another, and to give a good covering to 
their defenders, should entitle them to a particular preference from a country abounding in wood, and whose popu- 
lation is not advanced. Sucii a battery should be armed with ten guns and two mortars, and might also serve as a 
fixed point for a chain, shutting any portion of the channel starting from Oyster Island. This caution, by straitening 
the entrance of the harbor, should render more efficacious the means of defence, cumulated on that part of the 
channel left free for the navigation. 

We shall limit there the means of defence we judge convenient to propose for the city and harbor of New York, 
deeming unnecessary to take greater cautions against ships which, having forced the channel, would attempt to 
burn the vessels retired in East river. We are too much persuaded of the impossibility that the enemy should ever 
come so far; and, when we reflect on the risks that same enemy would be exposed to, should, after a check, con- 
trary winds force him to remain a prey to all the means of destruction that might be directed .against him, we 
cannot believe that the city and harbor of New York will ever have anj thing to dread from an hostile fleet. We 
cannot, however, disapprove the idea of many persons, which, considering all the riches of the harbor cumulated in 
the East river, propose to erect another battery east of the public work, and joining the city so as to have crossing 
tires over the entrance of the East river with batteries of Governor's Island. 

Having thus given a general idea of the means of defence, which seem convenient to a point that ought, undoubt- 
edly, be looked upon as one of the most important in the Union, we will endeavor to collect, in a general table, and 
at one view, all that we have deemed necessary to undertake, in order to ensure to this harbor the security conve- 
nable to the most magnificent emporium of the universe. 



New York, the 10th of ber, 1794. 

Excellency: 

Being always in expectation of one answer to my two last letters, I see, with great uneasiness, coming the mo- 
ment at which I must deliver to the commissioners, for the fortifications at New York, my plans and memorials- 
relating to the defence of the harbor. I am in the opinion that it is my duty to submit every thing- to your appro- 
bation; and, in order that you may more easily explain your idea, and to be better understood, I have prayed the 
Captain Pray, who has been always busy about these works, to bring to you all my papers. This brave and very 
intelligent man thinks himself very happy in taking this opportunity to present to you his respects. I have request- 
ed the Captain Pray to be here the 20th of this month, the appointed day by the commissioners for the communica- 
tion of ray papers; and I am under the greatest necessity to pray you to send me again every thing but what is re- 
lating to West Point; and I will observe to you that, upon the memorial relating to the Fort Clinton, I have made 
one important addition concerning the objection offered against my pr6ject. 

It is my duty. Excellency, to remember to you, that I want your approbation for being able to go on upon the 
model proposed tor the floating batteries. You will find in the papers one plan and one memorial upon this impor- 
tant subject, which I recommend to your particular attention. 

One memorial, relating to the formation of one body of artillery, for the defence of New York, is also in the 
papers, and is, perhaps, worthy of your exanien. 

I work every day. Excellency, so much as possible, for being able to answer to the high commission, and surely 
to the high commission with which I am honored. I am every day helped by the gentlemen employed with me; 
and, nevertheless, I see very much to do yet for giving every thing relative to the great project of defence of this 
harbor. We continue what appears to me the most important; and, as I ' think you want to have one copy of 
every general plan, we shall be very busy till the spring, which must begin for our works as early as possible. 

If any plan should appear to you more proper to be sent again to you, one copy should be taken immediately, 
according to your orders, which I hope to receive by the Captain Pray. 

I am, with the highest respect. Excellency, your most obedient servant, 

VINCENT. 

Secretary of TVar. 



1794.] 



FORTIFICATIONS. 



81 



a 9- 



S^ 



H Q 



OT C — .= .3 

«-^.| 2 s 

^ .-^ m C 

^-S =s "" fe * 
•£ 0) e-^ beoj 

g.|j|i| 

SI'S £ s»S 
< H 



-^ QJ <U O 

*^ i--d S 

3 g^ 2 O 

s «-_, 

O P ' O 
« bJoS 



c £ "> ^ e 
o ^ — «j 



o o o o o 



^ CT -" 



bjoS.-s --c 

1. « P -C 

3 £ ,- • - 

<2 c >, s 



-2 fi.^ g 

° to -r^ *■ 

Ml. g g ,,._ 

=c.S S S S « 





y 


5 o 








^m X 


,.& 




oil 


btf 


•-Co 
, c 


^•^?, 


^ 5P 


^"^c 




OJ 3 


i^i 


^ o 






o e 


t».bJO 
























• -2'^ 


-S:-S 


o<5 



£ a 



3j; ?^-*^Xl 5 = 

• '^ S « — -2"^ -l:^!>^ 

- P «— 3 a ^.b.a 

QJt>,o-f02St.^— ' 

■ .S CV, ^ "o .2 " - 



S^lj— ' 



"S-° bjog ^ bjo^-3-S 
i2= c^ o c >>-2 P 
_ =a £ en's P S u E 

Oto-'-g«<«J3ffC' 

HOO OC <! 



O C 



-a . . -S 





rf 


2515 "^fe 




j= 


^.B S5 




..i^ 


"SI*' IS "J 




^ 


n b 
s of 

the 
flag 








r^ 


B 


■■s E t: "S 3; 






SS^-S-s-o 


.? 


S 


B^jaa§ 








S=S 




S « M— t^ 


Jl! 


IS 


com 

thth 
flag 
sma 
yba 


wijcJ 


-S 




ijopq 


H 


H HHc« 



Q-§ 



■S^ ^ ^5 



f^\; ^^ ^ js 



HH «■ 00 



>>xi 



• xO ■ 




u a 












'^l 












ty0"O 








i^l 






-^ ^^ rt 






^ • 


.a g »= 


a ^ 


0, a) 












j55g 


^% 




2.5 

!U-£3 








bJO"S h P 


00 


3*:= s. 




?i|l0 






hH 







JZ* 












-^H 


!i: 


yj^, 


*^ 


tiM 


> 


^^ 






0. 


s> 










j: 


X 
















^ 


'ii: 


"S 




3 


X 


s= 


a 













.^j, 




3 


41 



C-B 

a a 

3 
^ s 

1U.2 



o-C 



OJ o 



cr! 


Ol 


£= 


bD 




!^ 








!S 


^ 


4) 




B 






>• 








tU) 








= -2 5^ 
till 

OJ 0) .»^ 

■■§Mi^.2 

» 0.0) , 

o « « s 

g o j^ji 

1 =="£ 5 
Sg|« 



82 MILITARY AFFAIRS. [1794. 

FORTIFICATIONS, PHILADELPHIA, AND "WILMINGTON, DELAWARE. 
Instructions to Peter Charles VEnfant. 

In pursuance of the directions of the President of the United States, you are hereby appointed a temporary 
engineer for the purposes of fortifying the ports of Philadelphia and Wilmington, upon the river Delaware. 

You are therefore immediately to proceed in the execution of this business, under the general directions of the 
Governors respectively of the States of Pennsylvania and Delaware. 

The following is an extract of the estimate on which the appropriations of the fortifications have been founded: 
For Mud Island and Philadelphia, - - . . $11,913 8-2 

For Wilmington, .... s^oOO 00 

The propoitions of expense therefore must not be exceeded. But everything now undertaken must be completed 
and be considered as the parts of a more general, perfect, and permanent plan, to be hereafter executed; provided the 
sum now appropriated should prove insufficient, which is highly probable. 

It is presumed that the completion of Fort Mifflin, at Mud Island, will be considered as the first object to be 
undertaken in Pennsylvania. The works to be erected at Wilmington, in the State of Delaware, will also require 
immediate attention in order to be put in a train of execution. 

It will be perceived, by the lowness of the estimates, that the parapets of the works to be erected are in general 
to be of earth, or, where that cannot be obtained of an adhesive quality, the parapets may be faced with timber and 
filled in with earth. A parapet, however, formed of tenacious earth, is conceived not only to attbrd a solid defence, 
but even to be durable, provided it be properly sloped and sodded inside and out, and sown with a species of grass 
called knotgrass, so as to bind the sods and earth together. 

Your judgment will decide where to have embrasures for your batteries, and where to fire en barbette, and also 
where to have tlie common garrison, and where the new carriages to fire en barbette, at present used on the sea 
coast of France. 

You will also direct what part of the works shall be protected by palisadoes and what by fraizes. 

It is conceived to be essential that all batteries which are erected on islands or points of land at a distance from 
support ought to be protected by redoubts or other enclosed works, and that such redoubts ought to be secured by a 
block house, where the garrisons, which in ordinary cases will be but small, ought constantly to reside. 

In the construction of the redoubts, or enclosed works, they ought in the first instance to be constructed so as to 
contain a res^pectable garrison, suppose five hundred men, and casemates ought also to be contemplated in the con- 
struction, although they will not now be erected. 

It has also been contemplated in the estimates that the magazines should be formed with timber, and five or six 
feet thick on the roof, so as to resist a heavy shell. This thicKness is independent of the earth which may be placed 
over the timber. These magazines ought to be well ventilated, so as to be entirely free from dampness, and of a size 
to hold one hundred and fifty rounds of powder for each {)iece of cannon. 

The spots at which magazines of this nature should be fixed will require great judgment, so as to combine security 
against all enemies, either open or subtle, and against common accidents. 

A reverberatory furnace, of the best construction, in order to heat balls red hot, must be erected for each battery. 

These are general ideas, but are not to constrain your own judgment, excepting as to the limitations of the expense, 
which, as before mentioned, must not be exceeded. 

The choice of the ground on which the batteries and works are to be erected, together with all the combinations 
and efti^cts dependent thereon, will rest upon your judgment under the directions of the Governors. 

All the plans must be accompanied with sections and elevations, so that a complete judgment may be formed 
thereof, an estimate of the expense must also be formed of each work, and the number and size of the cannon 
intended must be specified. One copy to be given to the Governor, and one transmitted to this office, to which 
also you must weekly report your progress. 

Your requisitions for labor and materials must be made upon — ; , who is appointed by the Secretary of 

the Treasury to account for the sums to be expended at Philadelphia, and upon , who is appointed for the 

same purpose at Wilmington. 

Given at the War Office of the United States, this 3d day of April, 1794. 

H. KNOX, Secretary of War. 

Copy of a letter from Major L" Enfant to the Secretary of War. 

Philladelphia, nSpril I9th, 1794. 
Sir: 

Much consideration being requisite in combining a fortification, especially when the safety of a capital city 
is the immediate object, I cannot but wish for time to mature my ideas on the subject; and seeing what grand sys- 
tem of defence the protection of a fort on Mud Island will require, and, independent of which, a stand at that spot 
cati give no kind of security, your opinion being to determine my process, the following notes I conceive necessary 
to facilitate your judgment of the principle on which to direct my labor. 

First, Viewing the situation proposed, I find, that however spacious as the fluid surface appears to be, the breadth 
of the ship channel is sufficiently narrow, and can be absolutely commanded over by the cannon from Mud Island; 
that batteries erected at A, under the defence of a fort B, would play right down the stream over the width of the 
river; that they would batter in front, every vessel coming up, and do more damage, in proportion, to the crowding 
of sail. No position would be safe to stand by tliem. and the batteries easily covered from the land side, the garri- 
son being perfectly secure, the fort may be expected to make a steady defence. But that its defence should be ef- 
fectual in stopping a navy, on this I will observe, that the great object of an expedition rendering of no consequence the 
loss to which a daring attempt may expose, a fort standing alone may easily be passed; and, as a variety of circumstan- 
ces would here occasion some additional forts, to render the attempt to force the pass impracticable, it becomes a ques- 
tion, whether some other position in the river may nit be found more eligible to make the establishment.'' But, 
until I shall have acquired all tlie information I need to support an opinion in the affirmative, looking upon Mud 
Island as the spot determined upon, the only method I see of making it answer the object, would be, to take advan- 
tage of a bank, to erect a second fort at C, the defence of which would co-operate with those of Mud Island, as 
may easily be seen on the small sketch of the river to which these notes have reference; that bank only three or 
four feet under water, easily to be \vharfed, no inconvenience being to result to the current with which this bank 
runs parallel, the measure would prove most beneficial, and the trust which I place in its effects makes me desirous 
it may be first attempted. 

The situation alsu, D, would be important to secure as well those at G, E, F, where batteries under the cover 
of Red Bank, and of another post at H, would much annoy a shipping engaged with the forts, as was experienced 
last war from a battery at F; protecting one another, these batteries would see down the river as far as would the 
defence of Mud Island, and of the fort C; they would procure a cross fire all the way, but especially above the 
forts; there it would become such, that no vessel should ever venture through, especially as having first to steer 
close between the two fires A and C; these different batteries successively to be passed should leave no safe position 
to repair a damage sustained. 

With this, the greatest possible security would be ensured to the city of Philadelphia, and without need of che- 
vaux de frise, an expedient which once might have been commendable, but which, for having in a manner succeed- 
ed, should not, however, be thought necessary at this time. In no case whatsoever, I would not advise the sinking 
of any of them, being well convinced, that more embarrassment would ensue to trading navigation, and more injury- 
be caused by the necessary alteration which'it would occasion in the bank and current, than there can be benefit 



1794.] FORTIFICATIONS. 83 

derived from; all considered, every such means are mere expedients and contrivances, subject to accidents in their 
accomplishment at the moment when danger is near, and they are too precarious a protection tor a nation to rest its 
safety upon, and ought never to be made a consideration in the delineation of a plan for fortification, the grand ob- 
ject of which should be to ensure perfect security, with a little trouble, and with as few military as possible. 

All kinds of forts, and most particularly one as intended, ought then to be made capable of self-defence, and 
should be so situated as to check alone the progress of an enemy, in a country especially where militia being the 
main body to muster from, much time is required before troops can be assembled and marched. Too much atten- 
tion cannot be paid, to make all fortifications capable of standing against a vigorous attack, and v.henever this can- 
not be done, it is better not to have any, as by becoming useless they must prove greatly prejudicial. 

Guided by these reflections, and considering that the defence of a pass on which the safety of the city of Phila 
delphia depends, is of an importance, as must make the expense attending the accomplishment of an effectual plan 
to defend it, a trivial consideration, although, endeavoring to restrain the works, as may be first begun, within 
the limited sum granted by the Government, 1 could not, in viewing the situation of Mud Island, confine my la- 
bor immediately to the contriving of a figure for a work, the combination of which, I perceived, demanded a pre- 
vious investigation of the particular circumstances of the opposite shore, and some-reflection on the manner of attack 
possible to be carried against; independent of which consideration, any fortifications as may be erected there, will 
ever stand a mere mock of defence. 

Far remote from the sea as that situation is, it is certain, that no attack will ever be made, unless it is a very 
determined one; and, viewing the precedent of the manoeuvres of an army by a circuitous march to take possession 
of Philadelphia, cannot establish a probability of such an attempt being renewed under the present circumstances 
of the country, all grand operations must now be first directed toward gaining the pass for shipping, which, conse- 
quently, would determine an operation against the defence of Mud Island, or of any other situation in the river, on 
a very different principle than was once carried on there in 1777. Taking, however, that expedition under consi- 
deration, the result of my inquiries about, and the observations I have made on the proprieties and inconveniences 
of a stand so circumstanced, convince me, that in addition to the work above mentioned, as necessary for the defence 
of the ship channel, others will be wanted to cover and protect these. 

The cover of a regular fortified post, to command over Province and Carpentei's Island, will be wanted suffici- 
ently,; spacious to admit, as the occasion may require, a good garrison, and made strong to support regular ap- 
proaches and hinder them from being carried directly against the forts on Mud Island, where they may still easily be 
advanced on the island below, which is but the consolidated part of the same mud bank on which the fort would stand. 

The small sketch may show the situation where this post should be fixed, the figuration of the work being left 
undetermined until a proper survey of the country round has been obtained — whether in the manner of a horn, or 
crown work, must depend from the manner of the establishment on Mud Island, which it must cover, and by 
which it ought to be defended. 

Some difficulties will be, to continue the work on the island a regular one, the solid part being too narrow to 
admit of square forts, whose line of defence it would render too short; an inconvenience would also arise from 
crooked lines, these being always defective, for a situation easily to be surrounded, as half of the circuitous line 
must inevitably be seen in the flank and rear. Wishing to avoid this inconvenience, and to procure a larger front 
of fire over the channel, I would determine upon the position of the battery as at A, which will show the advan- 
tages of that direction over that of the old forts, the remains of which cannot be any way serviceable but my mak- 
ing use of the materials. 

N. B. The defect of that old fort, not only lay in the configuration of its line of defence, which, as General Du- 
portail weir observed, are too short for mutual protection, but its situation is altogether so ill judged as to be enfi- 
laded from every point from whence an attack is the most likely — a disadvantage m no manner remedied by the im- 
provement proposed by that officer, who surely did not see the situation with a proper attention, or he must have 
observed, that no part of the addition which he planned would have been more secure than the old; no work, indeed, 
would be possible to contrive making the old one serve, which could be made a stand even against a few gun boats 
in the west channel; necessarily then, rejecting all idea of connecting any new work with the former one, I would 
establish the forts and batteries back of the wall now standing, making this serve as a cover, until the work is suffi- 
ciently advanced to mount the batteries, after which it would be pulled down, making the stone serve the construc- 
tion of the principal forts. 

As to what relates to the construction of the batteries and forts, the island being mostly overflowed and of a soft 
clay bottom, it will necessitate to some expense to lay on a solid base in logs framed in the manner of a grate under 
the whole, with a kind of upright framing to receive the platform; observing that, however temporary the object of 
the batteries now to be made may be, the time of which they may be of use, perhaps distant, may render them then 
out of repair, and consequently useless, or that being ever so near at hand, a detect in the superstructure being to 
accelerate their destruction, their object would be unanswered, and the confidence placed in them being disappomt- 
ed, the sparing of proper materials and of the labor should, in both cases, be dearly repaid by the loss of valuable lives, 
and the disasters attending a weak resistance. 

I have the honor to be, &c. &c. 

P. CHARLES L'ENFANT. 



Copy of a letter from Major V Enfant to the Secretary qf the Treasury. 

Philadelphia, September 15, 1794. 
Sir: 

After all possible exertions on my part, to progress the fortification at and near Mud Island, and however 
attentive I have been in confining the extent of my operations to the limited sums assigned for, it is with the greatest 
concern I am to inform you that those means, by proving too small, have long since torced me to relent of the pro- 
gress; they are at present so far exhausted, that, unless you can procure a sufficiency of supply to continue the work 
for two months longer, the whole must stop before any part is brought to that state of perfection necessaiy to be 
guarded against winter, and answer to some object of defence. 

In endeavoring to obviate the consequent injury which I saw must result from leaving what is done in a state 
still imperfect, and apprehending no new supply could be procured, since last supplementary sum obtained has it- 
self proved much less than what I had been led to expect from General Knox's own promises, I determined upon 
an expediential step, that of soliciting, through the Governor of Pennsylvania, the necessary assistance from the State. 
This measure, and the information I gave to a committee of the House at their visit on the island, and at two subse- 
quent meetings on the business, determined a report agreeable to my wish — a sum of six ^/towsanrf dollars they 
granted as an advance, leaving the manner of repaying it to the next Legislature to determine upon, and also refei"- 
ring to the same, the consideration of what would be proper to do respecting the cession of the island to the United 
States. This was the purport of the bill this committee proposed, and, on another part having obtained the concur- 
rence of some of the members the least disposed to favor federal measures, I judged that but little opposition would 
be made to the bill; in this hope, however, I have been frustrated by the sudden adjournment of the Legislature, 
■who confined their labor to the consideration of the few bills which the Governor, in haste of leaving loivn tvith the 
militia, pointed out as the most essential for them to pass. Left by this disappointment in the same dilemma of diffi- 
culties as had induced my application, the prosecution of the business solely now depends on what you can do", and 
in soliciting you to give me immediate directions, I must beg, before you determine on the arrest of the whole of the 
operations, that ye« will consider the consequences, giving a due attention to the particular statement, herein en- 
closed, of the actual situation of the several parts of the work that is engaged in conformity to order of April 27, and 
29th ultimo. 

I have the honor to be, &c. &c. 

P. CHARLES L'ENFANT. 



M MILITARY AFFAIRS. [1794. 



P. S. The enclosed statement of the progress ofthe work on Mud Island, I would beg you would, after perusing 
it, and when may be convenient, return it to the Board of War, as, in the hurry of business, I have had no'time to 
keep a copy. ' 

Mr. T. Francis, who sent me the sketch ofthe account, by which there appears, September 22d, a balance in his 
hands of Sl,618 66, wanted immediately to stop all operations- I have requested him to wait until I receive your 
directions, and hope you will favor me with them as immediately as possible. 



Philadelphia, September 25, 1794. 

Statement of the progress made at the several parts of the fortifications, begun at, and near, Mud Island, in the 
river Delaware, agreeably to order of the 27th, and 29th April last. 

Works on the Middle bank east of Mud Island. 
After the many contrarieties experienced, both in procuring the necessaries, and in effecting the sounding, and 
laying ot the work in the water; out of two ofthe several cones and caissonswaoss which are to be made the base to 



than expected, and this has necessitated the application of more timber, and greater quantity of stones and iron, 
with the means of which, the work is still only raised level with the low water line, under which it must continue 
to sink gradually, until it can be fastened to the next pile, now secured from the drift, but waiting to be sunk until 
a sufficiency of supply of lumber and ot stone can be procured, so as to render the operation safe, and admit of its 
bein" raised as fast as it will sink, and until it is made steady, and brought level with the first part. 

When these two piles are connected together, they will form the base for half of the front ot the fort, but as this 
half lay on the declivity of the bank and toward the main current, it can never be well secured until the other half 
is completed, as may well be judged of from the small sketch of the section of that work hereafter expressed. 

Vk.ni=.....^..-...........==iy,,.„,™..„„..„ ^^ 

Low water line 
Main channel of the river. 




References. 

A — Bank of mud and sand. ^* 

B — Cone first sunk, and how it sunk for want ofthe support C. 

b — Additional work to keep it to the low water line. 

C — Caisson that has been detached and is necessary to sink to fasten the part B b. 

D — Other half, which will absolutely secure the whole bank within the frame. . 

The situation ofthe part B will show the absolute necessity of sinking immediately the pai't C, and of fastening 

both together, raising the whole'above the high water line, as expressed by the dotted line else, that, by laying 

asit does, close to the main current, it may give way under the pressure of floating ice, and slip down into the channel, 
which cannot be apprehended when raised above high v/ater, the banking of any body of ice all round being in no 
way dangerous, the deepest part of the frame running parallel with the bank, and with the current. 

Works upon Mud Island. 

The new grand battery extending towards the main channel, under cover of the wall parapet, is but progressed so 
far as to have the wharf, which is its foundation, completely raised on an extent of about 700 feet, sunk in a depth of 
from four to fifteen feet, partly in the mud and partly in the stream current. Behind this a large esplanade is formed 
over the deep swamp, opposite to the old barracks, filled in to the height of the wharfs, level with the high water 
mark; which left this part to be raised, all over, to about three feet more, (making allowance for tlie natural settling 
of new made ground,) before the parapet can'be raised and the battery properly mounted; now, the guns being only 
laid along side the edge of the wharf to forward its settling. 

The next work is the old wall ranipartof about 290 yards long. Of that wall,, the remains ofthe old fort, 160 yards, 
has been banked inside, ready to form a parapet and rampart platforms; the whole about forty-five feet broad and 
on an average ten feet high, which left this part about seven feet still lower that it ought to be to mount tiie cannons 
upon. Adding to this, a portion of a line ot intrenchraent, which is just beginning, on an extent of about 140 yards, 
but which is yet one half below the height it is to be. They altogether comprehend all what has been attempted of 
the plans approved of, for the improvement of the fort on Mud Island, and the construction of the new one intended 
upon the middle bank. 

The manner how the whole has been directed, determining the greatest progress in all the part most difficult to 
come at, and which would be impossible to attempt at a moment of imminent danger, will show that I have been less 
anxious to make a show of progress, flattering to the eyes, than eager in bringing forward those parts on which, I 
consider, the good defence ofthe place most particularly depends. On another part, I considered, all the parapet I 
could raise, being made of muddy clay, must, however well rammed down asit is, alter in their shape, in proportion 
as the whole will settle down, that glacis and level of angles must deface, as long as the watery substance is not 
fairly expunged, from within, and this being not to be expected, but after the winter has passed over. It therefore 
becomes economical to delay, until the spring, to sod and slope properly the whole. 

Giving this sketch of the situation of the fortifications at, and near, Mud Island, 'nothing having been attempted 
but that was of necessity to perforin; if, notwithstanding all possible economy, the provision made proves unan- 
swerable, to a proper accomplisliment of what is begun, before the bad season comes. I think I need not say any 
thing more of tlie circumstances, by which those funds at disposal have proved insufficient, than calling to memory 
the great inconveniency, under which the operations were conducted, at a place destitute of every comfort for the 
hands; lay open to all accidents ofthe season, uncommonly bad in the months of June, July, and August, when ex- 
traordinary freshes and storms greatly injure the work and caused an increase of labor which could not have been 
foreseen nor avoided, having had successively to repair tiie extensive bank round the Island; to build new sluices; 
open new drains; and to dig over and over again all ditches; without which the whole Island must have been over- 
flowed; the whole work upset, and the laboring hands, with the garrison, reduced to the most unhappy situation. 

P. CHARLES L'ENFANT. 



Copy of a letter from Major L* Enfant to the Secretary of War, dated 

Philadelphia, May 16, 1794. 
Sir: 

Complying with your directions, I repaired to the State of Delaware,' and in my way to the Governor, first 
took a view of the situation at Wilmington. 

That place well sheltered, by nature, against a navy, as may come up the river, I found need but of a small bat- 
tery to have its harbor protected. 



1794.] FORTIFICATIONS. 85 

Two situations oft'er for that battery, which may be said to be equally advantageous, if considering only the na- 
vigation through Christiana and Brandywine creeks; the one at A, at the confluence of these two canals, the othei\, 
lower down at B, rightly at the mouth) of the main branch; but as the object of a post, as intended, can only be 
to guard the merchantmen and store, in the confined harbor of Christiana creek, from insult, the situation B, is the 
only eligible — its advantage over the other would be, its gieatest vicinity to the grand channel of the river, over 
which the post there, would keep a good look out; while the battery may play over the wide surface truly, not as to 
stop, but greatly incommode a vessel, which it would necessitate to keep aloof from that shore. This post would be 
out of the reach of the commanding ground at Wilmington: it would be more independent from that town, and its 
garrison better trained there to military duty, by having sorties sent out to patrol over the space C C C, over which, when- 
ever a suspected vessel lay in the river, it will be essential to keep a good watch, because it is to be observed, that 
an attempt to burn the shipping, or plunder the stores, lying at D D D, must be made that way, the navigation througli 
the creek, even if it should be left without a battery, being not safe for such an attempt, as after the alarm is given, 
the inhabitants mustering behind the bank all along the meander of the creek, would easily prevent the going back 
of any boats, or armed vessels; this consideration, and that of the particular circumstances of the ground H H H. 
east of the Brandywine and Christiana creeks, down to the river shore, convincing me of the perfect security oi 
that side, I would view a post erected at A, as absolutely useless. The British, it has been objected, had a redoubt 
erected there last war, at A a, which to some people is conclusive, that that must be the situation; to this it need 
only be observed, that that redoubt was to close the right of a line of defence from the height, north of the town, all 
along, and fronting toward the Brandywine, from which side they had to fear, and nothing to apprehend from that, 
C C C being master of the river, a circumstance which, now to be absolutely the reverse, would necessitate in case the 
post at A should be insisted upon to extend that post, crossing it over the Christiana creek, and establishing a strong 
redoubt at F, to master those marshes, partly covering the space C C C, the difficulties of passing which, thought by 
the vulgar a great security, it is well known of all partisans are the weaker of defence, must always become a mean 
to favor their design. 

The next of my inquiries carried me lower down the river; much had been said to me of the pass at Eagle point, 
which the Governor of Delaware had been solicited to represent to the Federal Government, as the most eligible 
place for a fort; and, knowing he had declined making the representation, under expectation I would make it my 
business on my arrival at Newcastle, I engaged one of the stage sloops ; and in company with the proprietors 
of the land about that point, together with a number of captains of vessels, I proceeded immediately to the sounding 
of the river, first across the main channel, and coming upon the Pip ^sh; a bank forming an island opposite Eagle 
and Reedy Points, continued the sounding along side of that bank, oft times goingacross and back again, and reach- 
ed Reedy Island, thence coming back, sounding close to the main shore, until out of that pass; which the operation 
proved to have a channel much wder, and more free, than had been imagined; this well satisfied the persons the 
most desirous of seeing a fort erected there, that it would not answer the object; a single fort at the point surely 
would not be a defence. Nevertheless, looking upon that situation, with the one opposite, upon the Pip Aslj Island, 
it cannot be questioned but that pass may be well armed, and that proper works erected there would protect the 
whole river back; there being no other pass but a shallow channel east of the Pip ^sh, and running close to it, the 
width of the river toward Jersey being barren all over. With respect to the self security of the works, on these 
two points, this would be greater than in any situation I have observed, considering the distance of the Jersey shore 
would not admit of any battery to be erected, against a fort on the Pip Jish, and that the one at Eagle Point, lying 
at the end of a long and narrow neck, which requires a circuitous march to take possession of, would be guarded 
against regular approaches, the undertaking of which would be a tedious and difficult operation. 

The perfect security which the protection of that pass would ensure to the whole river, and to the several harbor 
towns on its shore, being an object fully to compensate the expense of erecting proper works on it, although the 
means at present inadequate, as they are, to the accomplishment of those temporary works, determined upon, can- 
not indulge me in the idea that these shall be undertaken at present. I could not but wish to ascertain myself the 
propriety of that situation, of an importance, in my opinion, not to be lost sight sight of, when the means of the 
country will render the undertaking practicable. 

Many other observations could be made on the propriety of different situations for look-out forts, on the east and 
west shore of the Delaware, and vvhere small batteries may g-reatly distress a navy; as, for instance, at a point 
opposite Wilmington, close to which the main channel runs, and every large vessel must pass. These means of dis- 
tressing an enemy in a river, the navigation of which is so liable to be invaded as is that contemplated, can never be 
too much multiplied; and, adding to those look outs, gun boats, or rowing galleys, I question not but the river would 
be effectually defended against all small naval expeditions; the facility now, the most contemptible of privateers 
will find to plunder or lay under ashes those stores and vessels lying at Chester, Marcus Hook, and Newcastle; 
but places more immediately accessible than is Wilmington, being inviting them to the attempt, I cannot but ex- 
press my opinion, they ought to have been the first to protect; eacn of them are most susceptible of being well de 
tended with batteries at the head of wharves prolonging out in the river, and post on the shore; they would become 
as many defences to the river itself. Newcastle, in particular, should be provided for; not because of its great com- 
mercial interest, which I conceive rather limited, owing to the back navigation carrying the country produce another 
way, but because of its importance, when militarily viewed, that place being an essential point in that grand chain of 
posts for garrisons, which should be combined together, from the southward to the eastern States, all along the coast, 
as well as on the back frontiers. 

This situation, Newcastle, is most happily circumstanced to be made strong, and to unite all what is requisite, 
a grand ";arrison. Many situations across to the Chesapeake head would be proper stands to entrench for detached 
.corps, which would shut up all passage through that neck, whose protection requires also some strong establishment 
on Sassafras river and at Turkey point, the particular circumstances of which places I could not take upon me to 
survey, finding these were out of the limits of Delaware; their immediate importance, however, to, and connexion 
with, the defence for the protection of the States of Delaware and Pennsylvania, should annex them to that district, 
which would lessen the inconveniency which must necessarily result from carrying on the fortifications in each dis- 
trict, independent of each other, in lieu of determining its situation and force from the consideration of the relation 
which a spot may have with, and the assistance it may give or receive from, those in other States. A manner of pro- 
cess the only economical and secure in the establishment of fortifications, when intended to defend a grand fron- 
tier, and an exclusive sea coast; for which, to adopt a general system, should be first laid down; a proper survey of 
every situation ought at first to have been made, connecting these in a general map, and determining thereon what 
nature of fortifications may be necessary, with respect to the population of the States, and the habit and disposition 
of the people, on whose exertion and support those defences may depend. 

Finding that no ground at Wilmington had yet been purchased, and the Governor of that State wishing some 
time to consider, and determine upon the appointment of a proper person to conduct the work, he understanding 
that the cannon for the fort proposed, could not immediately be had; no inconvenience being to result from a little 
delay in beginning it, I agreed with him, that after sending him the result of my observation on the propriety of 
the situation, I should determine that I should wait for his answer, and his appointment of a day for me to meet 
with him, and proceed according as may be judged most eligible. Doubting not he will communicate previously 
with you on the subject, I shall esteem it a favor to obtain your opinion on the propriety of the foregoing observations. 



From Major D Enfant to the Secretary of War, dated Philadelphia, 2d July, 1794. 
Sir: 

The Governor of Delaware's answer to two of my letters, coming into my hands on the very evening after I 
received your notification of the 30th past, I thought most expedient before I go and meet with him, to answer in 
writing to his objections, and to the reasons whicn he gave to cover the motives of the opposition made by the 
12 m 



86 MILITARY AFFAIRS. [1794. 

inhabitants of Wilmington, respecting the emplacement T have designated, to fortify upon. The copy of this answer 
I here enclose to you, for your consideration of the circumstances that determined my choice. The next post will 
probably bring me the Governor's final determination, and I shall accordingly proceed on as you direct, provided 
no new difficulties occur, which I greatly apprehend. Major Bush's late communication to me, contains some 
reflections which have been cast upon me, on a misrepresentation of the motives actuating me, which, I trust, those 
who know me will consider as insulting as it is unmerited; but this is but an account of the profit of office. 

For some time past the work at Mud Island has acquired a pretty close attention, and as we are now on the 
point of sinking part of the grand wharves, on the middle bank, which is about framing, and staked out in the 
water, being possibly necessitated to go there at the moment's call, unless a purchase of the ground as shall be de- 
termined at Wilmington, is actually effected, so that the work may be set about immediately, my repairins; there 
can be no advancement to the business, and will rather interfere with the more important work of the forts nere. 



Frotn Major D Enfant to the Governor of the Stale of Delaware., dated Philadelphia, 1st July, 1794. 
Sir: 

It will perhaps be needless tor me to enter here more largely than I have done before, on the merit of the 
situation I liave chosen to erect fortifications for the defence of the navigation to Wilmington; since, after what 1 
have already said, the objeccions made, and the expressions of your letter of the 28th ultimo, most fully convinces 
me, no arguments ever so demonstrative of the error of the opposition I meet with, will persuade contrarily to the 
determination apparently taken to force the establishment on that situation, suitable to ?ome of the inhabitants of 
that place, to the hazard of its proving useless, and thereby becoming detrimental to the interest of the United 
States. . . , . , 

However determined in my choice, as I have been from two important considerations — the immediate Fscurity 
of the navigation to the place, which the law directs— next, that of making the establishment small, as it may be 
susceptible of serving for the protection of the Delaware shore, I indeed but little expected the difficulties I now 
encounter, and wishing to evidence the principle actuating me, it becomes necessary I sliould answer to your objec- 
tions, with that freedom the candor of my intentions authorize. You say, sir, " the work necessary to be erected 
where I determined, must be attended with much greater expense," &c. Without asking how this has been ascer- 
tained, but presuming from your own observation, you speak from a computation of the difference of a free labor, which 
you say the inhabitants are willing to perform, provided the work is erected where they wish it to be, meaning 
apparently by this, that their assistance cannot be expected where I propose. I must first observe this would have 
but little weight witli me, because the works intended having a permanent object, would better be constructed by 
proper workmen carrying it on gradually, tlian to have recourse to tliose expedients of mustering the citizens at 
lar"-e, which may do well at a moment of immediate necessity; when circumstances may require those works to bq 
ma^e complete. Admitting that what I propose may cause an excedent of expense as you imagine, it may be 
answered, that by the situation of the work that expense would in a manner prove a saving to the public, for reason 
of the double use the work would then be, while affording the most effectual defence at the entiance of Christiana 
creek. The circumstance of the situation you must surely not have attended to. When speaking of the other you 
say " that place being fortified will command all of both the creeks, which the lower place won't do, except the 
very mouth of Christiana.'''' Is not, sir, that the first entrance of the Brandywine creek? and of all other small 
branches whose mouths lay far up.^ and is it not, consequently, that by securing the very mouth of Christiana, I secure 
all other branches of navigation, the same as by shutting the street door of a house, one may leave the inside door 
open, without fear of robbery? I mentioned that fixing a post at the mouth of that creek, would make the battery 
play over the river, &c.; and in your endeavor to lessfen that advantage, you observe, "the main ship channel ran 
tar olf;" but you do not consider how, in the defence of that channel with galleys, gun boats, or the like, that fort 
would facilitate the manoeuvres of such vessels— how it would permit their keeping in the river before any haval 
force by assuring them shelter and protection, without the bar of the creek, up of which stream in fault of these, 
such vessels must seek a retreat, with the danger in their way of being destroyed from behind the bank, or at least 
blockaded in, so as to become absolutely useless. 

Another misjudgment of the circumstance of the spot which I propose, is evinced by your apprehension of the 
"round all round being easy to inundate, " difficult to reinforce with militia in case of alarm or emergency;" " nay'" 
say you, " impossible if an enemy should land below, and cut down the bank, whereby the whole work would be 
covered with water." Certainly this must be a mistake, being constant that the best security for all fortified posts 
is, that facility of laying the country round under water— an expedient which an enemy would rather dread, and 
endeavor to prevent, than be eager to facilitate, as this would be shutting himself the way to conquest. That by 
layin" all the low ground under water, " would make it difficult and impossible to reinforce or to supply the fort, ' 
is not" better founded, seeing evidently that the navigation from the town down, by the facility of the creek, can by 
no exertions whatever, be impeded, and that the way on the summit of the banks each side of the creek, only made 
more secure by the marsh being inundated, no army could cut oft" the communication to the forts under such cir- 
cumstances as you may suppose. . . . , ,„ „ r • Li . X , ., . 

With respect to salubrity, you object "the situation is remarkably unhealthy." 1 might also contend this, ob- 
serving that the bottom of the meadow, on that side of the creek, is rather more, raised than on the other; that it has 
<'ood springs of water, and a number of habitations close by the bank, whose inhabitants look as healthy as in other 
places. In short, if we were to listen to the opinion of the concerned on either side, we would have heard that 
the situation at Wilmington is the most feverish of the two. This can only argue, that, where a jealousy amongst' 
settlers (loes exist, but little confidence can be placed in their opinion on such subjects. It may, therefore, be wse to 
conclude, from the nearness of the two places, only separated by a stream 300 yards wide, as also from the sameness 
of the circumstance of the ground each side, no difference in point of health can exist, such as can argue contrarily 
to the good reasons I have stated to make the establishment at or near the mouth of the creek, where it may become 
of some service while at- 

The place at the rock a fort can in no manner serve, but as a dead show of defence, as, although that situation 
sees and commands over both creeks, as you mention small boats may, notwithstanding, pass, stealing away undei 
cover of the bank, unnoticed by the garrison, this, and the consideration that a serious attempt against the mills 
at Brandywine, or against the shipping in Christiana harbor, cannot reasonably be made through that way, it is to 
be concluded, that a battery then will only answer for a salute, and to afford an afternoon diversion to the inhabi- 
tants of the town. That this should be an object with many, if I may judge from the reasoning which I have heard 
on thesubject, I believe it, especially since what you mention of an objection to the fort below, being " its remote situa- 
tion, which would render it inconvenient to the inhabitants." For their repairing there I must own I see no frequent 
necessity, nor indeed conceive the advantage, even in the case of an enemy being near: for a fort, to be answer- 
able to its object, should be made capable of defending itself, without need of external corps of troops to protect 
and cover it, as you seem to contemplate, by way, I presume, of removing any objections to the commanding heights 
back of the situation of the rock, saying " it is the business of the militia to guard and defend these heights, which, 
I make no doubt, they will do against any forces that may attempt," &c. 

I doubtless confide as much as you do in the courage of freemen to defend their rights and privileges; however, 
I must confess I am apprehensive the efforts of a militia would be fruitless on such a call. Besides, it is to be no- 
ticed that none of the works at either place contemplated can protect the town; that, in case of a serious attack, 
the town must, of necessity, fall the first; and, as the only advantage then which can be expected from this fort 
is, that, by shutting the navigation of the creek, it would cut off a communication between an enemy possessing the 
town and the shipping in the river, it needs but a moment of consideration to be convinced, that the only eligible po- 
sition is at the very mouth of Christiana creek, since being no more in power to place your militia so as to defend 
the rock, a work of whatever strength, then must fall with the town. 



tr94.] FORTIFICATIONS. 87 

The foregoing being meant to show the propriety of my insisting upon the choice I have made, I trust you will be- 
lieve I am determined to this from a sense of my duty, for you will doubtless consider, that, although I am to act 
under your diiections, yet the expressions of my instructions being to the following purport: " the choice of the 
ground, together with all the combinations and eft'ects depending thereon, will rest upon your judgment," I become 
responsible for the consequences of yielding inconsiderately, or through courtesy, to opinions contrary to those 
which I entertain. 

Proceeding, in all my operations, independent of any influence but that of a warm and sincere wish, by all my 
might, to promote the general good, while I point out what I truly conceive the only expedient means to secure the 
main object of general defence, and give immediate security to the place which the law directs, I would sincerely 
regret to see a party spirit oppose my steps, if by arming the prejudices of an uninformed multitude, it should suc- 
ceed in raising a jealousy against operations on which depend the peace and the "preservation of the blessing of that 
liberty we so long have contended for. 

To conclude, should you still insist on rejecting the situation I propose, for that which the inhabitants of Wil- 
mington wish, in opposition to all the reasoning condemning the measure, it will be necessary you will, by a positive 
injunction to me to proceed accordingly, remove from me all the responsibility, taking upon yourseU the conse- 
quences. 

Should you. on the contrary, as I hope you will, agree with ray choice of the spot near the mouth of Christiana 
creek, I should wish that measures may be immediately taken to etfect the purchase of part of the ground which I 
caused to be surveyed, extending the lot so as to include the principal, if not the whole, of the rising ground, form- 
ing a kind of island in the meadow; the small house, as it stands upon, would serve as a barrack, which would be en- 
closed in a fortified redoubt, which would cover, with great advantage, the battery on the bank below. From the 
certified disposition of the proprietor to sell, no difficulties can arise on that score, and as to the expense, this 
would be greatly compensated by making the house subservient to the purpose of a garrison, and, also, by the saving 
in raising a parapet out of solid ground, which would not occasion any thing like the expense at places where it would 
be necessary to bring the dirt from a distance. In the interim of these operations, and merely to convince the in- 
habitants ot Wilmin^on, I wish, as much as may be consistent with a sense of my duty, to make every thing 
agreeable to them, I would erect a small battery at the rock, which need not be enclosed but by a palisade, making 
the small house then serve as a barrack. 



FORTIFICATIONS AT BALTIMORE, MARYLAND, AND NORFOLK, VIRGINIA. 

Instructions to John Jacob Ulrick Rivardi, acting as temporary Engineer in the service of the United States. 

In pursuance of the direction of the President of the United States, you are hereby appointed an engineer for 
the purpose of fortifying the ports and harbors hereinafter mentioned, viz. Baltimore, in the State of Maryland 
Alexandria and Norfolk, in the State of Virginia. ' 

You are, therefore, immediately to repair to the ports to be fortified, in the said States, respectively, and, in case 
the Governors should be near any of the said ports, you are to wait upon them and exhibit these instmctions; but, if 
the Governors should be at any considerable distance from your route, you are respectfully to notify them of your ap- 
pointment, enclose them a copy of these instructions, and inform them that you have repaired to the ports aforesaid 
in order to make the necessary surveys and investigations relatively to your mission, which you will submit to their 
consideration, and take their orders thereon. 

As soon as you shall receive their approbation of your plans, you are to construct the works and execute them 
with all possible despatch. 

The following is an extract of the estimate on which the appropriations for the fortifications have been founded; 
the proportions of expense, therefore, herein stated, for the said ports, must not be exceeded, viz. 

Baltimore, 28 pieces. 

Parapets, embrasures, and platforms for batteries, for 28 pieces, . . . . $2 015.44 

A redoubt, with four embrasures, ........ 'sioioo 

Two magazines, ......... 400.00 

Block house with barracks, ••...... 50o!oo 

Contingencies, . ....... 500.00 



$4,225.44 




Garrison to consist of 1 subaltern, 2 sergeants, 2 corporals, 2 musicians, 24 privates. 

Norfolk, 24 pieces. 
Batteries, embrasures, and platforms, ... .... 

Kedoubt, with embrasuresj ........ 

A magazine, ..... .... 

Block house or barracks, . . ' . 

Contingencies, ..... .... 

$3,737.52 
Garrison to consist of 1 subaltern, 2 sergeants, 2 corporals, 2 musicians, 24 privates. 

Alexandria was inserted by the Legislature, and not contained in the original estimate, it is, therefore, at present 
to be fortified with works for twelve pieces. 

It \A\[ readily be perceived, by the lowness of the estimate, that the parapets of the works intended to be 
erected are to be of earth, or, where that cannot easily be obtained of an adhesive quality, the parapets may be 
faced with strong timber, and filled in with such earth as can be had. 

It is, however, conceived that, in most cases, earth may be procured, and that a parapet made thereof will not 
only form a solid defence, but even be durable, if the earth be tenacious and properly sloped and sodded inside and 
out, and the seed of knotgrass sown so as to bind the sods and earth together. 

It is, however, apprehended that the embrasures, made in this manner, would suffer from the explosion of the 
powder from the cannon, and that, therefore, where the batteries are not en barbette, that the embrasures ought to be 
framed vnth joist, and faced with plank, of two inches thick. 

Where the batteries are to be erected on points of land, islands, or other places, at a distance from the towns 
intended to be defended, they ought to be covered or secured by a redoubt, or other enclosed work, in which the 
garrison should reside constantly, either in a barrack or a strong block house, as shall be judged most expedient. 
But, in general, as the garrisons will be weak in numbers, a block house mounting one or two small pieces of can- 
non in its upper story will be more secure, and, therefore, to be preferred. These, however, ought not to be much, if 
any, exposed to the fire of heavy cannon. A block house will not contain more than ifty men; if the garrison, 
therefore, should be enlarged, tents must be used. 

The redoubts, in general, ought to be of a size to contain five hundred men, so as to resist a sudden enterprise 
of an enemy, and perhaps the idea ought to be embraced, in the first instance, that they should be of such extent as 
to admit timber casemates, to be erected hereafter, so as to enable the garrison to resist, in some tolerable degree, a 
bombardment. 



MILITARY AFFAIRS. [1794. 



But it is not proposed at present to erect such casemates, excepting for a magazine, which must be formed of massy 
timber, and be six feet thick on the roof, exclusive of the earth, and jointed and cauliced in such a manner as to be 
perfectly tight Care must be taken to have these magazines properly ventilated and free from dampness; they are 
to be of a size sufficient to hold one hundred and fitty rounds of powder for each piece of cannon intended to be 
served from it. The spot at which a magazine of this nature shall be fixed will require great judgment, so as to 
combine security against an enemy, either open or subtle, or any danger from common accidents. 

Your judgment will, also, direct what parts of your works shall be protected by friezes, and what by palisadoes, 
or whether your redoubts shall have embrasures, or fire en barbette, with small cannon. As the redoubts are to cover 
the batteries, they would certainly secure and resist better without embrasures — the batteries are to annoy. 

The choice of the ground on which the batteries and works are to be erected, with all the combinations and 
works depending thereon, will rest up; n your judgment, under the directions of the Governors. 

It has not been intended, by any thing herein specified, to point out the particular manner in which the works 
should be executed. Outlines, only, have been given to serve in regulating the expense, which is limited by the 
sums before mentioned. 

Some person, in whose ingenuity and industry confidence can be placed, will be appointed, at each of the said 
ports, to superintend the actual execution of the works, according to your directions. Arrangements will also be 
made by him, or some other person, to obtain the necessary workmen, implements, and materials, which will be 
required in (his business; but every thing must be previously estimated and calculated by you. 

Although the business, herein entrusted to your charge, is, in itself, of an highly honorable nature, and strongly 
evincive of the confidence of the President of the United States, and which would, probably, enhance your reputa- 
tion, yet it is explicitly to be understood by you that the employment is only temporary, and not conferring or involv- 
ing any military rank whatever. 

For a compensation for your services and personal expenses, you will be allowed and paid at the rate of four 
dollars per day, while you shall be employed. For all reasonable extra expenses, such as necessary boat hire, and 
persons to assist in your surveys, you will be allowed; but for these you must keep regular accounts and take 
receipts- 

You are to deliver to the Governors copies of all your plans, suryeys^soundings, &c., and also transmit copies of 
the same to this oflice. You are also to make a weekly report to this office of your proceedings. I have issued my 
warrant, in your favor, for two hundred and fifty dollars, as an advance on account of your compensation and per- 
sonal expenses. 

As it is conceived that the case of Norfolk is the most pressing, you will stay no longer in Baltimore than is 
necessary to inform the Governor, mark out the works, and leave the execution for the present to Captain Strieker, 
or some other person whom the Governor may appoint for that purpose. 

You will please to give every necessary direction or advice relatively to the mounting of the cannon at those 
places. I have written to Captain Strieker at Baltimore, and the Governor will appoint some person for Norfolk. 
Colonel Fitzgerald, of Alexandria, may have the superintendence of mounting the cannon at (hat place. A rever- 
beratory furnace, for hot balls, must be erected for each battery. 

Given at the War Office of the United States, this twenty-eighth day of March, 1794. 



H. KNOX, Secretary of War. 



Copy of a Letter from J. J. U. Rivardi to the Secretary of War, dated 

Baltimore, ^pril 13, 1794. 

Sir: 

I had the honor to receive, yesterday night, your letter of the Uth instant. I hasten to answer it, and to commu- 
nicate to you my plans for the fortifications of Baltimore; they were drawn in the greatest hurry, but are suffi- 
ciently exact to convey a good idea of the spot, its advantages, and its defences. 

The point of land represented in the small map, accompanying the plan, is about three miles from town to its 
extremity, where the old fortifications are placed; the branch of river, which extends itself to Baltimore, and forms 
the harbor, has hardly one hundred and twenty perches breadth at the entrance, where there was a chain, during 
the last war, as is marked in the map; the points, marked A B, indicate the opening left for the passage of vessels; 
the water is deep enough there to admit a frigate. There are two banks, expressed by dotted lines, which render 
it impossible to any vessel of some burthen to sail in any other direction but that dotted on the map; a direction 
which presents the broadside to the front of the lower battery. 

You will please to observe, that every work, which I propose, is expressed in the paper with yellow color; there 
are three parts to be attended to in the works exhibited in the plan, viz: the lower battery. A, B, C, the upper bat- 
tery D, E, F, and the star fort G. 

The lower battery's greatest defect, in point of construction, is, that a vessel, after having passed the upper reel, 
can with ease pour its broadside in the side of the guns; this enfilade is prevented by raising the epaulement, 1, 2, 
3, wliich affords, likewise, sufficient room to pursue, with a sure fire, a vessel which should have succeeded in pass- 
ing; whereas the battery, in its present situation, must be abandoned, as soon as a vessel, even of a few guns, passes 
the point. The salliant angle B, is totally undermined by the water, and partly fallen down, in such a manner that, 
without having recourse to an expensive pilotis, there is no possibility to do any thing except to bring the line, B, C, 
back to 4, 5, and B, 4, to 5, 6; by that method the direction of the fire is not altered, and there is still space enough 
for the free management of the artillery; the height I, covers the battery on that side, and the ground round it is so 
commanded by the upper works, that the enemy could derive no advantage from it. That lower battery can con- 
tain twenty guns, whereas there were only eleven formerly, by a bad idea that it was better to have more in the 
upper works. I think it will be indispensable to have a beam ot" two feet to the battery even if the embrasures were 
faced with timber or saucissons. The communication from the lower to the upper works, was from 1) to H. but it 
has been destroyed by some persons who transformed the whole of the spot, together with the ground intended for 
the powder magazine, into a deep pit, by digging for red ochre. I propose, therefore, to bring the whole of it to a 
gentle slope, in which it will be easy to cut a road for the cannon, the lower battery will then be commanded by the 
redoubts, which formerly could not fire a single bullet into it. 

The upper battery commands the lower one very imperfectly; being too near of it, considering its height and the 
necessary thickness of the breastwork, it will be necessary to take away a good deal of its ascent, otherwise, the 
epaulements, indispensable for its protection, would be of an enormous and very expensive elevation. Six guns can 
be conveyed to the lower battery, as five pieces in embrasures, and three or four on frame carriages, will be quite 
sufficient, the latter to be on the line D, E, and the embrasures as marked in the plan; that upper battery had the 
same fault of the lower one, viz: to have its rear completely open from the town side, so that a vessel, in intelligence 
with the enemy, would silence the whole of the guns, after having sailed down the river as far as the point O. In 
general, a small body of men, landing in boats any where on the western side of the point, might with ease, in the 
present state of things, penetrate wherever they should think proper, and spike the guns. 

The only and the cheapest method I could contrive to secure the whole of the woiks, and to establish mutual 
defence, is to continue the epaulement, D, in E; then to project a line, E, F, tertninated by the redans, F, G, H; 
by that method we obtain a well directed cross-fire on the land side, the defence of the river is increased of the 
flank, F, G, the upper battery is sheltered, and we obtain a commodious space, well covered, for the barracks and 
magazines; the ditch running before the breastwork, E, F, G, H, communicates with that of the redoubt, drains the 
ground, and forms a barrier round the works. 

The Star fort never was entirely finished, and the greatest part of the ditch is filled up with the earth of the para- 
pets; that kind of redoubt, always bad in itself, (the'fires being oblique, and the salliant, as well as the entrant 



1794.] FORTIFICATIO-NS. 39 

angles, indefensible) is rendered stillnioreso,thepei'pendicularof construction being one-fourth, instead of one-tliird 
of the side of the polygone; the only method by which it is possible to render the place able of a good defence, is to 
construct the two small bastions, J and K, in small pieces, en barbette, on travelling carriages, would defend, by 
their fire, the whole breadth of the point; all the entrant and salliant angles, but two, would be perfectly flanked; 
a powder magazine could be constructed in the bastion K, as it is the dryest place in the whole point, the platform 
itself serving as a bomb proof. I am sorry the mail, which closes to night, forces me to be more laconic than I should 
be on that head, but the inspection of the plan will supply any further explanation. 

There ought to be, on the opposite shore and close to the chain, a small tele depont, or, what would be better, a 
square redoubt, to prevent any boat from destroying the chain in the night. I would have it slightly constructed, 
and to hold only a couple of small four pounders, that the enemy could make no use of it against the lower battery. 

I think it would be highly necessary to have immediately a couple of carriages made, if it was only to have' the 
pieces examined and tried, which I would like to see done before I go. I shall, with the greatest pleasure, give 
every necessary direction on that head, as soon as I have your positive orders, and shall likewise, in a few days, 
write down what carriages should be requisite for the ditferent works. 

It is evident that the sum allowed by the Government, is entirely insufficient, even to repair the old works, and 
to erect the necessary buildings, platforms, carriages, &c. ; but I have been assured, that the militia will turn out, 
and give all possible assistance. The sum above mentioned will then be sufficient for materials, carpenters' work, &c. 
I shall want 1,280 feet solid timber, for the facing of some part of the works, at one shilling a foot; 1,400 palisadoes 
to freize and palissade the berm and ditch of those two sides of the redoubts which are not flanked, besides the ne- 
cessary timber for facing the embrasures aiid covering the platforms; much will be done by the citizens of Mary- 
land. General Williams is absent, and is in such a bad state of health, that he is not expected to return. Lieu- 
tenant Dodge seems to be an active man, and well cajculated to forward the execution of the business; but I wish 
a man, understanding the geometrical part of the business, could be now and then consulted during my absence. 
There is one Mr. Francois Gardy, who is perfectly competent to that business, and who, with very little encourage- 
ment, would attend when it would be necessary. I have sent to-day my plans to the Governor, with all the neces- 
sary explanations, and shall have the honor of communicating to you his answer as soon as I receive it. I ima<''ine 
the best method will be, to begin by the barracks, to go on then with the lower battery, and to proceed in the order 
the importance of the works vvdl dictate. I shall repair to Norfolk as soon as I am at liberty to go. I do not know 
even it it would not be better to sail there first, as in twenty-four hours I could easily perform that journey by 
water, and when I should be ready for plans I could then go to Alexandria. 

Please to inform me how many guns you intend to send down to this place, and what calibre, and likewise what 
cjuantity of ammunition. Mr. Dodge mentioned to me likewise, that he did not know yet when he could receive the 
funds for the purchase of mateiials. I crave again indulgence on account of this very neglected letter; my hurry, 
and my quality of a foreigner, will, I hope, be sufficient apologies to entitle me to it. 



Copy of a letter from J. J. U- Rivardi, to the Secretary of War, dated 

Baltimore, ^pril 20, 1794. 
Sir: 

Having received two days ago letters of the Governor of Maryland , expressing his ful 1 satisfaction of the plans 
which I proposed, I drew immediately the lines on the ground, and prepared drawings and sections on a large scale, 
for the superintendent of the works; 1 think, therefore, that nothing can delay either their execution, or my jour- 
ney to Norfolk, for which place I set off to-morrow by the packet. I shall take the liberty now to state to you the 
demand for tools and materials which I delivered to Lieutenant Dodge, viz: 

For the barracks.— A frame forty feet by sixteen, five thousand feet of one inch plank, one thousand feet one 
inch_and one quarter ditto, four thousand shingles, nails, and the necessary hinges, window frames, &c. 

J'or workmeii's tools. — One hundred shovels, thirty pick -axes, thirty-six pickets, seventy wheel barrows, a hun- 
dred fathom line- 

Workmen. —Si-x. workmen for the barracks, and six journeymen for the fortifications. I signed that first demand 
the 15th April, 1794. 

The second demand is for two gins, with their blocks and falls; for one crowbar; and for an addition of six work- 
men. It is signed the 19th of Aprd, 1794. 

I gave, besides, an estimate of the necessary materials for platforms, embrasures, &c. as follows: 

For 32 platforms, requiring, each, 125 feet of oak timber, one foot square, and 261 feet of oak plank, three 
inches and a half thick. Squared oak, 4,000 feet; plank, 8,352 feet. 

For 28 embrasures, each wanting 166 feet of two inch plank, 4,648 feet. 

For the guns. Eleven garrison carriages for 18 pounders; four garrison carriages for 12 pounders; six travelling 
carriages for 12 pounders, and two after trains. One travelling carriage for a 6 pounder, if it bears trial. 

' " "^ ' " - • - ^^ their 



constr 



I gave the necessary directions for the carriages, and Mr. Dodge will contract for the wood necessaiy t 
struction, as they will then be much cheaper than the pattern which I had made here. I saw one eighteen 



poun- 



der inounted yesterday, and showed, myself, how to try it. The company of artillery of the town offered their 
services for trying all the other pieces in the same manner. In general, it seems that the citizens are disposed to 
give every possible assistance; so that I hope the whole plan will be executed for the sum allowed by the Govern- 
ment. I directed the superintendent to proceed immediately with the lower battery, as the most important, and to 
mount the cannon, as the platforms and parapets are ready for their reception. The first letter I shall have the honor 
to write to you, will be dated at Norfolk. 1 beg you to depend upon my diligence, and believe me to be, with the 
utmost respect. 

Copy of a letter from Major Rivardi to the President of the United States. 

Norfolk, Uh May, 1794. 
Sir: 

I take the liberty, for the first time, to address your Excellency concerning the difficulties which I meet, in 
the performance of the task you did me the honor to entrust me with. I found, in Baltimore, the situation so ad- 
vantageous, the soil so proper for fortification, and the zeal of the inhabitants so (avorable to my purpose, that, after 
having given the necessary plans, I left the place with strong hopes that the works should be executed for the sums 
allowed by Government for that purpose. 

At my arrival here, I found an extensive coast, requiring multiplied points of defence; a soil, loose, without the 
least adhesive quality; the people, though disposed to assist with all their power, much less numerous than at Bal- 
timore: and I compared, with great concern, the sums allowed for the latter place and Norfolk. 

I tried the ground, and find it is unavoidable to support it with an interior revetment of bricks or fascines. I 
should prefer the first as durable, particularly as the thickness of the ground before it will prevent any ball from 
penetrating deep enough to endanger the soldiers fighting behind; twelve hundred dollars would very likely be suf- 
ficient to obtain that end. 

Were it on a business in which the safety of the country and my honor should not be interested, I should say 
that it is possible to regulate the works according to the given means; but, in the present case, I should highly blame 
myself if any thing was left undone, so as to afford an excuse for a bad defence hereafter, or an occasion to accuse 
me of ignorance or neglect- 



go MILITARY AFFAIftS. [1794. 

Since my arrival, public money has been expended only for the purchasing of materials and tools, the labor being 
done almost entirely by the public. Governor Lee's exertions and indefatigability have removed almost every ob- 
stacle which I undoubtedly should have experienced had he not been here as soon as myself. 1 crave your Excel- 
lency's consideration on that subject, and can assure that nothing shall be done but what will be strictly necessary. 

J. J. U. RIVARDI. 

Copy of a letter from Major Rivardi to the Secretary of War. 

Norfolk, June 24, 1794. 

My occupations, since I had the honor to write to you last, have been so numerous, that it was impossible for 
me to send the plans which accompany this letter sooner. I jiope you will excuse their not being followed imme- 
diately by a chart of Elizabeth river, and by that of Craney Island. Having no other instrument but a plain sur- 
veying compass, without telescopes, I am under the necessity of multiplying my operations ad infinitum, and very 
often to omit minute details which would nevertheless be useful in a map that is to be consulted for marches, &c. 
Should it be possible to send me a theodolite, I would consider it as a very particular favor. 

The two plans whicli I have the honor to submit to your inspection will lose much by not being accompanied by 
a map to show their exact situation and distances, together with the direction of the channel in its whole extent. 
I sliall, however, try to explain the matter as much as it is possible, and in a fortnight I hope to remedy what should 
remain obscure by sending the necessary plans and a chart. 

Fort Nelson is situated on a small point of land, projecting from Portsmouth side, in Elizabeth river, nearly 
opposite Norfolk, and within point blank shot of it. It commands the wiioleof the harbor, as well as its entrance. 
The letters in retl, abed efg li i, show the ancient lines of Fort Nelson, (the magistrate only is traced, and the fol- 
lowing were the principal faults of construction:) 

1st. The line c d, aftbrded to the pieces mounted there, a direction out of the mid-channel, as it appears by the 
inspection of the dotted line, 1 1, whereas, the present direction m rn, from the new line C D, co-operates effectually 
with the battery A B- To obtain that direction, I was obliged to construct the flane B C, which covers the face of 
the opposite bastion. The said flane would have been greater if I had not been forced to consult the line of the 
highest tide, which sometimes raises to the counterscarp. 
2d. The line e/ was not flanked. 

3d. The redans ef g, offered too acute a salliant angle, the side f g, was both too short and too oblique to flank 
the line g h. 
4th. The side h i, makes too obtuse an angle with i a, to flank it. 
5th. The line a b was without any defence whatever. 

6tl). The whole terreplein of the fort was so very high above the level of the sea, that no part of the interior of the 
fort was safe at a very short distance of the breast work. The foundation of the windmill, which served as a pow- 
der magazine, was entirely open to the shot. I was obliged to sink the whole terreplein considerably; the four large 
traverses serve now as a very good shelter, and even as an entrenchment to secure a retreat. They had another ad- 
vantage, that of employing a vast deal of ground, which should otherwise have been removed- There is not a part 
of the terreplein, at the present time, where the men will not be perfectly covered by the works. 

Having examined the faults of the former fort, I shall beg leave to state the objections which, at first sight, could 
be made to the present construction: 

1st. A B, C D, and I H, are the only flanked sides towards the river? the lines DE, E F, FG, GH, not deriving 
the least defence from each other. 

2d. The entrant angle G, might have been omitted, as well as the salliant angle E. 

Without entering into every reason which led me to prefer that form, I shall only observe, as for the first objec- 
tion, that, from C to F, the best form to give to a battery, would have been apart of a circle, or an arc of about 120 
degrees; but as a courbe can never be flanked, I preferred making the angles D and E; and, in order to cover them, 
I constructed a kind of caponiere, leading through the ditch to a place tl'armes, which flanked sufficiently these 
lines; for it is plain that this is the last place where a landing, in order to form an attack, would be attempted. D is 
also covered by the flank a ?;, E by the caponiere 4, 5, 6. 

With respect to the angle G,itisso very obtuse, that it little differs from a straight line, which could not have been 
obtained without diminishing the side F E, and carrying H I more inwards, as the ground before G is too low to 
admit of its being brought forward. In short, in fortification of the works fronting a river which offers no landing 
but out of gun shot, the chief intention of the lines towards the water must be entirely directed towards rendering 
the navigation as difficult as possible, disposing the guns in such manner as to bear upon the mid -channel through 
its whole extent; the mutual defence of flanks and sides is a rule from which an engineer may then depart, though 
he never can do it when he constructs towards the land side. The batteries A B C D, aftbrd an excellent cross- 
fire with the batteries J K and A B of Fort Norfolk; the guns from D in F bear then upon the vessels nearly at the 
distance of a musket shot. 

Towards the land, or Portsmouth side, the entrant angles S T V, N M L, will appear at first a singular innova- 
tion, but the advantages derived from it being considered, they will, I hope, be considered as an useful one. If two 
simple bastions had been constructed, the faces towards the water could not have been flanked, and the shoulder, or 
angle de I'epaule, would either have become too acute, or the flanked angle would have fallen in B, which would 
have been intolerable. The only side in the whole fort, which is not immediately flanked, is L K, where the saillie 
is managed. As it is impossible, however, to attack it in front, without passing under the fire of the flank R Q, and 
of the lines N M, M L, it is sufficiently protected. 

With regard to Fort Norfolk, the ground is so advantageously situated to command the channel, that the front, 
J K A B C I) E was almost dictated. The brisure of the courtine, which would be a fault in land fortification, be- 
came unavoidable, as by that the two batteries command the two principal points, viz: A B has its direction towards 
thewestern branch, where the British troops landed last war, and co-operates as a middle point with the fort of Craney 
Island, and that of Portsmouth; B C fires along the channel, in front of Craney island— the disadvantage arising 
from that construction is, that the faces J K, D E, being- parallel to A B, B C, they are not protected by the flanks 
of the horn work, a consideration which must yield to the advantage procured by being able to direct two guns 
more on the points just mentioned, which would not have been the case, if the courtine had been straight; besides, 
those faces cannot be attacked in front; and if the enemy wanted to turn the line D E, he would have to pass under 
the tire of a wing of a flank of the bastion F. I shall only add, that all tiie ground round the fort is perfectly level, 
as far as musket shot, then it is surrounded by woods, where an enemy could be stopped, either by abattis, or by 
small parties. No gun could be broudit, without great trouble, to annoy the land defences, and tiiey are sufficient 
to afford two hundred men a very gallant defence against eight times that number. By the time I have finished 
the plans concerning Craney island, the chart of the river will be ready likewise; and 1 hope that you will think, with 
Governor Lee, that it would have been difficult to find a better method of defence. 

Whatever delays there may be in the completion of my plans on the paper, you may rest assured, sir, that there 
are none in their execution on the ground, as far as our means will allow it. I am forced to superintend every thing 
myself, in order to avoid errors, tor I can employ nobody who is acquainted with the subject, except Mr. Courty, 
who does not speak a word of English. 

I wrote to Mr. Vermonet, and received no answer. I am also only informed, very imperfectly, of the proceed- 
ings of Mr. Dodge, at Baltimore. I am much afraid that he has too much confidence in his abilities, and that there 
will be a deviation from my plans: for although I gave him very plain instructions, I expected he should ask for fur- 
ther explanations and directions as he went on with his worki-. 



1794.] FORTIFICATIONS^ 91 

The front J K A B C DE is much advanced at Fort Norfolk. The Governor of the State presses much to see a 
beginning atCraney island, and I should have complied already, but for the great scarcity of hands. However, as 
Fort Nelson is greatly advanced, I will be able, in three days, to break ground there. I shall have the honor to write 
to you in a few days likewise, concerning the mounting of the guns, and several other objects, regarding the necessary 
implements, magazines, &c- 

J. J. ULRICK RIVARDI. 



Copy of a letter from Major Rivardi to the Secretary oflJ'ar. 

Norfolk, July 6, 1794. 
Sir: 

I hope you will have received the plans and letters which I have had the honor to send to you the 24th June 
last. The bad weather, the deficiency of cash, and the circumstance, fatal to the progress of our works, that all the 
people are engaged at their crops, have put a temporary slowness in every thing here. I therefore employed that 
time in visiting the country, taking the necessary surveys, and drawing the map of Elizabeth's river, which I join 
to this letter. It is a very accurate one with respect to the distances, creeks, soundings, and windings of the river. 
The roads are likewise carefully marked, and I lament only that it is not drawn with more neatness; my various 
occupations, and the hurry in which I did it, will, I hope, be a title to your imlulgence. The scale I made use of, 
is of a mile and a half, viz: 7,920 feet English measure; it is subdivided iri 108 chains, each 3Gj feet. 

If I receive the theodolite which I had the honor to mention in my last, I will then be able to supply your office 
with a map, including Cape Henry, and the mouths of all the different rivers, James, Nansemond, &c. That map 
would be very useful to establish signals, communications, &c. Next week I shall have the honor, sir, to send you 
a plan of the redoubt to be erected at Cr.iney island, a spot of too much importance to be neglected, as all the vessels 
are forced to come under point blank shot of it, as you may see by the chart. 

1 wish you would have the goodness to inform me in what manner you intend to have the furnaces for heating 
the shot constructed. The adjective reverberatory, annexed in my instructions, makes me think that you mean to 
employ a new construction which I am ignorant of; but if the furnaces, as made use of four years ago in Germany 
ana in France will be sufficient, I can give the necessary directions, even with some improvements made (in the 
channel leading the shot on the gridiron) by the Russians in the last war- 

I have been forced, for the necessary surveys, to a number of extraordinary expenses. The $200 which I re- 
ceived at Philadelphia for that object, have been expended some time; and as some journeys will, perhaps, be ne- 
cessary, either to IJaltimore or to Alexandria, I shall take the liberty to beg you to send me some fresh supply for 
extraordinary expenses, when you have the goodness to forward me the advance of the sum allowed for my com- 
pensation, which I shall be in want of by the end of this month. 

Here I enclose a return of the laborers employed at the fortifications for a fortnight. It will show you, sir, what 
difficulties this scarcity of hands must subject us to. Much is promised for the beginning of next month. Much, 
indeed, is necessary, in order to have the forts completed this summer, which I hope will be the case. 

I have been honored by no letter of yours since the 16th ultimo. I hope it is not a mark of dissatisfaction, as I 
never shall give (as much as it will lay in my power) the smallest occasion to doubt my exactitude and my activity 
in the performance of the business entrusted to me. 

J. J. U. RIVARDI. 
P. S. The guns from Elk are arrived safely. 



Copy of a letter from Major Rivardi to the Secretary of War. 

Norfolk, July 20, 1794. 
Sir: 

I have had the honor of receiving your letter of the 7th instant. It afforded me a great pleasure, as you were 
so good as to express your satisfaction of my conduct. Permit me to embrace this occasion to assure you once more, 
that whatever may occasion delays in the business 1 am intrusted with, it will never arise from my want of activity 
or attention, and that the pleasure of performing my task, like a man of honor, will be such, that, in spite of diffi- 
culties, I never shall renounce it. 

Here I have a great many obstacles to surmount, which I never could have foreseen. I hope you will excuse 
me if I enter into some particulars on that head; tiie anxious desire which I feel to see the fortifications complete, 
will be my apology, and I never should trouble you with any complaints, if I personally only was suffering, some 
difficulties arising from others in the performance of my duty. 

At my arrival here, the novelty of the object of my voyage, the presence of Governor Lee, and the good dispo- 
sitions of some leading men, encouraged me to hope that a great deal could be done, by means of contributions and 
voluntary assistance, which, from the smallness of the sums allowed by Government, would have been impractica- 
ble otherwise. The first letters I had the honor of writing to you, sir. expressed that expectation which, 1 am very 
sorry now to inform you, has been much too sanguine; for 1 thought that, in a small community, where public wel- 
fare ought to be the chief aim of every individual, no jealousy, no parties, could be found. [ do not think, how- 
ever, that there exists, any where else, such ridiculous divisions as here. The inhabitants of Portsmouth expected 
all the means should be employed in protecting their side, and refuse their assistance at Fort Norfolk. The inhabi- 
tants at Norfolk, not to be behind hand, refuse their's at Portsmouth, and will not even do any thing on this side of 
the river, if every one does not work in turn. The consequences are obvious: money must purchase all the labor, 
and, even then, it is sometimes impossible to get more than thirty or forty hands. This is not the otily inconveni- 
ence to be complained of. There is a large number of dissatisfied men who object altogether to fortification, from 
the same principle for which they object to every measure of Government. Some would rather bushfight, (as they 
call it) in case of a war, and the fact is, I fancy, that tliey had rather not fight at all. I drop this disagreeable sub- 
ject: the only thing is to be deaf, and do what the safety of the country requires. 

The sum allowed for this place was 3,737 dollars, to which adding the 1,200 that I requested in addition, we will 
have 4,937 dollars, 2,700 of which only have been sent. This sum has brought us so forward that the balance, or a 
very few hundred dollars more, will be enough. For the mounting ot the cannon, Mr. Bedinger informs me you have 
sent 1,500 dollars, which are not yet arrived. 

By the plans which I had the honor of transmitting to you, you will see, sir, that, instead of 24 guns, there will 
be at least 30, employed for the defence of Elizabeth river, which, alone would require some additition of money, 
allowing even that the estimate which I have in my instructions is an accurate or sufficient one. I expect Governor 
Lee every day; his presence, I hope, and example, will muse a little the sleeping patriotism of the people here; 
then I shall communicate immediately to you what is to be expected, and what further ought to be done. In the 
mean time, money is much wanted here, and we have suffered a little from the delay of the 1,500 dollars, which you 
ordered to be sent here. If I dare to mix my private concerns with the public ones, I should beg leave to 
tell you that a delay of the sum 1 requested in my last would likewise bring me into difficulties. 

I present hereby to your inspection the plan of defence of Craney Island. Should Point Comfort be fortified, the 
battery of seven guns (drawn in the margin, fig, 2d.) would be sufficient, even without the outworks which I painted 
yellow on purpose; but, if the Government does not think proper to go to that expense, the same battery might 
do, with the addition of the outworks; but, in case there was a sufficiency of means, I \yould prefer the fort F. 1, 
as that place is very impoi-tant from its nearness to the channel. I have sent a plan similar to the enclosed to Go- 
vernor Lee, and I shall wait for his directions before I proceed any further. 

^ J. J. U. RIVARDI. 



92 MILITARY AFFAIRS. [1-94. 

Extract of a letter from Major Eivardi to the Secretary of War, dated Norfolk, December 9, 1794. 

"Sir: 

" Since I had the honor of writing to you last, I mounted all the guns at Fort Norfolk, and unmasked, in a 
great measure, the battery, which is now completely turfed and in perfect order. The two forts would be now in 
a state of defence on the river side, had I not been disappointed by those who raise the carriages, which I so often 
mentioned in my letters. It is owing to that delay that Fort Nelson has no guns mounted toward the entrance of 
the harbor; that business, however, can be done in one day. 

" The barracks are already framed, and provided some money for that purpose is soon forwarded, they will shortly 
be fit for the reception of the soldiers. 

"Captain Blackburne being retured here, I shall leave it to him to inform you of the situation of his men. 

" The weather has been, and continues to be, very favorable; as it is probable, however, that a change will take 
place, I shall henceforward employ the workmen at the ditch, a task which is not liable to accidents from the frost." 



From Samuel Dodge, Agent for procuring materials, ^c. for the fortifications at Baltimore. 

Baltimore, July 8, 1794. 
Sir: 

The timber and plank, for the platforms, is all landed at the fort, with timber for eleven garrison and seven 
travelling carriages, ordereil by tiie engineer, exclusive of one carriage for an eighteen, and four for twelve pound 
ordnance, which the engineer contracted for at fifty dollars per piece- 

The carriage for the eighteen pounder, with the implements, I have paid for by the order of the engineer; since 
rendered useless, with one of the carriages for a twelve pounder, by the bursting of two guns. The travelling car- 
riages will be eighty dollars per piece; laut shall have neither one nor the other made until further orders from your 
Excellency, as no money has been placed in my hands for that purpose. 

Your Kxcellency's instructions directs that I should forward you an abstract of the articles for which the first 
moiety of the sum contemplated was disbursed, which I should have done, but the second was wanted for the pay- 
ment of the timber and plank, with the plank for the carriages; the amount being nearly that of the first moiety. 

I have received eight carriages, directed to my care by Mr. Samuel Hodgdon, but am apprehensive that there 
must be a mistake, as they are ship carriages, being entirely too low. The works are constructed for carriages 
three feet ten inches high; and I expect the extra expense of laying a platform will be more than the price of a ship 
carriage. 

It is impossible for me to give your Excellency an accurate statement of the proportion of the work, as the 
whole of the lower battery, with part of the upper line, has been raised by the citizens; and no account kept of the 
difterei;t days' works. The engineer ordered me twelve men, who have beaten the whole, and sodded about two- 
thirds of the lower battery, when finished, and the platforms laid, will be equal to one half of the plan. 

Your Excellency will please to observe that the water battery is about six hundred feet in length, and twenty 
feet through, with embrasures for twenty-four pieces of ordnance. 

It is with no small degree of pain that I inform your Excellency that the works, for want of a guard, are much 
injured by the citizens trampling on it; they have torn it to pieces in a most shameful manner; the cattle, likewise, 
do great damage to the sods. 

1 should be glad to know what were the wages given at the fortifications in Pennsylvania; I have hitherto got 
men for three-lourths of a dollar, but from Saturday night I shall give one dollar or lose the men. 

SAMUEL DODGE. 
His Excellency General Knox. 

Baltimore, July 10, 1794. 
Sir: 

I have the honor to forward your Excellency, by this post, the statement mentioned in my letter of the 8th 
instant, which is as follows, to wit: 

Timber, plank, and shingles, for the barracks. . . - . - 

124 Shovels, --------- 

11 Casks of powder, - - - - - , - 

Drayage, - - - - - . - 

2 Log lines to lay out the works, - - - - - - . - 

1 Gun carriage, ^vith the implements, - - - 

Plank for a sewer to the spring, -.-.--. 

Shaving 4,000 shingles, -------- 

29 Picks, 6 axes, 1 crowbar, and spikes for the sewer and bridge, - 

Plank for stiikes to lay out the works, ------ 

20 Wheel-barrows, -._..---- 

Nails for the barracks, - - - - - -- 

25 Bushels lime for the barracks, ------- 

1 Set of gin blocks, .-.----- 

1 Fall for ditto, - - - - - - - 

Locks, bolts, &c. for the barracks, - - - - - - 

Timber and plank for the bridge, - - - - - - , - 

One month's wages for two barge men attending on the fort. .. - - - 

■ Timber and plank for the platforms, with plank for the cairiages, . . - 

1755 days' work of the artificers, ---.--- 
727i days' work of the laborers, - - - 

$2,998 04;^ 

I have received from the United States $3,200. The remaining fifteen carriages I understand arrived last night 
in town; shall have them, with the eight that arrived some time since, brought to the fort. There has none ol 
the guns yet arrived. 

I have the honor, &c. 

SAMUEL DODGE. 
His Excellency General Knox. 



$150 33 


lie 


08 


95 


27 




50 


2 


00 


62 


00 


8 


95 


9 


56 


46 


86 


I 


96 


80 


00 


18 


11 


8 


33 


6 


33 


7 


40 


8 


87 


31 


37 


36 


00 


,499 


78 


244 


91 


569 


43.i 



Baltimore, September 14, 1794. 
Sir: 

I have the honor to inform you that the lower work of the fortification, at this place, is complete to laying 
the platforms; three of them are made and one nearly laid. I did expect that the work would have been further 
advanced than it is, but the sickness and the loss of number of my men has prevented it. I have likewise been 
confined these six days, by which means the work has been greatly retarded. I am under the necessity of making 
and laying the platforms with the laborers, as no consideration can induce carpenters to work at the fort. 

The moneys that have been sent on is expended, to about seventy dollars thirty cents, or thereabout, of which I 
have to pay for tools, &c. for laying the platforms. 



1794.] FORTIFICATIONS. 95 

I should have notified your Excellency of the situation of the fortification, and the expenditures, before this, 
but my indisposition has been such as rendered it out of my power. The platforms, from the largeness of the 
timber, and the form they are directed to be made, require a great deal of labor both in putting together and laying. 

I have the earth to raise very much, and that requires mucli ramming to make it sufficient to stand the firing of 
the guns. The number of men I have at present are fourteen^ I was directed by the engineer to have eighteen, but 
it is almost impossible to get laborers. 

SAMUEL DODGE. 



FORTIFICATIONS AT ANNAPOLIS, MARYLAND, AND ALEXANDRIA, VIRGINIA. 

Instructions to John Vertnonnet. 

War Department, May 12, 1794. 
Sir: 

Some time since I had the honor of receiving a letter from you, expressive of your desire of being employed 
as an engineer in the service of the United States. 

I should have been happy, had an earlier opportunity occurred for your employment; but an offer is now made 
to you, to direct the works at Alexandria and Annapolis, provided the law, which is now under consideration, 
should pass relatively to the latter place. 

Alexandria has been previously assigned to Mr. Rivardi; and, therefore, in case you accept the offer now made, 
you will, in case of his coming to Alexandria, work under his orders, and in concurrence with them. Annapolis 
will be assigned to you entirely; although, if he should have time, it would not be amiss to take his judgment 
thereon. 

Alexandria will claim your immediate attention. The President of the United States, who is well acquainted 
with the river Potomac, conceives that a certain bluff of land, on the Maryland side, near Mr. Digges's, (the point 
formed by the Eastern Branch and the Potomac,) would be a proper situation for the fortification to be erected. 
You will probably be able to obtain maps of the river at Alexandria. 

The sum to be expended for the works to defend Alexandria, is not to exceed three thousand dollars, exclusively 
of the expense of the cannon. The labor, implements, and materials, will be obtained by Col. Fitzgerald. 

It will be readily perceived, by the lowness of the estimate, that the parapets of the works intended to be erected, 
are to be of earth; or, where that cannot easily be obtained of an adhesive quality, the parapets may be faced with 
strong timber, and filled in with such earth as can be had. 

It is, however, conceived that, in most cases, earth may be procured, and that a parapet made thereof, will not 
only form a solid defence, but even be durable, if the earth be tenacious and properly sloped and sodded inside and 
out, and the seed of knotgrass sown, so as to bind the sods and earth together. 

It is, however, apprehended that the embrasures, made in this manner, would suffer from the explosion of the 
powder from the cannon; and that, therefore, where the batteries are not en barbette, that the embrasures ought to 
be framed with joist, and faced with plank, of two inches thick. 

When the batteries are to be erected on points of land, islands, or other places at a distance from the towns in- 
tended to be defended, they ought to be covered or secured by a redoubt, or other enclosed work, in which the gar- 
rison should reside constantly, either in a barrack or a strong block house, as shall be judged most expedient. But, 
in general, as the garrisons will be weak in numbers, a block house, mounting one or two small pieces of cannon in 
its upper story, will be more secure, and therefore to be preferred. These, however, ought not to be much, if any, 
exposed to the fire of heavy cannon. A block house will not contain more than fifty men; if the garrison, therefore, 
should be enlarged, tents must be used. 

The redoubts, in general, ought to be of a size to contain five hundred men, so as to resist a sudden enterprise 
of an enemy; and, perhaps, the idea ought to be embraced, in the first instance, that they should be of such extent 
as to admit timber casemates to be erected hereafter, so as to enable the garrison to resist, in some tolerable degree, 
a bombardment. 

But it is not proposed at present to erect such casemates, excepting for a magazine, which must be formed of 
massy timber, and be six feet thick on the roof, exclusive of the earth, and jointed and calked in such a manner as 
to be perfectly tight. Care must be taken to have these magazines properly ventilated, and free from dampness. 
They are to be of a size sufficient to hold one hundred and fifty rounds of powder for each piece of cannon intended 
to be served from it. The spot at which a magazine of this nature shall be fixed, will require great judgment, so as 
to combine security against an enemy, either open or subtle, or any danger from common accidents. 

Your judgment will also direct what parts of your works shall be protected by frieze, and what by palisadoes; 
or, whether your redoubts shall have embrasures, or fire en barbette, with small cannon. As the redoubts are to 
cover the batteries^ they would certainly secure and resist better without embrasures. The batteries are to annoy. 
The choice of the ground on which the batteries and works are to be erected, with all the combinations and effects 
depending thereon, will rest upon your judgment, under the directions of the Governor. It has not been intended, 
by any thing herein specified, to point out the particular manner in which the works should be executed- Outlines, 
only, have been given, to serve in regulating the expense, which is limited by the sums before mentioned. 

Some person, in whose ingenuity and industry confidence can be placed, will be appointed at the said ports, re- 
spectively, to superintend the actual execution of the works, according to your directions. Arrangements will also 
be made by him, or some other person, to obtain the necessary workmen, implements, and materials, which will be 
required in this business. But every thing must be previously calculated and estimated by you. 

Although the business, herein entrusted to your charge, is, in itself, of an highly honorable nature, and strongly 
evincive of the confidence of the President of the United States, which would, probably, enhance your reputation, 
yet it is explicitly to be understood by you, that the employment is only temporary, and not conferring or involving 
any military rank whatever. 

For a compensation for your services and personal expenses, you will be allowed and paid at the rate of four 
dollars per day, vi;hile you shall be employed. For all reasonable extra expenses, such as necessary boat hire, and 
persons to assist in your surveys, you will be allowed; but for those you must keep regular accounts and take 
receipts. 

You ai-e to deliver to the Governor of Virginia, copies of all your plans, surveys, soundings, &c. and also trans- 
mit copies of the same to this office. 

You are also to make a weekly report to this office of your proceedings. 
A reverberatoiy furnace, for red hot balls, must be erected for each battery. 

You are hereby authorized to have made, in all cases where your judgment shall direct, new semi-circle car- 
riages for cannon, now used on the sea-coast of France, instead of the old garrison carriages. This improvement, 
in firing en barbette, will prevent the necessity of embrasures, which, in most cases, serve no other purpose but as 
a trap to catch the enemy's balls, and kill the defenders of a battery. It is true, the expense will be greatly enhanced 
bv adopting this improvement, but this will be lessened, in some degree, by saving the expense of the embrasures and 
platforms. 

Given at the War Office of the United States, this 12th day of May, 1794. 

H, KNOX, Secretary of War. 



13 



94 MILITARY AFFAIRS. [I794. 

A Copy of Letters from John Vermonnet to the Secretary of War, respecting Fortifications. 

Alexandria, June 17, 1794. 
Sir: 

Since I had the honor ofreceiving youi- favor of the 2d ultimo I liave visited Jones' point, for which I have dressed 
a plan of defence, and of which I shall send you a draught on my return from Annapolis, where, in the meantime. 
Col. Fitzgerald will be collecting the materials, for which I have remitted him a bill. 

I have also taken means for establishing a cross way through a marsh, which will enable the carrying of material s 
and earth, &c- 

The logs, planks, and other timbers, are not to be had in the neighborhood without an enormous price, which has 
induced us to send to the Bay. 

I have the honor to be, with respect, &c. 

VERMONNET. 



Alexandria, July 5, 1794. 
Sir: 

Immediately after my return from Annapolis, I have the honor to acquaint you of my having set the works 
in train at that place, after having received the sanction of the Governor and his council. 

I shall take the liberty to forward you a draught of the work as soon as in my power. 

I also take the liberty to forward you a draught of the work that I have begun at Alexandria at Jones' point, accord- 
ing to your order, and which is the only place at this present time to be minded, the difficulty of collecting materials, 
as well as the ditterence there is between the activity of the people of the southern states with the northern, is the 
cause of a great difficulty in forwarding any public work, though I am very attentive in my duty. 

As there is a marsh between this city and Jones' point, f have been obliged to establish a cross-way, as it is 
marked on the draught — that work is to be done partly at the expense of the owner of the marsh. 

I have acquainted the Governor of Virginia of my appointment. 

The Battery of Jones' point will be a barbette, and calculated for receiving 12 pieces of heavy cannon. 

JNO. VERMONNET. 

Secretary of War. 

Alexandria, July 18, 1794. 
Sir: 

Bv this I take the liberty to forward you a draught of the fortification of Annapolis, by which you will see that 
part of the redoubt which protects the battery is a work of the last war, and which will enable the complement of the 
present plan, the lines colored yellow being the additional works. 

The fort on the opposite side is only proposed in case the fund, and the exertions of public, will enable the erecting 
it; but the population of the place being small, I do not put great dependence on it. I am after finishing the cross- 
way at Alexandria, which will be done next week, unless it rains constantly, as it has been mostly the case this year, 
in this part. I intend to open the ditches as soon as the crossway is finished, which will perhaps be done before the 
logs are up. Col. Fitzgerald has contracted for them, but I am afraid that they will be long before to appear. 

JNO. VERMONNET. 
Secretary of W ar. 

Alexandria, Zd August, 1794. 
Sir: 

Having waited near two months for the necessary materials to begin the work af Alexandria, I am still without 
them, and as the crossway is done, I found myself under the necessity of retiring to Annapolis to visit what has been 
done there during my absence. 

I delivered on the 9th June the note following into the hands of Col. Fitzgerald, which was appointed to supply 
me with materials, but as much by the fault of the people, that he has contracted with, as by his infirmity, the busi- 
ness has not been so expeditious as it ought to have been. He is now going to Bath for a month, and has left the busi- 
ness in the hands of Mr. Gray, a clerk in the custom house. 

I think it necessary to give you this account that I may not be blamed for delay by the War Office. 

JNO. VERMONNET. 

Secretary of War. . 



Alexandria, 12th August, 1794. 

It is after my return from Annapolis, that I inform you, that the works there are very much advanced, and a 
believe I shall be able to finish this year, if the inarch of the militia towards Hagerstown should not cause some 
delay. As well as those of Alexandria towards Winchester. All the materials are mostly supplied, for which, likewise 
for labour, I remit you the amount already paid. At the completement of work, you will receive a particular account 
of all the expenses. 

The sickly season, likewise the absence of the militia, at both departments I have the honor to attend, shall be 
a cause of some delay, yet I remain in hopes of finishing this year. 

JNO. VERMONNET. 
Secretary of War. 



Alexandria, Aug. 20, 1794. 
Sir: 

I have the honor to acquaint you of my return from Annapolis, where I have found the works much forwarder 
than those at Alexandria, notwithstanding the former were begun a month later. 

The materials that I requested for Alexandria are not come yet, but I daily expect them; the cross-way is 
finished, the ditches are all opened, and the palisades are begun. 

JNO. VERMONNET. 
Secretary or War. 

Alexandria, I6th Sept. 1794. 
Sir: 

I take the liberty to inform you, that most of the materials are ariived, and arc preparing for the battery. 
The palisade and frieze are also much advanced, the exertion of public has taken place, and I am in hope* to 
forward the work greatly by the end of October. 

JOHN VERMONNET. 
Secretary of War. 



1794.] FORTIFICATIONS. 95 

Alexandria, Nov. 5, 1794. 

Sir: 

By the last letter that I wrote you, I had the honor to inform you ot the state which the works were then in. 
The works will be closed by the 15th of this month, and will remain so till the 15th of April. The absence of part 
of the militia, has been the cause of not having the works finished. It is also to be observed that the appointments 
were made much later than in any part of the United States. 

JNO. VERMONNET. 
Secretary of War. 



FORTIFICATIONS AT WILMINGTON AND OCRACOCK, NORTH CAROLINA, 

Instructions to Nicholas Francis Martinon, acting as temporary engineer in the service of the United States. 

Sir: 

In pursuance of the directions of the President of the United States, you are hereby appointed an engineer for 
the purpose of fortifying the ports and harbors hereinafter mentioned, viz: Wilmington and Ocracock inlet, in the 
State of North Carolina. 

You are, therefore, immediately to repair to the ports to be fortified in the said State; and, in case the Governor 
should be near any of the said ports, you are to wait upon him and exhibit these instructions. But, if the Governor 
should be at any considerable distance from your route, you are respectfully to inform him of your appointment, 
enclose a copy of these instructions, and inform him that you have repaired to the ports aforesaid, in order to make 
the necessary surveys and investigations relatively to your mission, which you will submit to his consideration, and 
take his orders thereon. 

As soon as you shall receive his approbation of your plans, you are to construct the works, and to execute them 
with all possible vigor and despatch. 

The following is an extract of the estimate on which the appropriations for the fortifications have been founded. 
The proportions of expense, therefore, herein stated, for the ports aforesaid, must not be exceeded, viz: 

Wilmington, Twelve Pieces. 

Batteries, embrasures, and platforms, for 12 pieces, ... ^ggs 76 

Magazine, - - - - - - - - 200 00 

Redoubt with embrasures, - - - - - 810 00 

Blockhouse or barracks, ...... 500 oo 

Contingencies, ....... 500 00 



$2,873 76 



Ocracock, Sixteen Pieces. 



Batteries for 16 pieces, ....... $1,14768 

Redoubt with embrasures, ...... 810 00 

Magazine, - - - - - - - - 200 00 

Block house or barracks, - .... 500 oo 

Contingencies, - - - - - - 500 00 

$3,157 68 



It will readily be perceived, by the lowness of the estimate, that the parapets of the works intended to be erected 
are to be of earth, or, where that cannot be easily obtained of an adhesive quality, the parapets may be faced with 
strong timber, and filled in with such earth as can be had. 

It is, however, conceived that, in most cases, earth may be procured, and that a parapet made thereof will not 
only form a solid defence, but even be durable, if the earth be tenacious and properly sloped, and sodded inside and 
out, and the seed of knotgrass sown so as to bind tiie sods and earth together. 

It is, however, apprehended that the embrasures made in this manner would suffer from the explosion of powder 
from the cannon, and that, therefore, where the batteries are not en barbette, that the embrasures ought to be framed 
with joist, and faced with plank of two inches thick. 

Where the batteries are to be erected on points of land, islands, or other places at a distance from the towns in- 
tended to be defended, they ought to be covered or secured by a redoubt or other enclosed work, in which the gar- 
rison should reside constantly, either in a barrack or a strong block house, as shall be judged most expedient. But, 
in general, as the garrisons will be weak in numbers, a blockhouse, mounting one or two pieces of cannon in its 
upper story, will be more secure, and therefore to be preferred. These, however, ought not to be much, if any, ex- 
posed to the fire of heavy cannon. A block house will not contain more than fifty men. If the garrison, therefore, 
should be enlarged, tents must be used. 

The redoubts, in general, ought to be of a size to contain five hundred men, so as to resist a sudden enterprise 
of an enemy. And perhaps this idea ought to be embraced in the first instance, that they should be of such extent 
as to admit timber casemates to be erected hereafter, so as to enable the garrison to resist, in some tolerable degree, 
a bombardment. 

But it is not proposed, at present, to erect such casemates, excepting for a magazine, which must be formed of 
massy timber, and be six feet thick on the roof, exclusive of the earth, and jointed and calked in such a manner as 
to be perfectly tight. Care must be taken to have these magazines properly ventilated and free from dampness. 
They are to be of a size sufficient to hold one hundred and fifty pounds of powder for each piece of cannon intended 
to be served from it. The spot at which a magazine of this nature shall be fixed,will require great judgment, so as to 
combine security against an enemy either open or subtle, or any danger from common accidents. 

Your judgment will also direct what part of your works shall be protected by freizes, and what by palisadoes, 
or whether your redoubts shall have embrasures, or fire en barbette with small cannon. As the redoubts are 
to cover the batteries, they would certainly secure and resist better without embrasures. The batteries are to 
annoy. 

The choice of the ground on which the batteries and works are to be erected, whether to have embrasures, or to 
tire en barbette with the new sea coast carriages, with all the combinations and effects depending on them, will rest 
upon your judgment, under the directions of the Governor. It has not been intended, by any thing herein specified, 
to point out the particular manner in which the works should be erected. Outlines only have been given to serve 
in regulating the expense, wl ich is limited by the sums before mentioned. 

Some person, in whose ingenuity and industry confidence can be placed,will be appointed, at the said ports, re- 
spectively, to superintend the actual execution of the works, according to your directions. But every thing must 
be previously calculated and estimated by you. 

Although the business herein entrusted to your charge, is in itself of an highly honorable nature, and strongly 
evmclve ot the confidence of the President of the United States, and which would probably enhance your reputa- 
tion, yet it IS explicitly to be understood by you, that the employment is only temporary, and not conferring or in- 
volving any military rank whatever. 



96 MILITARY AFFAIRS. [1^94, 

For a compensation for your services, and personal expenses, you will be allowed and paid at the rate of four dol- 
lars per day, while you shall be employed. For all reasonable expenses, such as necessary boat hire and persons to 
assist in your surveys, you will be allowed| but for those you must keep regular accounts and take receipt. 

You are to deliver to the Governor copies of all your plans, surveys, soundings, &c. and also transmit copies of 
the same to this office. You are also to make a weekly report to this office of your proceedings. 

I have issued my warrant in your favor for two hundred dollars, as an advance on account of your compensa- 
tion and personal expenses. 

A reverberatory furnace for red hot balls must be erected for each battery- 
All the plans must be accompanied with sections and elevations, so that a complete judgment may be formed 
thereof. An estimate of the expense must also be formed of each work, and the number and size of the cannon in- 
tended, must be specified. 

Your requisition for labor and materials at Ocracock will be paid upon John Daves, collector at Newbern, or 
some person appointed by him, and at Wilmington, or Cape Fear, by some person who will be appointed by the col- 
lector at Wilmington. 

This appointment to take place from the first of this instant, April. 

Given at the War Office of the United States, this eleventh day of April, one thousand seven hundred and ninety- 
four. 

H. KNOX, Secretary of War. 

Copy of a letter from Mr. Martinon to the Secretary of War, dated 
General: Newbern, May 31, 1794. 

I have the honor to enclose you the plans, profiles, and estimates, respecting the fort to be established at 
Ocracock, vested with the Governor's approbation. On sight of the annexed map, you will be convinced that there 
is no point but Beacon Island that may be occupied with any degree of advantage. Being hurried to Wilmington, 
it has not been in my power to color the plan, which I have only traced. Your draughtsman will easily furnish it. 1 
was obliged to make four copies of the same. 

As no ship, drawing more than thirteen feet of water, can pass over the bar, this fort will never be exposed to the 
fire of a frigate, and, forthat reason, I have given only eight feet in thickness to the summit of the parapet, which will 
be fully adequate to resist any attack from a privateer ship. I have also contracted the fort as much as it has been 
in my power, in order to lessen the expense, the estimate of which will surprise you. But the soil of the island is 
very low; it is essential to be defended against the high tides occasioned by northerly winds, and, in such circum- 
stances, the greatest cautions ought to be taken. It is for that effect I have added a covert way, which will occasion 
a considerable expense. Shall it take place, or no? 

The Governor of North Carolina will, no doubt, impart to you the dispositions he has made for that construc- 
tion. Mr. John Wallace, the only inhabitant of the place, shall (under the conduct of a superintendent chosen, on 
my request, by the Governor) furnish laborers and materials, keeping a regular account of the same. Thjse two 
persons have transported themselves on the spot on the 25th instant, and will be able to begin the work without any 
difficulty, as I have, in their presence, established the height of the different points, and traced the principal lines of 
the fort; I have, besides, furnished themlplans and profiles. The solid fathom of earth which, in France, should 
cost about four livres tournois, will, perhaps, come very high in this place, as it will be necessary to take the great- 
est part of it at a distance of sixty fathoms, at least, in places covered by the tide- There will be a loss of time for 
the workmen until the sands be discovered. It is, however, to be expected that the superintendent will find a way 
to keep them at work somewhere else, and that this time will not be entirely lost. To make short, in such a situa- 
tion, instead of digging ditches that would furnish earth for the parapets, it becomes necessary to raise the ground 
by materials brought from afar. 

I propose, for to lodge the garrison, a plain building, that will not overtop the parapets, and such as is described 
after the estimate. The expense of that construction will not be so expensive as that in timber, mentioned in the in- 
structions; and for what respects the defence of the fort, it will, in any case, more efficaciously draw from the 
rampart and the palisadoes of the covered way. 

On my return from Wilmington I will give a plan of these barracks, if you approve of their construction, and 
likewise of the powder magazine; in the contrary case, I will act agreeably to your orders, which I shall have time 
to receive. 

You will judge. General, that the funds appropriated for Ocracock will not prove sufficient, and that it is essen- 
tial to obtain an augmentation of them; I hope it will not be the same for Wilmington, towards which I intend to 
direct my course the day after to-morrow, say second of June. 



Copy of a letter from M. Martinon to the Secretary of War, dated 

My General: Newbern, Zd August, 1794. 

Even as I have had the honor to observe to you of it, by my letter dated the ninth of last month, I arrived here 
the 34th, after much ado. Having found all the bridges spoiled by the heavy rains which fell in this country, and with- 
out my servant, our carriage was carried away by the current upon which it was swimming; at last we are arrived 
without any other accident. 

I have the honor to send you enclosed the plans and papers relative to the works of the river Cape Fear. The in- 
disposition of the Governor has occasioned a delay of some days for this sending; I am preparing tne duplicates for 
him that I shall transmit to him as soon as possible. 

I received an answer from Mr. Blanks, conductor of Beacon workings, by which he tells me that his work is not 
so advanced as he could hope for, he never having had but sixteen or eighteen laborers to work, who are continu- 
ally absenting themselves. He is busied in cutting down nine hundred trees, of which four hundred are delivered 
upon the place, to make wheel barrows, and he tells me the platform will be done about the 9th of this month. At 
that time he will send for me to go upon the place, which I expect; it was better for him to be employed at the work, 
instead of employing other persons to work the timbers and wheelbarrows. 

I observe to you. General, that the inhabitants of this country are but little inclined to the establishment of those 
forts. There are a great many, according to the information that I receive in New York and Chai-leston, who, in- 
stead of favoring the sending of workmen, on the contrary, augment their price of labor. 

This work must be built witli the activity I have recommended, could be continued a great while, particularly 
that of the beacon, and if it is not quickly raised, it will run the risk of being damaged by the inclemency of the 
winter. 

The Governor had proposed to the general meeting which was lately sitting here, to make some funds for the con- 
struction of those forts, or only some advances; the answer has been negative, I think it necessaiy to give you this 
information. 

The plans and instructions that I have delivered to Beacon, and for Cape Fear, would be suffioient to conduct 
the work to its end; nevertheless, the persons who are charged with it in Wilmington, depend that I will again take 
a journey, which 1 will do, if you judge it necessaiy. This I hope to be informed in the course of this month. 

I observe also to you. General, that the longer I stay in this country the more money I shall expend, and should 
be sorry, as it would be of no utility; furthermore, my conduct will be subordinated to the orders that you will give 
tome. 



1794.] FORTIFICATIONS. gj 



Cape Fear River Fort — The levelling of the spot of ground in the interior circumference of the parapet, is re- 
lated to an horizontal plan, which is supposed to be twenty-four feet above the level of high water, so that each red 
figure, which I call coUe, expresses the distance of each point from that horizontal plan which is called plan of com- 
parison- 

We might also imraagine an inundation to the height of twenty-four feet above the level of the high water, and 
suppose the red figures to be the soundings of the different points. 

Therefore, eac^ cotie, or number, being taken off from the 24th one, which corresponds v/ith the high water, the 
remainder will express the heigth of each point above the high water; and subtracting a number from another, the 
remainder will be the height of a point above another, for instance: 

To have the height of the point A, above the point X, of the high water, ten feet must be taken off from twenty- 
four feet, the remamder being thirteen feet, is the height of the point A, above the high water. 

To compare the point A with the point B, the number 9 feet 3 inches must be taken off from the number 
11 feet, the remainder, 1 foot 10 inches, expresses the height of the point B above the point A, and so with the others. 

Observations for the construction. 

The battery may be finished before the remainder of the circumference of the fort is erected. 

The battery will be carried on a level. The point A and the number U feet will be taken for the level of the 
bernie, and the foundation or the under part of the first piece of timber will be fixed one foot lower than that point 
A, so that the beginning of the foundation will be in the levelling plan, the numbe. 12 feet, the ground of the berme 
will be raised or Towered as wanted. 

The parapets will be carried on the same level with the batteries, from the point C to the point H. in the lines 
cd, de, ef,fg, gh; the point K will be fourteen inches higher than the point H, and the lining, H K, of the cur- 
tain, will follow that slope; the flank, KL, will be carried on a level. 

The flank angle M, of the bastion, will be on a level with the shoulder angle L, so that the flank, KL, and the 
face, LM, will be horizontal, and the angle M will be, by that mean, eight inches lower. 

The shoulder angle N, will be six inches lower than the flank angle M: and the flank angle O, will be also six 
inches lower than the shoulder angle N; so that the face MN, and the flank NO, will have each a slope of six 
inches, and the foundation of timber, to the point 0, will be one foot lower than that point, to the number 10, 8, 10. 

The foundation of timber, to the point 0, will be three inches higher than the one to the point/), of course nearly 
on a level ; but the point q, middle of the line p o, is two feet and a half lower than the point 0, and is to be raised 
of so much; as, also, the berme and places near it, with remblais, taken with measure in the interior of the space, 
1, 2, 3, 4, 5, and 6, which will require to be carefully levelled, and lower the passage of the gate I, so that the waters 
may freely run out. 

It would not be improper, in the demolition of the old fort, to preserve a certain quantity of stones to pave the 
entrance of the gate, and for other uses, in the interior of the fort. 

The ditch of the battery will be four fathoms wide, besides its slopes; and though the ditches of the other sides 
of the fort are marked twenty feet wide, in the profile, they may be, with propriety, traced two feet wider, and in 
all twenty-two feet besides the slopes: it is a good way to obtain more earth with less depth. 



^ Memoir relative to the defence of Cape Fear River, to which is added a Map of the place for its intelligence. 

The river of Cape Fear runs from north to south; it has two roads leading to the sea, the one to the west, the 
other to the north of Cape Fear. 

The main bar inlet, west side, is two miles distant from the point of the island called Bald Head, where a light- 
house has been lately erected. 

The sounding of that bar is fifteen feet at low water, and twenty -one at high water; of course, frigates may pass 
to it, and come to the harbor, which is six miles distant from the north side of that bar, and come to anchor in four 
and five fathoms. 

This harbor is, perhaps, one of the best on the continent; the whole year may be spent there without the least 
danger, since all the vessels usually lay there in expectation of the wind, either to come up or go to sea. 

The British were so well convinced of its importance, that they had erected there the Fort Johnston, which is 
now partly destroyed by the sea. 

If this harbor should remain unguarded, there is no doubt but an enemy, in time of war, would not fail to take 
possession of it; he would make his station there; his privateers might preserve there all the prizes he would make 
on the north and south parts of the continent, till he had an opportunity of carrying them into his own ports; he 
would stop all the vessels attempting to go up or down the river; in a word, it would be to him a landing-place, to 
provide himself in the country, and do all the mischief in his power. 

All these considerations having been an inducement to establish the intended fort, for the preservation of that 
place, it is intended for twelve pieces of cannon, which may be, without any inconvenience, of different size, from 
twenty-four to twelve pounders; however, the greatest number must be twenty-four pounders. 

That quantity of guns is thought necessary for the security of the fort, which may be attacked by strong frigates; 
in that case, its strongest defence and annoyance will be in the establishment of a reverbeiatory furnace, red hot 
balls being the terror of vessels. 

The access of the fort by land may be sufficiently defended with four field-pieces, to the flank angles of the two 
bastions. A landing could be effected at some leagues distance to the west, but it is very little to be feared; that 
part of the country being too marshy. 

The sounding of the second inlet, called New Inlet, is seven feet at low water, and between eleven and twelve 
at high water; of course, there is none but small vessels and privateers that can come bv it. It would be very well 
defended by a battery, with four pieces of cannon, at the north point of that inlet, called Federal Point; but the 
enemy having in his power to land all along the north side of that point, it would be necessary to erect a fort to 
protect that battery; which, requiring a guard in time of peace, as well as in time of war, would become very tire- 
some to the country. Another great inconvenience against that establishment is, the great rapidity of the inset's 
current, which would prevent the vessels from coming to without being exposed. 

It is thought this inlet will be more powerfully and with less expense defended by a galley, or flat vessel, armed 
with eight pieces of twelve pounders; that vessels, which would be necessary only in time of war, could lay at an- 
chor forward of Snow Point, in a place called Five Fathoms Hole, which is a good anchorage, and stop every vessel 
coming into the channel; it could go frequently to the New Inlet bar, and also serve the new fort and relieve its 
guard. 

If it had been intended to defend only the upper part of the river, a single fort, at one of the Brunswick's points, 

might have been sufficient; but it was leaving in the enemy's possession tne harbor, tiie two bars, and all the river 

shore below that point, and losing the power either to come in or go out of the river; of course, a very bad operation. 

It would not be improper, in time of war, to place at Brunswick two pieces of cannon, with common carriages, 

to use them both against the river and against the land. 

These considerations have been formerly presented to his Excellency the Governor of North Carolina, who has 
perceived all their consequences. It is in pursuance of his approbation, that the construction of the new fort is now 
at hand. It will be erected on a part of the seat of Fort Johnston, and on the ground round it; which ground is a 
part of the spot intended for a new town, called by the name of Smithville. That fort will defend the river and the 
access of the harbor. With regard to the New Inlet, it may be defended by one of the aforesaid means. 



98 MILITARY AFFAIRS. [1794. 

Copy of a letter from M. Marlinon to the Secretary of War, dated 

Wilmington, June 20, 1794. 
General: 

I have the honor to inform you of my arrival at Wilmington, on the 5th instant. It vi^as not possible for me to 
go dovi^n the river before the 11th. I have spent five days in that voyage, to take the necessary information concern- 
ing the object of my mission. 

The harbor, and excellent anchorage under Fort Johnston, appeared to me of such importance, that I propose the 
establishment of a battery and fort, in the proximity, and on part of Fort Johnston, which it becomes necessary to 
demolish. 

Should the defence of the river be recoiled farther up, there would be a necessity of abandoning that post, which, 
in time of war, could not fail being taken hold of by an enemy, who, by settling there, would stop the entrance of 
file river. It would prove a sure retreat for their privateers to preserve their pi-izes in; they would have a footing 
on the continent, from whence they might draw provisions, spread in the country, and waste according to their plea- 
sure. These considerations determine me to propose, that the establishment may be placed on that essential point 
of the principal passage of the river. By this means, the little northern channel, the sounding of which, at high 
water, gives eleven feet and a half on the bar, would be left open to the privateers, and give them an entrance in the 
river, unless guarded in some manner. Two ways are found, tending to that effect: the first is, to mount four or 
six eighteen pounders on one of Brunswick points, where the passage of the river shall be effectually defended. 
I would not advise to place that establishment on Fetleral Point, or even on the passage itself, because of the cur- 
rents being so strong, that the safety of the vessels would prove endangered when obliged to stop for to be recon- 
noitred: this inconvenience will not take place at Brunswick. The second expedient, which, in my opinion, is the 
most advisable, would be an armed vessel, the strength of which might easily be calculated on that of the ships that 
may attempt passing over the bar. Tiiis vessel might anchor to the extremity of the harbor, or in diflerent places 
between the harbor and Brunswick; and from thence protect the small vessels, whether entering or going out, and 
prevent privateers from coming up the river. Her object might be also to attend on the fort projected. 

I have communicated these thoughts to the Governor, and expect to hear of his decision by the next post. I sent 
to him a plan; first, of a little fort, with two bastions, the ditch of which is tolerably well defended; secondly, of a 
simple redoubt, whose ditch has but a direct defence. These two forts may be manned, each of them, by five 
hundred men. I have enclosed, also, an estimate of these two objects, which amount much higher than the appro- 
priated funds, because it is necessary to line the parapets with timber, as we cannot procure but a sand, which rains 
and wind would level very soon. 

The cost of the fort, with bastions, will, agreeable to the estimate, amount to five thousand seven hundred and 
sixty dollars, comprehending the demolition of Fort Johnston, which, at any rate, must take place, as it is very small, 
partly destroyed by the sea, and what materials remain are rotten. The redoubt, whose ditch is ill defended, would 
cost four thousand eight hundred and thirty-eight dollars, including, likewise, the demolition of the old fort: the 
first is preferable on all accounts. 

Until I receive the determination of the Governor, of which I expect to be apprized by next ordinary, I will have 
time enough to put in readiness the plans, so as to give them immediately to the appointed agent, or to the superin- 
tendent, agreeable to the orders which the Governor will think fit to issue. I shall have the honor to communicate 
them to you, when I direct you a copy of the project that will meet with the Governor's approbation. 



From M. Martinon to the Secretary of War. 

Wilmington, July 9, 1794. 
General: 

The Governor having approved of the dispositions I had directed to him on the 16th ultimo, and which I had 
the honor to communicate to you, in my letter dated June 20th, respecting the fort to be established on Cape Fear 
river, I have consequently transported myself on the spot, accompanied by Messrs. Potts and Atkins, the last gen- 
tleman having been appointed to direct the works. 1 have traced on part of Fort Johnston, and in the neighborhood 
of it, a small fort with two bastions, the parapet of which shall be lined with timber. I have taken the necessary 
levels to establish the foundations, and I have given to the gentlemen the plans, profiles, and memoirs, to direct the 
construction. Mr. Atkins told me lie understood the whole perfectly well, and found no difficulty in it. Mr. Potts, 
who is at some trouble to procure workmen, has assured me, that on next Monday, say the 14th instant, he will send 
a sufficient number of them. 

As I do not think that my presence will be of any necessity at this place, I will, towards the end of next 
week, transport myself to Newbern, and from thence I shall have the honor to forward you copies of the plans I 
am making, and which I will obtain the Governor to sanction. 

I have proposed for to lodge the troops in a plain barrack as in Beacon. If you find it convenient I pray you be so 
good as to make it known to me as soon as possible. 

Since 1 left Newbern I did not hear fiom Beacon Island's works, and T feel some anxiety on their account. 
This Island being very low, the work will be sometimes exposed to the attacks of the sea, swollen by northerly 
winds, which will expose the maintenance of them to be expensive. Had I foreseen that Congress should fix upon 
building ships for the protection of the sea coast, I would have advised to employ, for the defence of Newbern 
river, a galley, or vessel mounted with eight or ten twelve pounders, which would have proved sufficient, and 
might have saved the construction of a fort, its maintenance, garrison in time of peace and war, and the daily duty 
of that garrison, &c. I am going on the spot; I will examine the locality; confer with the Governor; and I shall 
give an account of it. 

The Governor having desired my advice on the mode of mounting the cannon of the batteries, I have answered, 
that the parapets should have no embrasures, and that the essential point was to construct the carriages so as to ele- 
vate the cannon in order to point and fire over a parapet of five feet high; tims, I believe, will be mounted the.can- 
non in Charleston, and in the other batteries. 

I have now in hand the model made by Mr. Merlie, but, as there is no scale, I cannot know whether it has the 
necessary height. I remember Mr. Merlie told me in your room there were six inches wanting to the height, which 
might be made up without altering the inclination of the moving carriage, (which is important) by adding six inches 
to the last transom, and so much to the fixed frame. Respecting the model the Governor told me to be in Eden- 
ton, I know nothing of it. I hope I shall have the honor to hear from you when I arrive in Newbern. 



Copy of a letter from Mr. Martinon to the Secretary of War, dated 

Newbern, September 8, 1794. 
My General: 

I have had the honor to transmit to you, the 2d of last month, the plans concerning the fort of the river of 
Cape Fear; I hope that you will have received them. 

The journey I made to Beacon, to visit the works on the river of Cape Fear, was indispensable. The situa- 
tion in which I found the works is not very satisfactory. There are three rows of timber works placed, three feet 
in height, all round the fort, but the main works very little filled in. The overseer of the works, instead of working 



1794.] FORTIFICATIONS. 99 

during the favorable weather, and carrying sand, has been busy cutting wood with the workmen. That Mr. Wal- 
lace, as agent, was bound to undertake the work with more people, and Mr. Potts, at Cape Fear, but there have 
not been more than fourteen or fifteen hands at work for three months. 

I have not seen Mr. Wallace at his house, nor at the works; and, as I was crossing the river, he was carrying 
to Newbern negro men, whom he had liired for three months. At my return, I met him in the instant of his de- 
parture with thirty negro men, whom he hired until the end of October; he assured me it was impossible to work 
upon the Island until tlie Spring. Such is the situation of the work, my General, which is very difficult to forward, 
as every thing is wanting. 1 have left Mr. Blanks, overseer, some necessary instructions, which havej.been trans- 
lated into English by Mr. Leris. 

I have been obliged to drive at Beacon, and brought here again in a vessel of the United States, Captain Cooke. 
I had made some provision to go with him to Cape Fear, but the wind having always been contrary, and my pro- 
vision being done, I have been compelled to come back to Newbern, from whence I will set out, after to-morrow, 
for Wilmington by land. 

The letters, that you will do me the honor to write to me, shall be thither directed. 



Mr. Martinon to General Knox, Secretary of War, Philadelphia, dated 

Wilmington, September 16, 1794. 
General: 

I have, at my arrival at Wilmington, received your most honored favor of the 8th of August last, in which 
you are advising me to contract the works of the fort of Ocracock, so that it may not exceed the sum mentioned in 
my instructions. I must confess. General, that I look upon it as impossible. I beg you will examine the plan 1 
had the honor to forward, you will undoubtedly perceive that the space is not too large for the sixteen pieces of can- 
non it is intended for; be pleased, also, to take a view of the estimate and letters relating to it; in them you will 
find the reasons for which the estimate of the works amounts to three times the appointed sum; it would be too long 
to repeat them here. 

I therefore think instant, if it be intended to continue on the works, that a sum of seven or eight thousand 
dollars should be disposed of for its expenses; and here follows the economical contraction which may take place: 
Having six pieces of cannon of the battery defending the stnall road over the river, mounted on embrasure car- 
riages, the distance of 20 feet from a cannon, to another becoming useless, 12 feet will be sufficient; in that case 
42 or 48 feet, or 6 or 7 fathoms, may be cut off from that battery; it will, of course, make a diminution of 15 or 
16 current fathoms of rampart. Tiie fort will then be very mucii flatten, and the remaining space will scarcely be 
large enough to contain the barrack, which must also be shortened; the two-thirdb of the covert way may also be 
put aside, and have it made only on the north side of the fort, so as to secure it against the high waters. Notwith- 
standing all the contractions, which there is time enough to effectuate, I foresee that the expense will overgo the 
sum of six thousand dollars; what may account for it is the bad kind of workmen the country affords; the high 
price required by the owners of the negroes; the loss of time which a navigation of eighty miles occasions; the 
distance of the sand, which can be had but at low water; many other private expenses for the beginning of the es- 
tablishment, and many other inconveniences, which so lonesome and so distant a place creates. I am, myself, at 
more than a month's distance from one fort to another, either to go or send letters, for want of vessels or of fair winds. 
In all cases. General, the expenses being left to persons no doubt honest, and appointed by the Governor, they 
wilj settle their accounts; and, as the works at Beacon Island must be stopped at the end of October next, by com- 
paring the expense with the work done at that time, we may acquire more certain notions of what the whole is to 
cost. 

I pray you will recollect I informed you that I would prefer, for the defence of Newbern river, a kind of armed 
galley, which, at all events, might have been sufficient; and its invaluable advantage should be to save the trouble ot 
the keeping of a fort and constant garrison in time of peace, which garrison will require a vessel to relieve the 
guards and to transport the stores, which must be brought from Newbern, &c. 

You have no doubt received the works of Cape Fear river, where the fort is much larger than that of Beacon, 
because the twelve pieces of cannon, which are to be mounted on sea coast carriages, wilt stand in the same line. 
These twelve pieces are necessary to protect the fort against the fire of frigates which may come to attack it; it 
is also constructed to contain a greater number of men to defend it by land; the situation requires and permits it. 
As the parapets are to be lined with timber, on account of the sandy quality of the earth, the expense will be nearly 
double the sum granted, which you are already informed of as well as the Governor. It is not in my power to pre- 
vent such increase of expense; but, with regard to fortifications, what is necessary must be done; and, it may be 
said with propriety, that the person who has drawn the estimates, on which the funds have been obtained, has been 
greatly mistaten. They have been working at Cape Fear these two months past. I intend going there the day 
after to-morrow, in Captain Cooke's vessel, and I shall inform you of the state of the works. 

In consequence of the diminution to be made to the fort of Beacon, I am informing Mr. Tredwell, Collector at 
Edenton, in my answer to his letter, that ten pieces of cannon must be mounted on sea coast carriages, for the 
battery of the main channel side, as it requires a more divergent fire; four or five of those cannons may tje eighteen 
pounders, the rest must be thirty-four pounders; as for the battery of the second inlet, six pieces are to be mounted 
on embrasure cairiages; four of these twenty-four pounders, and two eighteen pounders, if they cannot be all twenty- 
four pounders. These batteries do require heavy cannon, on account of the reach, which is somewhat distant. 

As to the cannon of Cape Fear river, it may be of smaller size. 24, 18, and 12 pounders might be employed 
there, and must be all mounted on sea coast carriages, so that they may afford a more divergent fire; I must, how- 
ever, observe, that a different size of cannon in a battery which is to have a reverberatory furnace, may be liable to 
some inconveniences; it is, therefore, much preferable that all the cannon should be of one size. 

I believe, General, that in order to have the sea coast carriages mounted in the most uniform manner, it would 
not be improper, if Mr. Merlie is much advanced in his works to the South he should be sent to Edenton and Wil- 
mington; he might in each of these two places construct a sea coast carriage which may serve as a model to con- 
struct the others. 

I shall spend some days to the fort, and on my return here will start for Newbern. 

I am, with respect. General, your most humble servant, 

MARTINON. 



Mr. Martinon to General Knox, Secretary of War, {Philadelphia) dated 

Wilmington, September 30th, 1794. 
General: 

I have made a stay of eight days to the fort of Cape Fear. The job, after two months' work, is not very mucii 
advanced. The state in which I found it is such as follows: The barracks are almost ended, the demolition of the 
old fort very much advanced, and very little remblais made. There is about two hundred logs on the spot; Mr. 
Atkins, superintendent of the works, had, in my presence, the first pieces of timber of the linings placed; I found 
the workmen in little activity. Behold the reasons, given to me by Mr. Potts! A warrant has been issued for the 
sum of one thousand dollars, which are expended; Mr. Potts has wrote to obtain new funds, and having received 
no answer, was upon the point of stopping the works; he has, however, continued on by the means of four hundred 
dollars, which, he told me, he was in advance of. 



100 MILITARY AFFAIRS. [1794. 

I must observe to you, General, that a too small number of workmen will increase the private expenses, which 
should, and can be avoided, to Cape Fear fort — the workmen being not scarce there, as they are at Ocracock; an over- 
seer for ten workmen may do for a hundred. 

With regard to the whole expense, you are already informed it will be double the sum granted; it is according 
to that information which I gave the Governor, that lie has ordered the works to be begun: it has been so with the 
fort at Beacan, which I foretold would require three times the sum appointed. Without these proceedings the idea 
of erecting the forts must be dropped; for each of them, I have been obliged to draw four different plans, so as to find 
the smallest expense. I even perceive that my estimates are rather short, though carried to the highest, on account 
of the negroes being dearly paid, and doing veiy little work, if not constantly attended to. 

A redoubt, with four pieces of cannon, and fifty or sixty men, might sufficiently defend the road of the new inset; 
if so, the river of Cape Fear will be sufficiently protected. If you think it proper, I will make a project for that 
purpose. 

I have made use for my transportation in the river of Captain Cooke's vessel; he could not convey me to Ocra- 
cock, having to change the masts of the cutter, which are both sprung and rotten. 

I shall go shortly to Newbern by land, and will prepare the contractions, which, as I have mentioned in my 
last, of the 16th instant, may take place, to diminish a part of the expense at Beacon. 

If you judge my presence necessary in this country after October next, I beg you will direct me to some person 
to whom I may apply for money, mine diminishing, and Mr. Leris's being at an end. Out of the four hundred dol- 
lars I have received, two hundred and sixty have been expended to the Government's account. I shall direct you 
the state and receipts thereof, when you thmk it proper. 

I have the honor to be, with the greatest respect. General, your most obedient and most humble servant, 

MARTINON. 



Sir: 



Copy of a letter from Joshua Potts, agent for procuring materials, Sfc. to the Secretary of War, dated 

Wilmington, North Carolina, October 2d, 1794. 

Conformably to instructions received, enclosed is an abstract of articles purchased for the fort at Cape Fear, 
which exhibits the amount of moneys actually disbursed and paid, one thousand and sixty-one dollars twenty cents. 
The articles purchased with the above sum, will be observed to consist principally of commissary's stores, camp 
equipage, tools for mechanics and laborers, machinery and materials for the barracks, &c. 

The agent begs a moment of your honor's attention, while he informs you, that in the mean time of making pre- 
paration as above alluded to, it became expedient that contracts should be made for materials, labor, &c. to be in 
readiness at any stage of the work; accordingly agreements were made, and are still to be discharged. 

1st. The pitch pine hewed timber, intended to build the walls of the parapet, (say *three hundred and sixty tons 
of forty solid feet each, French measurement, at one dollar and eighty cents per ton, deliverable at the fort, is, $648 00 

2d. Building the barracks; the carpenter's work is contracted for by the square, and will require about 200 00 

3d- Wages of laborers, and a mechanic since 14th July to 1st instant, say two months and a half, of about twenty- 
one persons, average six dollars per month, ...... 315 oo 

4th. The butcher's bill for beef may be - - - - - - 80 00 

$1,243 00 

The first mentioned sum, actually expended and paid, is accurately inserted, per abstract, - 1,061 20 

But the additional amount is set down only on a gross estimate, in order to give information on the sub- 
ject, .--....... 1,343 00 

$2,304 20 



The respective sums contracted for are as nearly computed as at present lies in the power of the agent, and 
shall, when discharged, be returned in a certain and proper manner. 

By the enclosed abstract, and the foregoing estimate, the sum, as apportioned for this fort, is not half actually 
paid away, but more than the first moiety is contemplated, by adding the amount of contracts still to be paid. 

The quantity of timber, of itse/f, to be used on the I'ort, as planned, would cost half the sum as first estimated 
for the completion of the entire fortification. 

Peculiar circumstances unavoidably guided the manner of commencement, as also the progress of building the 
ofrt. 

1st. The situation, distant from a settled neighborhood, the soil sandy, which, without hesitation, would require 
walls of firm substance to contain it, of course large timbers of pitch pine were by the engineer deemed the most 
convenient, and the cheapest material for that purpose. 

2d. An old fort of lime mortar and shell cement walls was, in the first place, tedious and difficult to be demo- 
lished; the earth and terrace within to be levelled by removal, and the former ditches to be filled up. This last 
mentioned work has hitherto chiefly employed the laborei-s, and required to be effected, before a beginning of the 
new fort could be attempted. This part alone was a considerable object. 

3d. The custom and disposition of laborers here, whether masters of slaves or otherwise, is, not to be employed, 
by a particular contract, to perform removal of earth, &c. by measurement, nor could any laborers be employed on 
condition of finding themselves either provisions or tools. 

The only resource, tiierefore, either to begin, or continue, the erection of the fort, was to hire laborers by the 
month, ancf to find them rations, utensils of cooking, and tools to work with; the whole of which supply has been 
committed to the care of a superintendent. 

Exclusively of levelling the former fort, the laborers have been employed, by intervals, in fixing ways and rollers 
to manage large timbers troin the water up the hill, and around the fort; also, at times, in carrying up timbers, 
scantling, boards, shingles, &c. 

You will please observe, that in order to forward the building of the fort, it became expedient that contracts 
for materials, &c. as before said, should be made, so as to be in readiness when required, and which should prevent 
any delay of operation that certainly otherwise would have happened, especially, as hitherto, only one thousand dol- 
lars have been ordered to the hands of the agent, it would have been greatly disadvantageous to have discontinued 
the work precisely at the expenditure of the said sum, and then to have recommenced the same on receiving an addi- 
tional supply of money. The situation and nature of the undertaking was such as would by no means, consistent 
with the interest of the United States, admit of an interval. 

Reliance is therefore had that the remaining part of $2,873 76, say $1,873 76, will be ordered for the purpose of 
discharging the necessary contracts already mentioned, and further to carry on the building of the fort. 

The carpenter's work of the house for the barracks is now nearly done; but in regard to the fort, it can only be said, 
•with propriety, to be begun, therefore it is impossible to say or to judge at this time, any proportion the present ex- 
penditure bears in comparison to the whole. Whenever the progress of the work will properly admit, the said pro- 
portion shall be transmitted. 

Mr. Martinon, the engineer, informs me that he has wrote to you on the subject of the fort. I presume his let- 
ters contain information that the said $2,873 76, will certainly be far inadequate to the completion of the fort The 

• This is not more than half the quantity of timber estimated for that purpose. 



1794.] FORTIFICATIONS. 101 

peculiar and unfavorable circumstances, as aforementioned, render it an impossibility to finish tlie same with the 
sum first estimated. 

Should a further sum be allowed, it would be to the interest of the United States that the same be timely ordered, 
to the end that a discontinuance of the work should not happen. 

I have now to apologize for the length of tiiis letter, by assuring you that it has been thus extensively continued 
with the intent of conveying to your idea a full view of all circumstances and parts of the premises. 



Copy of a letter from (he Governor of North Carolina to the Secretary of If ar, dated 

Newbern, November 4, 1794, 
Sir: 

Mr. Blanks, the superintendent of the works of the fort'at Beacon Island , returned a few days since from that 
place, and informs me that he has raised the foundation agreeable to the plan which was forwarded to you by the 
engineer, three feet nine inches above the surface. The time for which the hands, who were employed about this 
woik, having expired, together with the disadvantages of the approaching season, has induced liim to think it must 
for the interest of the United States, that nothing further should be done until the spring. The superintendent sug- 
gests as a reason why the works are not more advanced tiian tiiey are, is owing to the particular situation of the 
place, he not being able only to work at such times as tiie tide would permit. He is of opinion that the most mate- 
rial part of the work is accomplished. He has applied to me to know from whom lie is to receive his pay; and as 
you have been silent on the subject, I have to request that you will inform me on whom he is to call for it. 

RICHARD DOBBS SPAIGHT. 



FORTIFICATIONS AT CHARLESTON AND GEORGETOWN, SOUTH CAROLINA, AND AT SAVANNAH AND 

ST. MARY'S, GEORGIA. 

Instructions to Paul Hyacinte Perrault, acting as temporary Engineer, in the service of the United States. 
Sir: 

In pursuance of the directions of the President of the United States, you are hereby appointed an engineer, 
for the purpose of fortifying the port and harbor of Charleston, in the State cf South Carolina. 

You are, therefore, immediately to repair to that place, and in case the Governor should be near the said port, you 
are to wait upon him and exhibit these instructions But, if the Governor should be at any considerable distance from 
the said port, you are, respectfully, to notify him of your appointment, enclose a copy of these instructions, and 
inform him that you have repaired to the port aforesaid, in order to make the necessary surveys and investigations, 
relatively to your mission, which you will submit to his consideration and take his orders thereon. 

As soon as you shall receive his approbation of your plan, you are to construct the works, and to execute them 
with all possible vigor and despatch. 

The lollowing is an extract of the estimate, on which the appropriations for the fortifications have been founded. 
The proportion of expenses, therefore, herein stated, for the port aforesaid, must not be exceeded, viz : 
Charleston, to be fortified witii 72 pieces, which may be divided into three sets of batteries and re- 
doubts, - - - - - - - - - - $11,212 32 

It will be readily perceived, by the lowness of the estimate, that the parapets of the works intended to be erect- 
ed, are to be of earth, or, where that cannot easily be obtained of an adhesive quality, the parapets may be faced 
with strong timber, and filled in with such earth as can be had. 

It is, however, conceived that, in most cases, earth may be procured, and that a parapet made thereof will not 
only form a solid defence, but even be durable, if the earth be tenacious and properly sloped, and sodded inside and 
out, and the seed of knotgrass sown so as to bind the sods and earth together. 

It is, however, apprehended that the embrasures made in this manner would suffer from the explosion of the pow- 
der from the cannon, and that, therefore, where the batteries are not en barbette, that the embrasures ought to be 
formed of joist, and faced with plank of two inches thick. 

When the batteries are to be erected on points of land, islands, or other places, at a distance from the towns in- 
tended to be defended, they ought to be covered, or secured, by a redoubt or other enclosed work, in which the gar- 
rison should reside constantly, either in a barrack, or a strong block house, as shall be judged most expedient But, 
in general, as the garrisons will^be weak in numbers, a block house mounting one or two small pieces of cannon, in 
its upper story, will be more secure, and therefore to be preferred. These, however, ought not to be much, if any, 
exposed to the fire of heavy cannon. A block house will not contain more than fifty men. If the garrison, therefore, 
should be enlarged, tents must be used. 

The redoubts, in general, ought to be of a size to contain five hundred men, so as to resist a sudden enterprise of 
an enemy, and perhaps the idea ought to be embraced, in the first instance, that they should be of such extent as 
to admit timber casemates, to be erected hereafter, so as to enable the garrison to resist, in some tolerable degree, 
a bombardment. 

But it is not proposed, at present, to erect such casemates, excepting for a magazine, which must be formed of 
massy timber, and be six feet thick on the roof, exclusive of the earth, and jointed and calked in such a manner 
as to be perfectly tight. Care must be taken to have these magazines properly ventilated, and free from dampness. 
They are to be of a size sufficient to hold one hundred and fifty rounds of powder for each piece of cannon intendetl 
to be served from it- The spot at which a magazine of this nature shall be fixed, will require great judgment, so 
as to combine security against an enemy, either open or subtle, or any danger from common accidents. 

Your judgment will also direct what parts of your works shall be protected by fraizes, and what by palisadoes, 
or whether your redoubts shall have embrasures, or fire c« barbette with small cannon. As the redoubts are to 
cover the batteries they would certainly secure and resist better without embrasures. The batteries are to annoy. 

The choice of the ground on which the batteries and works are to be erected, whether to have embrasures, or to tire 
enbarbette, -with the new sea coast carriages, with all the combinations and ettects depending on them, will rest upon 
your judgment, under the directions of the Governor. It has not been intended, by any thing herein specified, to 
point out the particular manner in which the works should be erected. Outlines only have been given, to serve in 
regulating the expense, which is limited by the sums before mentioned. 

Some person, in whose ingenuity and industry confidence can be placed, will be appointed, at the said port, to 
superintend the actual execution of the works according to your directions. Arrangements will also be made, by 
him, or some other person, to obtain the necessary workmen, implements, and materials, which will be required in 
this business. But every thing must be previously calculated and estimated by you. 

Although the business, herein entrusted to your charge, is, in itself, of a highly honorable nature, and strongly 
evincive of the confidence of the President of the United States, and which would probably enhance your reputa- 
tion, yet it is to be explicitly understood by you, that the employment is only temporary, and not conferring, or in- 
volving, any military rank whatever. 

For a compensation for your services, and personal expenses, you will be allowed and paid at the rate of four 
dollars per day, while you shall be employed. For all reasonable extra expenses, such as necessary boat hire, and 
persons to assist in your surveys, you vnll be allowetl; but for those you must keep regular accounts and take 
receipts. 

14 m 



102 MILITARY AFFAIRS. [1794. 

You are to deliver to the Governor copies of all your plans, surveys, soundings, &c. and also transmit copies of 
the same to this office. You are also to make a weekly report to this office of your proceedings. 

I have issued my warrant, in your favor, for two nundred dollars, as an advance on account of your extra ex- 
penses. For any sums you may require, on account of your compensation and personal expenses, you must apply to 
me, and I shall order tiie same to be paid in Charleston. 

A reverbeiatory furnace for red liot balls must be erected for each battery. 

All the plans must be accompanied with sections and elevations, so that a complete judgment may be formed 
thereof. An estimate of the expense must also be formed of each work, and the number and size of the cannon in- 
tended must be specified. 

You will have under your immediate orders Jerome Merlie, as a director of artillery artificers, to mount the 
new gun carriages, and John James Lairis, as sub-engineer and interpreter. This appointment to take place from 
the first of this instant, April. 

Given at the War Office of the United States, this eleventh day of April, 1794. 

H. KNOX, Secretary of War. 

Sir: 

You will please to understand, as you have Mr. Stouffunder your orders, that your commission will now ex- 
tend to the fortifications of Charleston and Georgetown, in South Carolina, and to Savannah and St. Mary's, in Geor- 
gia. The places first to be attended to are Charleston and Savannah. Upon your arrival at the former, you are to 
send Mr. Stouft'to survey Savannah river- 

Wap Office, Jlpril 19, 1794. H. KNOX, Secretary of War. 



Copy of a letter from P. H. Perrault to the Secretary of War, dated 
Sir: Charleston, May ith, 1794. 

I have the honor respectfully to inform you, that, after a passage of fourteen days, I am just arrived at Charleston* 
I immediately waited on the Governor, and showed him my instructions, &c. His Excellency was to go the day 
following to Columbia. He informed me that he had already begun some work, under the direction of Colonel Sent^ 
viz; a battery at one of the wharves of the city, and a little other work at Fort Johnston; the expenses of the first 
battery are very considerable; the purchase of wood only, being eight hundred and three dollars. You may judge 
from this the extravagant price of work here. 

Mr. Stouff will sad for Savannah the first favorable wind. Mr. Merlie has made a state of the materials want- 
ed for carriages, and given it to Mr. Desaussure, but this gentleman says he cannot immediately find dry wood, 
either of oak or ash, and that it will not be possible before the next year. At the same time it may be too expensive 
perhaps to complete all the work witii Acajou wood . I think it would be better if you was to send from Philadelphia 
the wood necessary for the great chase; and in the mean time Mr. Merlie will employ himself in making the little, 
and Mobile carriages, of Acajou wood. Should you think it better, he will, on your subsequent order, make the great 
chase of pitch pine wood, but it will be very unsolid. 

I soon visited the harbor and made several soundings. To-morrow I shall draw again the more important places 
where I suppose the batteries will be necessary, in order to fix exactly the just distance between them, and be able to 
calculate their effect, respectively. 

I suppose that, with four fortifications, in addition to the battery of Col. Senf, the protection of Charleston har- 
bor will be very complete; but I cannot help observing to you, that the money allowed is too inconsiderable, and 
I beg you to give me some directions in order to make something useful. You may be assured that I will conduct 
myself with all possible economy. 

You forgot to include in my instructions, what money is appointed for Savannah, Cape St. Maiy's, and George- 
town. I beg you to give me immediate information on that subject, in order that I may be able to regulate ray 
projects and calculations on it. 

Mr. Merlie has just now told me that he has found the necessary wood in Acajou to complete his work. This 
M'ood in my opinion is the better, and he will, with your leave, perform all his work with this wood, in the mean time 
he will make the Mobile carriages. 

It is probable that Mr. Merlie will meet with the same difficulty at Savannah, and probably it will not be so 
easily got over as here; so that perhaps it might be better that Mr. Merlie should make all the carriages here, as well 
for Charleston as for Savannah, Cape St. Mary's, and Georgetown, and ship them, \vhen finished, for the respective 
harbors. 

From P. H. Perrault to the Secretary of War, dated 
Sir: Charleston, May 12, 1794. 

I have the honor respectfully to inform you, that I have taken the plan of the whole of Fort Moultrie, on 
Sullivan's Island, and the plan of Fort Johnston. I shall pursue my operations without any interruption, and hope 
that they will be incessantly finished, and that I shall be able, in the course of next week, to submit all my plans of 
operation to the approbation of General Moultrie. 

On the idea of adhering to the strictest economy, Mr. Merlie has not yet obtained a place for his works, and I 
cannot help observing how many difficulties are occasioned by the absence of the Governor; the loss of time resulting 
from it is inexpressible, and must necessarily hinder me for a long time from beginning my works. I wrote to his 
Excellency some time since, to obtain a place for Mr. Merlie; last Saturday I ought to have received an answer, for 
the want of which I shall lose another week. I wish to have notice of the money appointed for Savannah and 
Georgetown, before my departure from this place. Mr. Stouff has sailed for Savannah. 

It will be necessary, likewise, that Mr. Desaussure should receive positive orders to give me all necessary supplies 
on Hiy first requisition; his praiseworthy wishes to fulfil his appointment with the most complete economy, cause 
much discussion and loss of time. I had found a place for Mr. Merlie in the arsenal, but Mr. Desaussure was 
answered by Mr. Lenox, the arsenal keeper, that the Governoi's consent must be first obtained, in consequence o( 
which I wrote to his Excellency, but, as I said before, have not received an answer, and Mr. Desaussure tells me 
there is no other place but this arsenal, and a little market, for which place the Governor's consent is likewise ne- 
cessary. 

From P. H. Perraidt to the Secretary of War, dated 
Sir: Charleston, May 31st, 1794. 

I have had the honor to receive your letter, and am very glad to find that General Jackson is of the same opin- 
ion with myself and Mr. Stouff; I consequently wrote to the latter to make the necessary operations. 

I have indeed found great hindrance, and Mr. Merlie has scarcely begun his work. It would be necessary, I 
believe, to tell Mr. Desaussure positively that nothing more is requisite than for me to ask, and for him to supply 
whatever may be wanting. 

I had begun, and almost terminated my directions, when sounding and searching in every part of the harbor, I 
discovered a sand bank, largely dry at low water, and keeping one hundred and fifty fathoms long, and sixty wide 



1794.] FORTIFICATIONS. jQg 

to high water; it was believed generall.y by the pilots, that this sand bank was discovered only at low watei-, and 
thatits formation had taken place from fifteen to twenty years. This discovery necessarily altered rny first disposition. 

I send to you the map containing the exact position of this new place; the Governor was amazed when I told 
him of it, and (before any thing was concluded on) wished to see it; I cannot myself determine, before he has decided 
on so important a matter. You will find on the map an explanation of the great advantages of this situation. It is 
morally impossible that, with a fort on this sand bank, and with another on Sullivan's Island, provided with red hot 
bullets, any vessel can pass without being burnt, for they both cross one another at the distance of blank shot. 
The Governor is apprehensive of nothing, but for the solidity ot the foundation, andthe vehement fury of the waves. 

He would have walked on the place last week, but his ill state of health would not permit it; he intends to exa- 
mine it this week. 



From P. H. Perrault to the Secretary oj JVar, dated 
Sir: Charleston-, June 16th, 1794. 

I explained in my former letters the obstructions resulting from the Governor's absence and indisposition, and 
the economy of Mr. Desaussure. I have been indeed much perplexed, but hope all the works will be in as good 
a train as possible; the Governor has appointed die places to be fortified, and the direction of those fortifications. 
I will constantly send you copies of the draughts of them, with the estimation of their expense. The Governor not 
having agreed with my directions, I believe it will be proper, I send you, for my discharge, a memorial concerning 
that matter. 

The Governor will, without doubt, write you on the subject of the patriotism and zealous endeavors of the 
citizens of Charleston. They opened a subscription for supplying the money directed by Congress, which was 
indeed too small for the nature of the work, absolutely necessary in this country, where nothing but sand can be 
found, and which necessitates us to make use of timber revetments both before and behind. On calculation, every 
twenty feet amount to five hundred dollars. The places designed to be fortified are Sullivan's Island, Fort John- 
ston, one battery on a wharf, and another on a little sand bank, opposite Shute's fully. 

Mr. Merlie has begun his works. I think it would be convenient that he should make in this city the carriages 
for Savannah, for it would spare the resulting expense of a new establishment, and purchase of tools, which would 
indeed be very extravagant. It will be very easy to send the carriages by water to Savannah when they are finished. 



Extract from P. H. Perrault to the Secretary of War, dated 

Charleston, July •2Slh, 1794. 
Sir: 

The money appointed for the work of Mr. Merlie is spent — there are only four carriages done. You wish for 
sixty — with what money are they to be performed ? I am obliged to stop this work from the first of August, until I 
receive new orders on your part — the other works are in train, and I hope that the additional money of the subscrip- 
tion, with that supplied by this State, will be suflicient for their accomplishment. The works at Georgetown and 
Savannah are likewise begun. 

Extract from P. H. Perrault to the Secretary of War, dated 

Charleston, August 19th, 1794. 
" The work is carrying on very actively, not only in Charleston, but in Savannah and Georgetown — the battery 
in the city of Charleston is almost finished." 

Copy of a letter from D- De Saussure to the Secretary of fVar, dated 
Sir: Charleston, 1th July, 1794. 

I wrote to you the — — May last, enclosing copy of a requisition made by Mr. Merlie for sundry materials and 
workmen to set about making the gun carriages ordered on new construction, and I then stated the smallness of the 
sum for the object contemplated; and as 1 considered it imprudent to postpone commencing the work until I 
received your answer, I made a beginning, by procuring a proper place for a workshop, and collected some materials 
and workmen, and I enclose you an abstract of the actual expenditure in that work up to the .30th ult. amounting 
to seven hundred and seventy-one dollars, thirty cents. I refer you to a note I have made on the abstract, of several 
charges which will come into this account, and which cannot at present be ascertained; but will altogether form a 
considerable sum, perhaps such a one as will, in addition to the abstract, amount to more than one thousand dollars, 
the sum allotted. The workmen are still employed under Mr. Merlie, and will continue so to the end of this month, 
at which time they must cease, unless I receive new directions, with funds for supplies previous thereto, and at 
which time I do not suppose there will be more than five or six of the carriages completed. 

You have, herewith, an abstract of the expenditures for the fortifications at Fort Darrell and Fort Johnston, 
amounting to three thousand four hundred and ninety-seven dollars twenty-nine cents, including materials and 
workmanship previous to Mr. Perrault's arrival. Those works I formerly stated to you were begun under the direc- 
tion of Col- Senf, by order of the Governor, and as those works have been continued by Mr. Perrault, with such of 
the materials as remained, I deemed it proper to pay those accounts. Fort Darrell is far advanced in its completion, 
and for some time past it has been of no expense to the United States for mechanical labor — that part being done 
gratis by the carpenters of this city. We have a great number of negroes sent gratis, who are employed as common 
laborers to remove the timber from place to place, and filling in the earth as the wood vyork rises. I presume Mr. 
Perrault has informed you it is not possible to erect any works here with earth, unless first cased with timber, the 
earth being of a very light soil, nay, sand itself, consequently not adhesive. 

Although negroes have been sent gratis, it was stipulated rations should be supplied to them. I consented to do 
so, on the principle of propriety; as we have the labor gratis, it is as little as we can do to feed them. Subscriptions 
for carrying on the fortifications have been liberal — eight thousand days' labor of negroes, four thousand feet of 
ranging timber, and between seven and eight hundred pounds, have been subscribed; in consequence of which the 
laborers have begun at Fort Johnston and i^ullivan's Island, to prepare to begin the works. You will observe two 
canoes charged in the account; it is unavoidable, as we could not transport the timber from one place to another, 
and also the people employed at Fort Johnston and Sullivan's Island, without; and I found by experience, it would 
not do to hire them; there i^ also a charge for a horse, saddle, and bridle, furnished Mr. Perrault; he alleged he 
wanted a horse to go from one work to another here, and that he must be found one at the expense of the United 
States — he enforced his claim by an order from the Governor. I will thank you for your opinion on this article. 



From D. De Saussure to the Secretary of War, dated 
Sir: Charxeston, 13/A Sept. 1794. 

I have received the two thousand dollars additional which you directed to be remitted on account of the artil- 
lery department. I now enclose you an abstract statement on that account up to 31st last month, amounting to two 



104 MILITARY AFFAIRS. [1794. 

thousand three hundred and forty three dollars thirty -four cents, which leaves a balance of six hundred and fifty- 
six dollars sixty-six cents, vvhich will be expended by the end of the present month, in completing six carriages 
on the new plan: these, however, are nearly finished, but the Governor has ordered Mr. Merlie twelve carriages for 
twenty-four pounders, on the old construction, six of which are about, but the above balance will fall short of the 
expense for the six on hand; besides, there will be a variety of charges which cannot be ascertained at present; con- 
sequently, if you choose the work to continue, it will be absolutely necessary tojorder me a further remittance. I 
can assure you, I spare no pains in procuring the materials with all the expedition possible, and I can aver that no 
part of the works have been delayed through my inattention. Although I have constantly had negroes on hire, and 
others sent gratis, we have not been able to get as many as could be employed. 

Mr. Habersham has requested I would employ five hundred dollars (which he is to reimburse me) in making 
carriages for Savannah, as it was difiicult to find the proper materials there, but tiiis sum will scarcely be sufiicient 
to make more than two. I am informed the fort built there is altogether en barbette ; if so, two will be of little or 
no consequence. On a conversation with Mr. Merlie, he thinks it would be as well to have the whole made here, 
and then sent to Savannah: having the workshop already fixed here, there would be no new expense on that score, 
and it will not be more expensive to transport the carriages, than the mahogany, wliich must be got here. I have no 
doubt the iron work will be cheaper here tiian at Savannah. You wUl be so good as to give me the earliest instruc- 
tions on this subject; for the present, the workmen will set about two carriages for Savannah, the expense of which 
shall be kept separate from those for this place. 

Enclosed you have an abstract of tlie expenses incurred up to the 31st of August for the fortifications, amounting 
to seven thousand one hundred and eighty-five dollars, thirty-four cents; exclusively of the above amount there is 
nearly one thousand dollars' worth of ranging timber delivered at Fort Johnston and Sullivan's Island, for which I 
have not yet received the bill— -those works being on a large scale, will require a considerable quantity of lumber and 
workmanship, which in my opinion will considerably exceed the sum appropriated by the President, and that sub- 
scribed by the citizens. My engagement, with individuals, either for materials or labor, is to pay monthly, which 
I have hilherto complied with when called upon; at present my funds are nearly exhausted, and unless the collector 
can make me an advance, before he receives directions to place money in my hands, I shall be disagreeably circum- 
stanced. 



FORTIFICATIONS AT WEST POINT. 

State of the If'orks ordered at West Point, staling their situation in the present day of the last of August. 
New York, August 31s?, 1794. By Colonei. Vincent. 

FoKT PiTNAM. — The repairing of the enclosure of the fort is now going on; one part has been altered, according 
to the strong reasons reported in one memorial, which has not yet been seen by the minister; but, as that part of the 
enclosure to be changed was to be new built, it will be a very trifling expense to make the useful proposed alteration. 

Fort Clinton. — It will not be possible for this year to begin any works; and it will be sufficient to collect every 
necessary material, during this season, in order to be ready to begin very early in the beginning of the spring. It 
should be also very useful, to begin this year the digging of the foundations, in employing the diggers at the task by 
cubic fathoms. We think that this way is the only one to be used in the works ordered by the General Government, 
inasmuch as the laborer's day's work is very high. 

Observations. — The works at West Point are directed by the Major Niven, who may hardly be sufficient for 
so great a business. It will be necessary to employ one engineer more, principally for the important masonry to be 
erected there, which will require great knowledge in that line. The manner of carrying on all the necessary dig- 
gings by task, requires also one man, accustomed to such works, and daily upon tiie spot. The able commander, 
and clever man, Mr. Fleming, ought also obtain the first superintendency upon these important works. 



Copy of the Report of Daniel Niven to the Secretary of War, relatively to the Fortifications at West Point; dated 

Philadelphia, December 12, 1794. 
Sir: 

I conceive it my duty to make the following report: That, from the 20th of May to the 18th day of July last, 
I was employed in superintending lime-burning, collecting stone to Fort Clinton, making and repairing roads, making 
and repairing tools, and repairing such parts of the rear wall of Fort Putnam as I judged sufficient. On the said 
18th day of July, Mr. Vincent, Captain Fleming, and myself concluded, that all the old wall of Fort Putnam, facing 
Fort Clinton, be taken down and rebuilt; enclosing the point, for the advantage of enlarging the battery facing the 
ridge, where Forts Webb and Willis stood. Accordingly, I proceeded, and employed as many miners, masons, 
laborers, and teams, as I could find, that would work to advantage, and have taken away the old wall and built a 
new one, with the foundation on the rock, agreeably to your instructions, on durable principles of masonry. The 
said new wall is raised from twenty to twenty -five feet high, except the gate-way, for want of free-stone to face the 
arch. Nine bomb proof arches are closed over tiie barracks and magazines. I had hopes to finisii four more, but 
the days are so short and cold, and the frost would damage the masonry so much, if the mortar could be worked, 
that I judged it best to discharge the workmen on tlie 22d day of November, except a very few under the direction 
of Captain Fleming. It was impossible to carry on the works without great damage to the public service. 

Several arrangements ought to be made this winter, that the works may be carried on to advantage the ensuing 
season; that the laborers be hired by the month, and forfeit something if they leave the works without timely notice: 
that a forage store be established; tliat the brick be moulded in the shape of a key stone, to turn the arches. This 
will make strong work, and save great labor. 

Enclosed is a rough sketch of Fort Putnam, made in the manner I should recommend it to be finished. 

D. NIVEN. 

Copy of a circular letter to the persons employed to obtain labor, implements, and materials, for the Fortifications. 

War Department, March 29, 1794. 

Sir: 

You having been appointed for the purpose of obtaining the labor, iniplements, and materials, for the fortifica- 
tions which are to be erected at , in pursuance of a law of the United States, for that purpose, are to 

regard the following instructions as the general rule of your conduct. 

First. Upon the engineer's or superintendent's of the works making a requisition upon you, in writing, for labor or 
workmen, to erect earth works, of the description which he shall give, you will consider well whether the object 
described could be accomplished, with more economy, by a contract with some responsible per.son or persons, at a 
certain rate per cubical yard, or by hiring individuals per day; in general, it is tne most saving mode to remove 
earth by contract; if this, upon full investigation, should appear to be the case, you vrill of course adopt it. 



1794.] FORTIFICATIONS. IO5 

Second. It will be expected that, for any mechanical work to be performed, whether relatively to the fortifica- 
tions, or the mounting ot artillery, that you will obtain every article upon the best terms possible. This will be es- 
sential, for the sake ot your own reputation, as it is not improbable that all the accounts respecting this business may 
hereafter be published. Besides which, the accounting officers of the treasury will rigidly examine every charge, 
and, it exorbitant, or not well vouched, they will make the necessary deductions. 

Third. It is to be understood by you, that the requisition in writing upon you, by the engineer, or by the super- 
intendent, authorized by the engineer for that purpose, will be essential in the passing your accounts. It is possible, 
however, that some other person than the engineer may hereafter be appointed to mount the cannon; in that case, 
he will exhibit his appointment to you before you furnish any supplies. 

The sum contemplated for the port of is not to be exceeded without some pressing reason. 

It will be necessary, therefore, at the time that the first moiety of the said sum should be expended, that you 
should enclose me an abstract of the articles for which it has been disbursed, together with a statement of tiie engi- 
neer or superintendent, of the proportion which the sum expended bears to the whole work, takin" into considera- 
tion the purchase ot any materials which are to serve for the general object. • ° 

The amount ot the expenses for making new carriages for cannon, cannot now be ascertained; but the Secretary 

of the Treasury will place dollars in your hands, to be appropriated to that object. 

lam, &c. H.KNOX. 



Copy of a circular letter la the Engineers, dated 

War Department, July 24, 1794. 
Sir: 

I request that you would, upon mature consideration, determine upon the quantity of ground which will be 

indispensably necessary for the accommodation of the fortifications of . You will please to report the said 

quantity in acres to ■_ , the agent at ■ , in order that he may take the necessary measures !or pur- 
chasing the same, and you will please, also, to make a duplicate report to this office. 

Permit me to urge the season of the year, which is advancing, as a strong inducement to placing all the fortifi- 
cations under your direction in a state of defence, and of completing them, as far as possible, with the funds which 
have been designated. 

I am, &c. H. KNOX. 



Copy of a letter from the Secretary of War to the Secretary of the Treasury. 

War Department, March 29, 1794. 
Sir: 

The estimates herein enclosed, relatively to the fortifications, is a copy of the one presented to the committee 
of Congress, and is presumed to have been contemplated in the law making the appropriations upon the subject. 
Some places, however, are mentioned in the law which are not contained in the estimate. 

It will be necessary to appoint some man of character for integrity and intelligence in each of the places to be 
fortified, for the purpose of obtaining the labor and materials necessary for the fortifications. I presume the appoint- 
ment of such persons will belong to your department, and, under this impression, I have conceived it proper, on my 
part, to draught a letter according to the purport of No. 2. 

As it will be perceived that garrisons are contemplated, it will be necessary that some arrangement be also made 
for furnishing the rations and other necessary supplies in the Quartermaster's department. 

You will decide upon the proportions of the sums for the fortifications, to be placed in the hands of the agent to be 
appointed. They ought to be sufficient to obtain every thing which shall be wanted, so that the works may not lan- 
guish for want of the necessary means. 



Copy of a letter from the Secretary of the Treasury to the Secretary of War. 

July 7, 1794. 
Sir: 

The Congress of the United States having, by their act of the 9th of June, 1794, appropriated a further sum 
of thirty thousand dollars, in addition to the seventy-six thousand dollars heretofore granted for the purpose of for- 
tifying certain ports and harbors in the United States, making together one hundred and six thousand dollars, I 
have to request you will be pleased to furnish me, as soon as convenient, with a memorandum of the manner in 
which the said sum of one hundred and six thousand dollars is to be apportioned among the several ports and har- 
bors, designated to be fortified by the acts of Congress of the 20th March and 9th May, 1794, that I may be enabled 
to ascertain, with precision, what further sums remain to be remitted to the persons respectively appointed to dis- 
burse the moneys. 

I have the honor to be, sir, &c. 



Copy of a letter from the Secretary of fVar to the Secretary of the Treasury. 

War Department, July 9, 1794. 
Sir: 

Agreeably to your request of the 7th instant, I have the honor of transmitting you the sums to be expended 
upon the fortifications specified by the laws, the entire appropriation for which amounts to one hundred and six 
thousand dollars. The sums apportioned to the different places amount to one hundred and lour thousand and 
twenty-five dollars and fifty-two cents, leaving a balance of one thousand nine hundred and seventy -four dollars 
and forty-eight cents, to be apportioned hereafter to such places as may be deemed necessary. 



106 MILITARY AFFAIRS. [1794. 

St. Mary's, .--... 

Savannah, .--... 

Charleston, 

Georgetown, ---..-. 

Wilmington, N. C. 

OcracocK, ---... 

Norfolk, ----_- 

Alexandria, - - - - . , . 

Annapolis, - - - . - 

Baltimore, 

Wilmington, .---.. 

Philadelphia, ..---.. 

New York, - 

New London and. Groton, - - - - - 

Newport, .-.-.. 

Boston, -..-.. 

Salem, -.--.. 

Cape Ann, ...... 

Marblehead, ------ 

Portsmouth, -_---.. 

Portland, - - - - 



1,423 84 


3,737 52 
16,212 32 
1,433 84 


3,873 76 
3,157 68 
6,737 52 
3,000 00 
3,000 00 


6.225 44 


3,000 00 
14,913 82 
12,522 36 

3,000 00 


4,500 00 
8,749 28 
1,423 84 


1,423 84 
1,423 84 
2,527 34 


2,749 28 


$104,025 52 



Sir: 



Copy of a letter from the Secretary of War to the Secretary of the Treasury. 

War Department, July 24, 1794. 



I have the honor to transmit you a copy of a circular letter to the several engineers employed for fortifying 
certain ports and harbors of the United States; and I beg leave to request that you will take such measures as you 
may deem proper for the purchase of such tracts of land at the places, respectively, as shall be designated by the en- 
gineers to the agents. 



Secretary of War to the Comptroller qf the Treasury. 

October 16, 1794. 
Sir: 

I have the honor to represent to you, that it will be requisite to add to the sums heretofore apportioned for the 
fortifications of the following places, the sums herein specified: 

Portland, -.---.-. 900 

Portsmouth, -------- 600 

Cape Ann, -------- 600 

Salem, -------- 600 

Marblehead, -------- 900 

Newport and Rhode Island, - - - - - - 500 



$4,100 



Unless the sums shall be furnished, it is apprehended the works will be left unfinished, and all which has been 
done may be useless in a great degree. The sums now requested may be considered as deducted from the sum of 
eight thousand seven hundred and forty-nine dollars and twenty-eight cents, heretofore apportioned to Boston, and 
which will not be expended this year, owing to some difliculties which have arisen on the part of the State Govern- 
ment to the fortifying of that harbor. 

I request you will be pleased to direct the sums before mentioned to be transmitted to the agents of the said 
places, respectively. 



Copy of a letter from the Secretary of the Treasury to the Secretary of War. 

Treasury Department, December 17, 1794. 
Sir: 

In reply to your letter of this date, I have the honor to inform you,that no general instructions have gone from 
this Department to the collectors, relative to the purchase of the lands on which fortifications might be erected, 
from an expectation that the information necessary for the government of the treasury would come in course through 
the channel designated in your letter to me of the 24th of July last. 

The enclosed memorandum exhibits a view of all the cases in which cessions and purchases have been made, or 
measures taken to effect the object thereof. The treaty for the purchase of the land on which the fortifications are 
erecting at Baltimore is suspended for the present, on account of a very material difference in opinion with respect 
to the value of it. 

I ain, sir, respectfully, your most obedient servant, 

A. HAMILTON. 

The inhabitants of Marblehead have ceded to the United States the land on which the fortifications are erecting. 
Another piece of land adjoining thereto has, at the request of the engineer, been purchased from Russell Trevett, for 
two hundred and fifty dollars; to which sum, however, are to be added sixty dollars paid to a person to relinquish 
his right to the fishing flakes. 

The inhabitants of Salem have ceded to the United States the land on which the fortifications are erecting. 

The Governor of Virginia has been authorized to purchase the land at Norfolk, provided the cost does not exceed 
one thousand dollars. 

The collector at Baltimore has been directed to take measures for ascertaining the value of the land at Whet- 
stone Point, near Baltimore, whereon the fortifications are erecting. 

Treasury Department, December 17, 1794. 



1795.] FORTIFICATIONS. 107 

Statement qf Moneys transmitted from the Treasury Department to be placed in the hands of the agents for the 
fortifications at the following places, to wit: 

Portland, Maine, - - - - - - 3,399 28 

Portsmouth, New Hampshire, .....•- 2^877 34 

Gloucester, Massachusetts, - - - - - - 1,773 84 

Salem, do. -....- 1,773 34 

Marblehead, do. - - - - - - 2,013 84 

Boston, do. ----- - 2,000 00 

Newport, Rhode Island, -.-... 4^500 OO 

New London, Connecticut, ------ 3,000 00 • 

New York, - - - - - - - 12,522 36 

Philadelphia, - - - - - - - 11,913 82 

Wilmington, Delaware, ...---- 1,000 00 

Baltimore, Maryland, ..---. 5,200 00 

Annapolis, do. ...-.- 2,750 00 

Norfolk, Virginia, ------- 7,797 52 

Alexandria, do. - - - - - - - 1,000 00 

Cape Fear, North Carolina, ------ 2,873 76 

Ocracock, do. ,..-.. 1,000 00 

Charleston, South Carolina, ------ 15,000 00 

Georgetown, do. .--.-. 1,000 00 

Savannah, Georgia, ------ 3,537 52 

St. Mary's, do. - - - - - - . 1,173 84 

$88,106 96 



3d Congress.] ■ ]Vo. 23- [2d Session-. 

MILITIA. 

COMMUNICATED TO THE HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES, DECEMBER 29, 1794. 

Mr. Giles, from the committee appointed to prepare a plan for the better organizing, arming, and disciplining the 
Militia of the United States, made the following report: 

That they are of opinion the plan for organizing, arming, and disciplining the militia, already adopted by law, 
may be made competent to all the purposes of an efficient militia, by remedying the difficulties and inconveniences 
which have occurred in the execution of the same. 

That the principal difficulties and inconveniences which have occurred in the execution of the militia system, 
particujarly respect the incompetent provisions for arming them, and for calling them forth to execute the laws of 
the United States, suppress insurrections, and repel invasions. 

It appears to the committee, that the principal defects in the existing provisions for arming the militia, consist 
in the want of a competent source of supplying the arrasj the want of some provision for furnishing persons with 
ai-ms, who may be deemed unable to furnish themselvesj and the want of adequate and uniform penalties to enforce 
a compliance with the requisitions of the existing militia laws. 

The committee not having that part of this subject committed to them, which respects the calling forth of the 
militia, recommend the following resolution: 

Resolved, That the act, entitled " An act more effectually to provide for the national defence, by establishing 
an uniform militia throughout the United States," ought to be amended; and that further provision ought to be 
made, by law, for arming the militia of the United States, and for enforcing the execution of the existing militia 
laws, by adequate and uniform penalties. 



3d Congress.] ]Vo. 24.* [2d Session. 

FORTIFICATIONS. 

COMMUNICATED TO THE HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES, JANUARY 28, 1795. 

Mr. Samuel Smith, from the committee to whom was recommitted the report of the committee to whom was referred 
the report of the Secretaiy of War, respecting the fortifications of the United States, made tfje following report: 

That, by an estimate of the Secretary of War, during the last session, the following sums were considered 
as sufficient to fortify the following ports and harbors, viz: 

Portland, in the District of Maine, - - . $2,749 28 

Portsmouth, in New Hampshire, - - . 2,964 22 

Gloucester, Massachusetts, - - - - 1,423 84 



108 MILITARY AFFAIRS. [1795- 

Salem, Massachusetts, .... 1,423 84 

Marblehead, Do- - . . . 1,423 84 
Boston, Do. 

Newport, Rhode Island, .... 3,000 00 

New London and Groton, Connecticut, ' - - - 5,498 56 

New Yoi-k, - - - - ' - - 12,52'2 26 

Philadelphia, - . , 1 . . 8,737 94 
Wilmington, Delaware. 

Baltmorl' 1 ^^^'y^^n'^' ... - 4,225 44 

Norfolk, Virginia, . - - . . 3,737 58 

Alexandria, Do. 

Oc^acocTinlet,! North Carolina. - - - . 4,647 60 

Charleston, South Carolina, ..... 11,212 39 

Georgetown, Do. 

Savannah, 7 Georgia, - - - - 3,737 52 

St. Mary's, 3 *= ' ' 

The statements for Boston, and Wilmington, in Delaware, are not noted, inconsequence of Castle William 
being held by the State of Massachusetts, and no proceeding haying taken effect in respect to Wilmington. Alex- 
andria is not estimated, and the committee are of opinion that it is not necessary now to complete the work. An- 
napolis stands by a particular act, and it is suggested no estimate may be made on that subject, as the President is 
already empowered to go on with the works, if he thinks necessary. 

The committee are of opinion, that the following sums will be sufficient to complete the fortifications, agreeably 
to the original intention, viz.: 

Portland, - - - - - - $1,000 

Portsmouth, ..... 1,000 

Gloucester, - - - - - 1,000 

Salem, - - • - - 1,000 

Marblehead, ..... i,000 ' 

Rhode Island, - - - - - 3,000 

Connecticut, - - - - - 2,000 

New York, ..... 8,000 

West Point, ..... 7,500 

Pliiladelphia, ..... 5,000 

Baltimore, -----. 2,500 

Norfolk and Portsmouth, .... 3,000 

Ocracock, - - - - - a,000 - 

Wilmington, - - - - , - 1,500 

Charleston and Georgetown, .... 5,000 

Savannah and St. Mary's, .... 3,000 

$46,500 



Your committee, taking into view every circumstance connected with this subject, submit the following reso- 

Besolved, That a sum, not exceeding fifty thousand dollars, be appropriated for the purpose of completing the 
fortifications of certain ports and harbors'in the United States. 



4th Congress.] No. 25. [1st Session 

MILITARY FORCE, ARSENALS, AND STORES. 

COMMUNICATED TO THE SENATE, DECEMBER 15, 1795. 

War Office, December 12, 1795. 

By the direction of the President of the United States, I have the honor to present, herewith. No. 1, A state- 
ment of the present military force of the United States; No. 2, A report of the measures which have been pursued 
to obtain proper sites for arsenals; and No. 3, A reportof the measures which have been taken to replenish the ma- 
gazines with military stores. 

And am, most respectfully, sir, your obedient servant, 

TIMOTHY PICKERING. 
The Vice President of the United States and President of the Senate. 



1793.2 



MILITARY FORCE, ARSENALS,AND STORES. 



109 



,3 Statement of the present Military Force of the United States. 



General staff, 
Cavalry, - 
Artillery, 
Infantry, 



Total, 



17 63 73 



240 

731 

2,357 

3,238 



With General Wayne, including the garrison on the lower parts of the Ohio, and in advance of Fort 
Washington, -------... 

At Pittsburg, Fort Franklin, Presque isle, &c. ----... 

In Georgia, ■■ - - - - ... . . _ 

Sailed to Georgia, -- - - - - - - .. 

In the Southwestern territory, - - - ... . . . 

At West Point, fortifications of the harbors, and the several recruiting rendezvous, - - - 



2,039 
222 

78 
272 
33 



3,228 



^ statement showing at what periods the enlistments cf the non-commissioned officers and soldiers unll expire. 





In Becem- 
ber, 1785. 


From 1st 

January to 

1st July 

1796. 


From 1st 
July, 1796, 

to 1st Jan- 
uar}-, 1797. 


From 1st 
January, 
1797, to 1st 
July 1797. 


From 1st 
July, 1797, 
to 1st Jan- 
uary, 1798. 


From 1st 

January, 

1798, to 1st 

July, 1798. 


From 1st 
July, 1798, 
to 31st De- 
cember, 
1798i 


Not particu- 
larly known, 
supposed to 
expire in 
1798. 


Total. 


■Cavalry, - 
Artillery, - 
Infantry, - 


3 

16 

27 


15 

19 

224 


1 

16 
235 


8 
52 

288 


17 
282 
229 


164 
260 
833 


32 

76 
359 


10 
62 


240 
731 

3,257 


Total - 


46 


258 


252 


348 


528 


1,257 


467 


72 


3,228 


Depak 


riTENT OF "^ 


War, Dece 


nher 12, 17 


35. 




TIMOTH 


Y PICKE 


RING. 



Beporl oftlie Secretary of War on the measures which have been pursued to obtain proper sites for .Arsenals- tvhich 
is respectfully submitted to the Senate of the United States: 

It having been determined to erect one arsenal on the Potomac, and another in South Carolina, the latter in a 
situation to and from which water transportation would be afforded, and the former in the vicinity of a number of 
iron works, the necessary orders were given in the year 1794 for exploring both countries. The agent, employed on 
-the former, reported in the same year in favor of a situation about twenty-five miles below the bfue rid-'e, where a 
number of circumstances invited the establishment. In an undertaking, however, of such importance and perma- 
nency, it was deemed expedient to make another examination. This was done last Spring. The en°ineer em- 
ployed, pursuant to his instructions, reported the situation of various places, where it would be practicable to erect 
the necessary woi-ks and magazines, with their respective advantages and disadvantages; and at what prices thev 
could probably be obtained. These were all extremely high; and one far exceeded the whole appropriation for all 
the arsenals proposed to be erected. For this reason another place, comprehending several lots of land had the 
preference; and the requisite negotiations were begun for making the purchases. Before these were concluded the 
attention of the Executive was called to another situation on the Potomac, possessing, with some difficulties to be 
encountered, apparently many important advantages. The engineer was again instructed to examine this place 
from whence he has lately returned. The American gentleman, well acquainted with the country, and who assisted' 
him in this examination, was to have transmitted a survey of the place referred to, and of the adjacent wafers on 
which the engineer's report would be completed. The survey has not yet been received, and the determination of 
the Executive is consequently suspended. 

The engineer employed, for the like purpose, in South Carolina, made a report, which was received early in the 
last Summer. He had explored that part of the country to which his attention had been directed by the Executive 
He also examined another. The latter, independent of its being in a more healthful situation, was deemed by him 
to possess some other advantages over the former. However, he proposed to visit the seat of Government and per 
sonally explain his ideas of the subject. This visit was waited for, but not made; no decision has, conseauentiv 
been taken on his report. ' ' 

The prices of lands and mill seats, (for the latter must be comprehended in the plan of an arsenal ) so far 
exceeded those upon which the calculations were made, when the plan of erecting arsenals was projected and rose 
so rapidly soon after, it is now found thatthe whole appropriation, for the three or four arsenals which the Executive 
was authonsed by law to erect, would be inadequate for a single new establishment. Hence, the principal obiect 
in the measures pursued during the last summer, was to ascertain and secure the most eligible site on the Poto' 
mac, where magazines could be erected, and certain military stores be collected and safely deposited; and where 
atterwards, the works necessary, in the formation of all the implements of war, might be erected, as the reauisite 
lunds could oe provided. ^ 

. In a country where such establishments are unknown, and where the actual state of things admits of a suspen- 
sion of some of them, consistently with the public safety, it would seem expedient to make an experiment with anf 
15 m 



110 MILITARY AFFAIRS. [1796. 

in a central position. The obvious principles of economy recommend this caution; and the avoiding of defects 
likely to appear in a first attempt, aiid the probability of solid improvements, which experience would suggest, in a 
second, strongly enforce it. -,.,■,, 

Sprin^tield, in tlie State of Massachusetts, was at once fixed on as a proper situation tor the arsenal to be esta- 
blished in tlie eastern division oftiie States. Magazines, for military stores, had been formerly erected at that place. 
Some atlditional buildings have been made, and a number of workmen collected for the purpose of repairing and 
manufacturing small arms. The former has been executed, and the latter commenced. 

Department of War, December 12, 1795. 

TIMOTHY PICKERING. 



Report of the Secretary of War on the measures which have been taken to replenish the magazines with military 

stores. 

In respect to some of the most essential articles, the stock on hand is respectable; and, as to others, the maga- 
zines are now not ill supplied. 

A contract has been made for a large quantity of saltpetre; and probably it is now on its way from India. This 
important article may, however, be obtained in the Western parts of the United States. The fact is ascertained. 
Forty or fifty tons have been brought from those parts to Philadelphia for sale, and it is said that several hundred 
tons might be procured, in the same way, in the course of the next summer, if needed. 

To increase the stock of small arms, and to render serviceable those already in the public stores, two sets of 
armorers have been employed, to wit: at Springfield, Massachusetts, and at New London, in Virginia, in repairing 
arms, and preparing to manufacture the most essential parts of muskets; and some specimens have been produced 
■which prove their capacity to equal, in that article, the manufacture of any country in the world. All the arms in 
the magazines in Philadelphia have been repaired, with some thousands at West Point, where the residue are now 
repairing. 

In addition to these sources of supply, besides two thousand rifles which have been purchased, contracts have 
been made, and are executing, for seven thousand muskets, to be manufactured in the United States. The present 
period may be deemed an unfavorable one to carry on such manufactures, on account of the high price of labor; 
nevertheless, it seemed important to secure the services of the manufacturers, when they might be of the highest 
necessity, by continuing to furnish them employment. Such muskets as are manufactured are after the model of 
the French arms, which compose, by far, the greatest part of those in our magazines. For this reason, and because 
they are preferable to those of any other nation known in the United States, it was apparently inexpedient to make 
an importation of arms from Europe; seeing a supply was not to be expected from France, and tlie situation of the 
United States not rendering the measure of an immediate importation indispensable. 

The casting of cannon nas not been attended, hitherto, with the expected success. The foundries which for- 
merly succeeded very well in the casting of small guns, were not well adapted to the casting of 24 and 32 pounders. 
A French gentleman, of some knowledge and experience in cannon foundries, has lately been employed to amend 
the process of casting, and to improve the machinery for boring; and there is room to hope that his projected 
improvements will be realized. Nevertheless, in an undertaking so important, and, at the same time, so expensive, 
it was desirable to obtain, if possible, a complete cannon ibunder; and, from the information received, it seemed 
probable that one might be procured from one of the first foundries in Europe. Measures, for that purpose, have 
accordingly been taken. 

All which is respectfully submitted to the Senate of the United States. 

TIMOTHY PICKERING. 

Department of War, December 12, 1795. 



4th Congress.] No. 26. [1st Session. 

FORTIFICATIONS. 

COMMITNICATED TO THE SENATE, BY THE SECRETARY OF WAR, JANUARY 18, 179C. 

State of the Fortifications of the United States. 

War Office, January I6th, 1796. 
Portland, in the District of Maine.— The works consist of a fort, a citadel, a battery for ten pieces of can- 
non, an artillery store, a guard house, an air furnace for heating shot, and a covered way from the fort to the battery. 
The works are substantially executed, excepting the covered way; to complete this, the earth oh the spot being 
of a bad quality, with the necessary supports of stones and sods, is estimated at four hundred dollars. Levelling 
the earth round the works, fencing the land pertaining to them, a pump for the well, painting the wood work, and 
rendering the whole perfectly complete, the estimate is four hundred and seventy-one dollars, in the whole eight 
hundred and seventy-one dollars- 

Portsmouth, l^ew Hampshire. — The works consist of a fort, a citadel, an artillery store, and a reverberatory 
furnace. These are all completed, excepting a little carpenters' work, suspended to let the wood season, and which 
may cost about fifty dollars. But a small and unforeseen expense must be incurred, for a drain to carry the water 
from the magazine, and may cost one hundred dollars. 

Gloucester, (.Cape .^wn.)— The works consist of a battery and a citadel. These are completed. But to en- 
close the fort, towards the town, the cost is estimated at one thousand four hundred dollars. This, however, may 
be postponed till circumstances require it to be done. 

Salem.— The works, consisting of a fort and citadel, have been erected. 
A gate remains to be made, and some repairs to the walls. 

Marblehead.— A battery and a citadel have been erected. Any other works may be suspended until circum- 
stances shall change. 

Newport, in Rhode Island.— Fovthe defence of this harbor there have been erected, on Goat Island, a fort, a 
citadel, and an air furnace. The excellency and importance of this harbor, in time of war, recommend a further 
expenditure, to render the defence complete. To finish the fort, erect an artillery store, and make a covered way 
round it, as in a regular fortification, the expense is estimated at about six thousand dollars. 



1796.] FORTIFICATIONS. Ill 



There have also been erected a citadel on Tammany Hill, back of the town of Newport, for the protection of 
its inhabitants, and a battery and guard house, at Rowland's Ferry, at the northern end of the island, to keep open 
a communication with the main, in case of an invasion. But, to secure effectually this communication, a citadel 
should be erected on Butts' Hill, that position commanding Howland's Ferry and Bristol Ferry. The cust of it is 
estimated at eighteen hundred dollars. 

New London.— The works consist of a fort and citadel, on the Groton side of the harbor, and of a fort, a cita- 
del, and an air furnace, on the New London side. They remain incomplete. Under present circumstances, a 
small expenditure may be proper, merely to preserve what has been done. 

New York.— Governor's Island has been fortified with a fort made of earth, and two batteries under its protec- 
tion, partly lined with brick masonry, two air furnaces, a large powder magazine, and a barrack for the garrison; 
the whole completed. 

Philadelphia. — A large pier, as the foundation for a battery, on a sand bar, opposite Mud Island, to make a 
cross fire, has been completed. A fort, on Mud Island, is about half done, and a citadel has been erected to com- 
plete the fort, and on a plan much more circumscribed than was at first projected. The expense is estimated at fif- 
teen thousand dollars. 

yVii.MmGTOs, in the Delaware .S'/afe.— Nothing has been done. The project of erecting a fort there has been 
abandoned as useless. ^ 

Baltimore. — A battery and barracks have been constructed, and some guns are mounted. 

Annapolis.— Some progress had been made in the construction of a fort and battery, and a barrack has been 
erected. But an examination of the works by an engineer, other than the one first employed, produced an unla- 
vorable report of the plan of the works; and, under actual circumstances, induced a relinquishment of them. 

A similar report as to the plan and situation of the work at 

Alexandria, induced a like relinquishment. 

Norfolk. — Two forts, intended to cross their fire, are erected on the opposite sides of the harbor- The one on 
the Norfolk side, with barracks and a powder magazine, is completed. The other, Fort Nelson, on the Portsmouth 
side, is very far advanced, and a powder magazine has been erected. Tlie principal work remaining to be done is 
the opening of seven embrasures, completing one ditch of three hundred and sixty feet long, cutting another eleven 
hundred feet long, completing the glacis, and removing the earth from within side of the tort, where it is two feet 
and an half too high. The expense of doing this, and completing the fortification, may be estimated at five thousand 
dollars. 

OcRACOKE, in North Carolina. — The defence proposed was, to erect a fort on Beacon Island. The foundatioti 
was laid in 1794- The situation is so far removed (about ninety miles) from any inhabitants, and so exposes any 
works to injuries from storms, that nothing but an impending or actual war would seem to authorize the construc- 
tion of a fort there, and furnishing it with a proper garrison. 

Wilmington, in North Carolina. — The battery, on the whole front of the fort, has been completed, and a bar- 
rack and powder magazine have been erected. 

Georgetown, South Carolina. — A battery was begun, and materials collected, when the work was suspended, 
the owner of the land previously desiring to ascertain tlie terms on which it was to be occupied, for the fortificatior 
and for the road of communication with it. The unhealthiness of the situation and other circumstances authoriz- 
an abandonment of the work until war, actual or impending, shall require it to be resumed. 

Charleston, South Carolina. — The work planned for Sullivan's Island, of which the foundation only was laid 
in 1794, being on a scale supposed too extensive for the funds destined to this service, was directed to be left as i 
was. For the same reason, a new work, proposed by the engineer, on a point on the opposite side of the harbo 
from Fort Johnston, was not attempted. A battery has been erected in the town, by the mechanics. 

Tiiere remained only Fort Johnston, on which directions were given to make such repairs as would preserve th- 
works already constructed, and render them serviceable. The engineer omitted the work. 

The officer in command at the fort has undertaken to make the necessary repairs of the works and barrack> , 
and his intelligence and experience leave no room to doubt but these will be done. 

Savannah, in Georgia. — The work consists of a battery, at present destined only for six guns, made of timbe. 
filled with earth, and enclosed behind with pickets, with a guard house for the garrison, which were in train to b' 
completed early the last autumn. 

St. Mary's, in Georgia. — The work consists of a battery made of timbers fiiUed with'earth, and enclosed with 
pickets. By the personal report of the superintendent it must have been completed. 

General Remark. — The few ports of the highest importance to the commerce of the United States, in situations 
to demand, for their security, fortifications of such kind and extent as cannot suddenly be erected, prudence may 
require to have fortified, in .time of peace, and with durable materials. 

TIMOTHY PICKERING. 

To the President of the Senate of the United States. 



112 MILITARY AFFAIRS. [1796. 



4th CoN<?RESs.1 No. 27. [1st Session. 

ORGANIZATION OF THE ARMY. 

COMMUNICATED TO THE HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES, MARCH 25, 1796. 

Mr. Baldwin, from the committee appointed to inquire whether any, and what, alterations ought to be made in the 
present military establishment of the United States, made the following report: 

That, in their opinion, the events which have changed, and may be expected still further to change, the relative 
situations of our frontiers, render a review of the military establishment at this time expedient. It is the opinion of the 
committee, that the force to be provided for the defensive protection of the frontiers, need not be so great as what 
had been contemplated for carrying on the war against the difterent tribes of hostile Indians, and which is the 
basis of the present military establishment. 

By the last act on this subject, of March 3d, 1795, the military force of the United States is to be composed of the 
corps of artillerists and engineers, to consist of 992 non-commissioned oflBcers, privates, and musicians; and of a 
legion to consist of 4,800 non-commissioned officers, privates, and musicians. Of these there will be still, in actual 
service, on the first of July next three thousand and four, which the committee suppose will be sufficient to be con- 
tinued as the present military establishment; they therefore recommend the following resolutions: 

Resolved, That these ought to consist of the corps of artillerists and engineers, as established by the act of the 9th 
of May, 1794, and of four regiments of infantry, of eight companies each. 

Resolved, That there be one Brigadier General, five Lieutenant Colonel Commandants, eleven Majors, one Brigade 

guartermaster, and company officers, according to the rules and regulations for the discipline of the troops of the 
nited States. 

Colonel Pickering presents his respects to Mr. Baldwin, with the extract of a letter from Governor Blount, ex- 
pressing an opinion connected with sonie ideas Colonel P. has suggested relative to the military establishment. 
February 4, 1796. 

Extract of a letter from Governor William Blount to the Secretary of War, dated 

"Knoxville, Novernber 2d, 1795. 

"Peace now actually exists between the United States and the Indian tribes, and, in my opinion, may be pre- 
served by the establishment of strong military posts of regular troops upon the frontiers, at proper places, with 
cavalry of the same description, to patrol between them. 

" I do not recommend posts for the preservation of peace, from any inclination that I at present discover or sus- 
pect in either party to disturb it; but peace between frontier people and Indians, when left unrestrained by the hand 
of Government, rests upon so many events, trivial in themselves, that, in my judgment, Government will consult its 
true interest in taking immediate measures to guard against such as may happen-" 

A true abstract from the original, remaining in tiie War Office. 

N. JONES, Clerk. 

_^__^ i 

Objects of the Military Establishment of the United States. 

1st. To occupy the posts already established on the line between the United States and Canada, from Lake 
Champlain to Michillimackinack. To appear respectable in the eyes of our British neighbors, the force with which 
we take possession of the posts should not be materially less than that with which they now occupy them. This 
measure is also important in relation to the Indians, on whom first impressions may have very beneficial effects. 

2d. To occupy the posts established, and to be established, agreeably to the treaty lately concluded with the 
Indians, northwest of the Ohio; including also those from Pittsburg to Presque Isle. 

3d. The treaty concluded with Spain, must, doubtless, give us the posts tliey now occupy at the Chickasaw 
bluti'and the Natchez, which we must garrison. They will be proper stations for opening the tiade with the Chicka- 
saws and Choctaws, and very convenient stations to our citizens navigating the Mississippi. 

4. To preserve peace between the southern Indians and the frontier citizens, from the Cumberland to St. Mary's, 
by restraining the latter from aggressions, particularly by settling on Indian lands. 

5fh. To accomplish the same object, northwest of the Ohio; with the addition of preserving the Indian territory, 
and the proper lands of the United States, from intrusions, and to remove the actual intruders; for they have already 
manifested their rapacity in seizing and possessing the public lands. 

6th. To garrison the most important fortifications on the sea coast. The smaller ones in time of peace may be 
taken care of, each by an individual, such as an invalid, or other poor citizen, at a very small expense. 

In applying the military force to these objects, I have thrown the posts to be occupied into divisions, in each of 
which tnere will be a principal station for the ordinary residence of the commandant of the division. One battalion 
will occupy one of these divisions, and a sub-legion three of them. The lieutenant colonel will take a station the 
most convenient for superintending his sub-legion. A general officer will find abundant employment in visiting and 
regulating all the posts. 

Hence it will seem that I am of opinion, that the present form of our military establishment should be preserved, for 

1st. A military force, not much short of that which now exists, must always be kept up, even in time of peace, 
in order to preserve peace with the Indians, and to protect theirs, and the public lands. 

2d. Though detached so far from Europe, yet having for our neighbors the subjects of two European powers, and 
our extended and extending commerce making all the maritime powers of Europe in some sense our neighbors, we 
cannot expect for ever to escape from war with some of them. In this expectation, will it not be highly important to 
maintain a military arrangement which shall be a model, and furnish instructors, for all the additional corps, which a 
war shall compel us to form? 

3d. Beyond question, the military posts we must occupy, on our vast frontiers, will be numerous, though the 
garrison will be small. But if such remote stations are established with an entire independence of each other, and 
without superior commanding officers to inspect and regulate them, every species of negligence and abuse may be 
expected to be indulged, and practised, in many of them, thus defeating the objects of their establishment. And as 
such visits will frequently be requisite, the higher officers, in their respective divisions, will be the proper inspec- 
tors. A just subordination being thus maintained, the commandants of posts will regularly be responsible, and re- 
port the condition of their commands to their immediate superiors, respectively; these to their respective superior 
inspecting officers; and the latter to the commanding general, who will in one yiew present the state of the military 
forces entire, and of the posts they occupy, to the supreme Executive of the United States. 



1796.] 



ORGANIZATION OF THE ARMY. 



115 



It IS very true, that the number of troops, now on foot, might be commanded by fewer officers; all the infantry 
and riflemen being only about equal to the sub-legions. If, then, the other two sub-legions were reduced it would 
produce a saving for pay, subsistence, and forage for the officers, of about twenty thousand dollars a year This 
doubtless, merits attention; but, in the present moment, the reduction would seem to me inexpedient— ' 

1st. Because the pacific arrangements entered into with Great Britain, and those believed to be formed with 
hpam, remain to be carried into eftect. 

3d. Because we do not yet know what will be the issue of fresh hostilities with the Creeks; they may bring on a gen- 
eral war with that nation, and alone demand a military force equal to. our whole establishment. 

For these reasons, I would submit to the committee, whether it is not prudent to suspend any decision on the 
military establishment to a later period in the season.? Probably in a month or two, every fact that has relation to 
the two neighboring powers, and to the Creeks, will be ascertained in such a manner as to leave no further room for 
hesitation in regard to the extent of our military establishment. By inspecting the return, in the hands of the com- 
mittee, they will perceive that the troops will be reducing, by the mere expiration of their enlistment quite as fast 
as it will be prudent to discharge them. ' 

If the committee shall think proper to suspend their report, they will have the advantage of the information that 
may be derived from General Wayne, (whose arrival is daily expected, ) particularly in regard to the posts which it 
will be expedient to occupy. 

The corps of artillerists and engineers appears to be an important establishment. To become skilful in either 
branch of their profession, will require long attention, study, and practice; and because they can now acquire the 
knowledge of these arts advantageously only from the foreign officers, who have been appointed with a special re- 
ference t9 this object, it will be important to keep the corps together for the present, as far as the necessary actual 
service will permit. Its principal station may then become a school for the purpose mentioned. ' To render this 
school more complete, provision is wanting for a geographical engineer and draughtsman. Such a one may now be 
retained for the establishment of a captain. 

February 3, 1796. . TIMOTHY PICKERING. 

The Committee on the Military Establishment. 



MILITARY STATIONS. 



Infantry. 



Artillery. 



Cavalry. 



Niagara, - 



Pittsburg, 



Fort Washington, 



Greenville, 



Fort Wayne, 



Detroit, 



Georgia, - 

South Western Territory, 



'Lake Champlain, 

Oswego, 

Niagara Fort, 

The Landing at the 
"^ mencement of the 

age, 
I Fort Schlosser, at its 
L Buffiilo creek, 

fPresque Isle, 

JLe Bceuf, 
Franklin, 
Pittsburg, 
Fort Mcintosh, 
Muskingum, 
Gallipolis, 



f Fort Washington, 
i Hamilton, 

] St. Clair, 

L Steuben, 

f Fort Jefferson, 
I Greenville, 

J Recovery, 

"1 Loramie's Store, 
1 Fort Adams, 
LHead of Au-Glaize, 

f Fort Wayne, 
J Defiance, 

j Miami, 

L Sandusky, 

fDetroit, 

J Michillimackinack, 

{ Chicago, 

Old Rorias. 
LMouth of Illinois, 

rHead of Wabash, 

Ouiatanon, 
J Post Vincennes, 
j Fort Masac, 

Chickasaw Bluff, 
LNatchez, 

C Oconee, 
tSt. Mary's, 

C Knoxville District, 
<. Nashville do. 



com- 
port- 
end, 



1 Battalion, 



1 Battalion. 



1 Company. 



1 Battalion, I Battalion, 



1 Troop. 



1 Battalion, 



1 Battalion, 



1 Company. 



1 Company, 



1 Battalion, 2 Companies, 



1 Battalion, 



I 1 Battalion, 

1 



1 Battalion, 
1 Battalion, 



8 Battalions, | 4 Battalions, 



1 Company. 



1 Company. 



1 Company. 



1 Company, 



5 Companies, 



2 Troops. 
1 Troop. 



4 Troops. 



114 MILITARY AFFAIRS. [1796. 

War Office, March 14, 1796. 

I have the honor to submit to the committee on the military establishment, the thoughts that have occurred to 
me on the questions respecting which they seemed to desire my opinion. 

I am, sir, with great respect, your most obedient servant, 

JA.MES M'HENRY. 
Abm. Baldwin, Esq. 

TTioughts of the SSecretary of War on the following questions, viz.: 

First. Ought the military force of the United States to be diminished? 
Second. Can any saving be made in the Quartermaster's department? 
Third. Ousht a provision to be made for the appointment of a Judge Advocate to the establishment? 

First. Ought the military force of the United States to be diminished? 

The necessity for any military establishment seems to rest principally upon the following considerations, by 
which this question may be tested: 1st. As a military establishment secures from, or enables the United States to 
repel, insult and invasion, and maintain her dignity. 2d. As it counteracts the influence of the force kept up by 
Great Britain anil Spain, over our northern and western boundaries, as the same applies to excite or keep alive 
Indian hostilities. 3d. As it preserves a model and school for an army, and experienced ofiicers to fomi it, in case 
of war. 4th. From the sense of the inadequacy of a militia to answer those several purposes, without the aid of a 
regular force. 

Declining a more detailed view of these general considerations, it will be taken for granted, that one or all of 
them render a certain military establishment essential to the interests and peace of the Union. The only point then 
that remains to be settled, is the quantum of force necessary to be kept up, so as to avoid useless expense, and at 
the same time secure the objects it contemplates. 

To determine upon this force, or, rather, to eiiable one to make up an opinion respecting it, reference must be 
had to the force likely to be kept up by Great Britain and Spain, near to our boundaries. The force which they 
have at present in these quarters, may be stated in gross, and without aiming at precision, to be greater than the 
present efl'ective force of the United States; while several reasons concur to induce a belief, that neither of these 
nations will cojitract it on evacuating the posts which they occupy within our limits. To mention some of them: 

1st. Great Britain may wish, at least, not to hazard the loss of the influence she may possess over the northern 
Indians. She may therefore think, that to lessen her force in Canada, on the event of the delivery of the posts, 
(however desirous she might be to transfer it to the West Indies,) would be to incur its loss. 

2d. Great Britain may also deem it indispensable to occupy other posts as near as may be to those to be evacu- 
ated, with a view to the preservation of this influence and security of the colony. 

3d. Spain, like Great Britain, having posts to deliver to the United States, may, with similar views, follow the 
same course as Great Britain. She may also feel yet stronger motives for keeping up her present force, or even for 
increasing it, resulting from an apprehension that the treaty, lately negotiated with the United States, may approxi- 
mate our citizens too near to her possessions. 

4th. ~When we advert to the importance which Great Britain may give to Canada, as it respects her West India 
islands, as it forms a link in the great chain of her dependencies, and as it may weigh in her general system of 
power, it is further to be presumed, that she will, at all times, endeavor to maintain force there, equivalent, at 
least, to the present. 

These considerations alone strongly indicate the necessity of a military force, competent to counteract that 
maintained by Great Britain and Spain, as to all those internal objects to which it may be applied. For such con- 
siderations, therefore, and the reasons assigned by the late Secretary of War, in his communication of the third of 
February, ultimo, it is thought that it will not be advisable to reduce the establishment of the United States below 
its present eftective force. But, inasmuch as things have not yet taken their settled form, and as that form can only 
be guessed at, no absolute arrangement can be predicted in the premises. Perhaps, all circumstances considered, it 
would be the safest course of proceeding to leave the establishment as it stands for the present, with a discretion in the 
President to reduce the battalions to the effective number of privates. 
2d. Can any saving be made in the Quartermaster's department? 

If the western posts are to be taken possession of, the expense for transporting the troops, stores, artillery, and 
provisions, at the season in which they must be moved, will be very considerable. The expenses of furnishing the 
different posts, with provisions and other supplies, will be greater this year, than the last, on account of the rise in 
flour, &c. to which may be added, the difference in expense between a land and water transport, should it be found 
impracticable to contract in time to make use of the latter. The water transport, for example, from Pittsburg to 
the Miami of the lake, generally fails about the middle of May, and cannot, comtnunibus annis, be used again till 
October. On the whole, no correct estimate can be formed, at this moment, on this subject. 

3d. Ought a provision to be made for the appointment of a Judge Advocate to the establishment? 
Considering what may be the distance, between the several posts, on a final arrangement, how inconvenient it 
must be for a Judge Advocate to travel, from one to another, as cases occur to require his presence, and the hardships 
that individuals must experience, by having their trial delayed till he could attend: it is, therefore, thought best not 
to decide the question till it can be further examined, or the necessity for such provision becomes more apparent. 

JAMES McHENRY, Secretary of War. 
The Committee on the Military Establishment. 



Extract from the general order of 16th July, 1794. 

. " Lieutenant Campbell Smith, of the 4th sub-legion, is appointed Judge Marshal and Advocate General, to the 
jegion of the United States, and is to be considered and respected accordingly." 

JOHN MILLS, Adjutant General. 



1796.] FORTIFICATIONS. 115 

Niagara, and its immediate dependencies, 

Presque Isle, -----. 

Two posts on Allegheny river, - . . . 

Detroit, ------ 

Michillimackinack, - - . . 

On Lake Michigan, - . . . 

Fort Defiance, 

Wayne, - - - . . 

Adams, ----- 

Recovery, - - - - - 

Miami, - - ' - 

Head of the Wabash, . . . - 

Fort Washington, ■ - 

Mouth of the Illinois, - , . . 

On the Mississippi, . - . . 

Territory South of the Ohio, ... 

Frontiers of Georgia, - • - - 

In the fortifications on the sea coast. 
At other less important posts, in different places. 
There will then remain, 384 rank and file, to be disposed of according to this system, allowing the regiment of 
artillery to consist of 1,000 rank and file, which, perhaps, is not the fact. 
March 29, 1796. 



28 rank and file. 


5 companies. 


56 


do. 


1 company, 


56 


do. 




112 


do. 




56 


do. 




56 


do. 




56 


do. 




56 


do. 




56 


do. 




56 


do. 




56 


do. 




56 


do. 




56 


do. 




56 


do. 




56 


do. 




168 


do. 




168 


do. 




224 


do. 




224 


do. 





4th Congress.] No. 28. t^st Session. 

FORTIFICATIONS. 

COMMUNICATED TO THE HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES, MAY 9, 1796. 

Mr. William Lyman, from the committee appointed to take into consideration the state of the fortifications of our 
harbors ; the measures which have been pursued for obtaining proper sites for arsenals, and for replenishing our 
magazines with military stores; and to report whether any, and what, further measures are necessary respecting 
the same, made the following report: 

That it appears from the report of the Secretary of War, referred to the committee, that measures are now 
pursuing by the executive for obtaining proper sites for arsenals, and for replenishing our magazines with military 
stores ; but tliat the result thereof is not ascertained ; the progress, however, is such as to warrant a belief, that the 
complete accomplishment of those objects will soon be effected. It is, therefore, the opinion of the committee, that 
no further legislative provision, relative thereto, is necessary at this time. 

From the view of the present state of the fortifications of our harbors, exhibited in the report of the Secretary 
of War, the committee are induced to believe, that some further expenditures will be expedient to perfect and 
secure the works already constructed ; otherwise, in some instances, they might be useless, and in many, would 
probably be exposed to very sudden decay and destruction; nevertheless, it does not appear to the committee to be 
necessary to extend the provisions for this object, any further, at the present time, as by a letter and statement from 
the secretary, to the committee, which accompany this report, there appears to be a very considerable sum of the 
former appropriations now unexpended. 

These conclusions of the committee are formed without reference to the fortifications in the harbor of New 
York- At that place, the works have been laid out upon a plan very extensive, constructed with durable materials, 
and principally under the direction of the Government, and at the expense of that State. • Although it does not appear 
to have been contemplated by the United States to fortify any harbor so extensively, and in a manner so expensive, 
it may, notwithstanding, be deserving their attention to consider how far the undertaking is entitled to their encour- 
agement and support. The committee, therefore, beg leave to submit the following resolution : 

Resolved, That the sum of dollars be appropriated and paid out of any moneys in the treasury of 

the United States, not otherwise appropriated, for the purpose of completing and securing the fortifications in the 
harbor of New-York. 

Philadelphia, Feb. 17, 1796. 
Sir: 

I have the honor to enclose a statement of the sums appropriated for fortifying the harbors of the United States, 
of the sums expended at the respective places, and of the balance on hand. But there are some claims of tlie 
agents, for moneys advanced, which must be reimbursed : they may, perhaps, amount to six or eight thousand dollars. 
In the course of the year 1795, the State of Pennsylvania ceded to the United States the island in the river 
Delaware, called Mud Island, where the fortifications are begun. The State, at the same tirrie, ceded certain pieces 
of land at Presque Isle, for the purpose of being fortified, and for the accommodation of public vessels that might be 
used on Lake Erie : And, 

A few acres of land, where the fortifications have been begun, for the defence of Baltimore, have been purchased. 
I am, very respectfully, sir, your obedient servant, 

TIMOTHY PICKERING. 
William Lyman, Esq. 
Chairman of the Committee on Fortifications. 

■ Sums expended in fortifying the harbors of the United States, in 1794 and 1795. 

APPROPRIATIONS. 
1794 

March 21 .—Act of Congress, - - ... 76,000 dollars. 

June 9, Do. - - - - 30,000 

1795 
March 3. Do. ..... 50,000 

June repaid by E. Stevens, agent for New-York, - - ill 63 

$156,111 63 



116 MILITARY AFFAIRS. [1797. 

Expended. Dolls. Cts. 

Portland, - - - - - 3,899 28 

Portsmouth, ----- 2,877 34 

Gloucester, ----- 3,273 84 

Salem, - - - . . 2,773 84 

Marblehead, ----- 3,513 84 

Newport, - - - - - 9,500 00 

New London, - - - - - 5,288 21 

New York, ----- 17,522 36 

Philadelphia, - - - - 25,888 30 

Baltimore, - - - •- 12,416 67 

Annapolis, - - - - 2,997 75 

Alexandria, - . . , 2,900 00 

Norfolk, - - - - - 10,797 52 

Ocracock Inlet, l - - - ■ - . „„, -^ 

Cape Fear River, 5 - - - - ^^^^^ ^*' 

Georgetown, S.C. . . - - i,ooo 00 

CharFeston, ----- 18,000 00 

Savannah, . . - - . 3,537 52 

St. Mary's, - - - - - 1,173 84 

132,234 7 

17^A February, 1796. Balance, - Dollars. 23,877 56 



4th Congress.] No. 29. [2d Session, 

FORTIFICATIONS. 

COMMUNICATED TO THE HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES, FEBRUARY 10, 1797. 

Mr. William Lyman, from the committee appointed to inquire into the factual state of the fortifications of the ports 
and harbors of the United States, and whether any, and what, further/provision is necessary to be made on that 
subject, made the following report: 

That (he report from the Department of War to Congress, the twentieth day of January, one thousand seven 
hundred and ninety-six, will enable the House to form an opinion of the number and state of the forts and harbors 
at the period to which it refers. 

The alterations in those forts, that have taken place since that period, consist chiefly in 'depredations made by 
time on such of tliem as have not been garrisoned, and in such repairs and additions as could be made by the garri- 
sons where troops have been stationed, or that were wanting to their accommodation. 

In the former description are comprehended, the works at Portland, in the district of Maine; Portsmouth, New 
Hampshire; Gloucester, Salem, and Marblehead, Massachusetts; Newport, Rhode Isl-and; New London, Connec- 
ticut; and Savannah and Point Petre, in Georgia. 

In the latter description are comprised, the defences at Governor's Island, New York; Mud Island, Philadel- 
phia; Whetstone Point, Baltimore; Norfolk, Virginia; Wilmington, North Carolina; and Fort Johnston, Charleston, 
South Carolina. 

The forts which liave been without troops, must be presumed to have suffered considerable injury by time alone, 
and will require, if the circumstances of the military establishment and frontiers should not admit of their being 
garrisoned, in the opinion of the Secretary of War, about three thousand five hundred dollars annually, to pay per- 
sons to live in and superintend them, and for certain repairs necessary to prevent them from becoming perfectly 
useless. 

The forts lliat are garrisoned have been kept in repair, so far as the force stationed in them permitted; but it will 
require an additional grant of money to finish some necessary buildings, and complete certain works, indispensable 
to their defence and preservation. 

The committee find, that, by an estimate from the Department' of War, accompanying this report, it appears 
that the further sum of twenty-three thousand three hundred and ninety -four dollars and fifty-five cents, in adaition 
to former appropriations, is necessary to be provided for the purposes aforesaid. 

The committee further report, that they nave received, from the board of commissioners, and the engineer for 
fortifying the port and harbor of New York, sundry statements relative to the defence of that place, which they beg 
leave to lay before the House. 

No. 1. is a description of the fortifications erected on Governor's, Bedloe's, and Oyster Islands; what further 
is necessary to the completion thereof; with an estimate of the probable expense. 

No. 2. A summary statement of the probable expenditures necessary for the construction of fortifications for the 
defence of New York. 

No. 3. contains an explanation of, with observations upon, the several proposed plans for the complete defence 
of New York. 

Note.— Papers, Nos. 1. 2, and 3, were returned to the Secretary of War, May 31. 1797, and are not now to be 
found. 



.1797.] FORTIFICATIONS. J<17 



4th Congress.] No. 30. [ad Session. 



OBJECTIONS OF THE PRESIDENT OF THE UNITED STATES TO AN ACT TO REORGANIZE 

THE ARMY. 

COMMUNICATED TO THE HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES, FEBRUARY 28, 1797. 

United States, February 28, 1797- 
Gentlemen of the House of Representatives: 

Having maturely considered the bill to alter and amend an act, entitled " An act to ascertain and fix the 
military establishment of the United States," which was presented to me on the twenty-second day of this month, I 
now return it to the House of Representatives, in which it originated, with my objections. 

First. If the bill passes into a law, the two companies of light dragoons will be, from that moment, legally out of 
service, though they will afterwards continue actually in service; and for their services, during this interval, namely, 
from the time oi legal to the time oi actual discharge, it will not be lawful to pay them, unless some future provision 
be made by law. Though they may be discharged at the pleasure of Congress, in justice they ought to receive their 
pay, not only to the time of passing the law, but, at least, to the time of their actual discharge. 

Secondly. It will be inconvenient and injurious to the public to dismiss the light dragoons, as soon as notice of 
the law can be conveyed to them, one of the companies having been lately destined to a necessary and important service. 

Thirdly. The companies of light dragoons consist of one hundred and twenty six non-commissioned officers and 
privates, who are bound to serve as dismounted dragoons when ordered so to do. They have received, in boun- 
ties, about two thousand dollars: one of them is completely equipped, and above half of the non-commissioned 
officers and privates have yet to serve more than one third of the time of their enlistment; and besides, there will, 
in the course of the year, be a considerable deficiency in the complement of infantry intended to be continued. 
Under these circumstances, to discharge the dragoons does not seem to comport with economy. 

Fourthly. It is generally agreed that some cavalry, either militia or regular, will be necessary; and, according 
to the best information I have been able to obtain, it is my opinion that the latter will be less expensive and more 
useful than the former, in preserving peace between the frontier settlers and the Indians; and, therefore, a part of 
the military establishment should consist of cavalry. 

GEO. WASHINGTON. 



" ,Sn act to alter and amend an act, entitled '■'■Jin act to ascertain and fix the military establishment of the United 

States." 

'^ He it enacted by the Senate and House of Representatives of the United States of .America m Congress assem- 
bled: That the third section of the act passed the thirtieth of May, one thousand seven hundred and ninety-six, en- 
titled "An act to ascertain and fix the military establishment of the United States," together with all other parts 
thereof, which relate to provision made for the Major General and his staflf", be: repealed; and that all such parts 
of the said act which relate to the light dragoons, together with so much of the twenty-third section of the said act 
as may be construed to affect the Brigadier, and the whole of the eleventh section of the said act be, and are hereby, 
repealed. 

'• ^nd be it further enacted: That there shall be one Brigadier General, who may choose his Brigade Major 
and inspector, from the captains and subalterns in the line, (to each of whom there shall be allowed the monthly pay 
of twenty-five d9llars, in addition to his pay in the line, and two rations extraordinary per day; and whenever forage 
shall not be furnished by the public, to ten dollars per month, in lieu thereof.) That there shall be one Brigade Quar- 
termaster, one Brigade Paymaster, and one Judge Advocate, who shall be taken from the commissioned ofiicers of the 
line, and each of whom shall be entitled to receive two rations extra per day, and twenty-five dollars per month, in 
addition to his pay in the line; and whenever forage shall not be furnished by the public, to ten dollars per month, 
in lieu thereof. 

"■Andbe it further enacted: That, from and after the thirtieth day of June next, the monthly pay of the Lieu- 
tenants shall be thirty dollars, and that of the Ensign twenty five dollars; that to the Brigadier, while Commander-in- 
Chief, and to each officer, while commanding a separate post, there shall be allowed twice the number of rations to 
which they would otherwise be entitled. 

" ^nd be it further enacted: That the Majors be entitled to receive four rations per day for their subsistence. 

" And be it further enacted: That to each commissioned officer who may have been deranged under the act, " to 
ascertain and fix the military establishment of the United States," or who may be deranged under the present act, 
there shall be paid onje hundred dollars. 

JONATHAN DAYTON, -v 

Speaker of the House of Representatives. 
WILLIAM BINGHAM, 

President of the Senate, pro tempore." 



5th Congress.] JVq. 31. [Ist Session. 

FORTIFICATIONS. 

communicated to the house of representatives, JUNE 10, 1797. 

Mr. Livingston, from the committee appointed to bring in a bill for making further provision for the fortification 
of the ports and harbors of the United States, made the following report: 
That no material alterations have taken place since the last session, in the state of the fortifications on the sea 
coast of the United States, as appears from a letter addressed to the committee of the Senate, on this subject by 
the Secretary of War, a copy whereof is hereunto annexed, and that, from verbal information received from the 
said officer, it appears that only three thousand dollars, or thereabouts, of the sum appropriated in the last session 
has been expended, leaving a balance of about twenty-one thousand dollars unexpended. ' 

And your committee further report: That, from an estimate, hereunto also annexed, made by the Secretary of 
War, It appears that an additional appropnation will be requisite for completing the fortifications therein enume- 
rated, 01 two hundred thousand dollars. 
16 m 



MILITARY AFFAIRS. [1797. 



War Office, 3d June, 1797. 
Sir: 

The committee of the Senate will find, in the annexed copy of a letter from the Secretary of War to a com- 
mittee of the House of Representatives, and in the report it refers to, the state of the fortifications which have been 
erected on the seaboard, subsequent to the act of Congress of the 29th of March, 1794. Since the date of that let- 
ter, those forts have undergone very few repairs or alterations, that have not been made by their garrisons, except 
some at Fort Johnston, South Carolina, and to prevent the works there from being rendered useless by the en- 
croachments of the sea. 

You will also find, in the report of my predecessor, that above forty-six thousand dollars were thought requisite 
to complete certain of the defences mentioned in his report. 

Will an appropriation be necessary at this juncture, and vvhat particular ports stand most in need of immediate 
attention.'' It will, perhaps, be best to answer to these questions generally, as preserving to the Department of 
War more liberty to accommodate the disposal of an appropriafura, according to exigencies and circumstances. 
As to the first, I conceive that about two hundred thousand dollars should be granted for tiie seaboard fortifica- 
tions. As to the second, the ports from New York to St. Mary's, (Georgia,) are those which stand in most need 
of immediate attention, more especially, in certain points of view, those on the southerly part of the line. 

It is, however, to be observed, that the mere augmentation, or improving- the forts in that quarter, will be of lit- 
tle utility, without the existence of regular troops to garrison them. These two objects, therefore, ought to be con- 
sidered as inseparably united. 

Upon the whole, I do not consider any other provision on the subject of our maritime fortifications, necessary at 
this time, than an appropriation of two hundred thousand dollars. 

1 have the honor to be, sir, your obedient servant, 

JAMES McHENRY. 

Richard Stockton, Esq. Chairman of the Committee. 



War Office, 6th June, 1797. 

Memorandum for the Committee of the House of Kepresentalives, on Fortifications, 4"C. 

Among the harbors, &c. which it may become proper to secure, by improving or adding to existing fortifications, 
may be particularly reckoned, viz: New York, Philadelphia, Norfolk, Ocracock, (North Carolina,) Charleston 
and Georgetown, (South Carolina,) and Savannah, and St. Mary's (Georgia.) 

Neiv York. To complete the works on Governor's Island, Bedloe's Island, and Oyster Island, say - $90,000 
Philadelphia- To complete a pier and battery, on a sand bar, opposite Mud Island, the works on 

Mud Island, and some auxiliary works, - . . . - 40,000 

Virginia. To improve and complete the works at Norfolk, - - . . 10,000 

North Carolina. To erect works at Ocracock, - - - - - 10,000 

South Carolina. To complete and erect works on James's Island, Shooter's Point, Sullivan's Isl- 
and, and Georgetown, ------- 40,000 

Georgia. To complete, &c. the works at Savannah and St- Mary's, ... 10,000 

$200,000 
The unconsumed part of the appropriation for 1796, for fortifications, to be applied to repair and 

complete the fortresses to the eastward of New York, say - - - - 



The committee will be pleased to observe, that it is not meant, by the above enumeration, to exclude harbors 
not mentioned therein, from the benefit of the appropriation, or that tne Secretary should be bound to make the ex- 
penditure according to the specifications. 
^ e, f JAMES McHENRY. 



Copy of a letter from the Secretary of War, to William Lyman, Esq. dated 

^'^ War Office, January 10, 1797. 

8ir: 

The report from the Department of War, to Congress, dated the 20th day of January, 1796, %yill enable the 
committee to form an opinion of the number and state of the forts and harbors, at the period to which it refers. 

The alterations in those forts, that have taken place since that period, consist, chiefly, in depredations made by 
time, on such of them as have not been garrisoned; and in such repairs, and additions, as could be made by the gar- 
risons where troops have been stationed, or that were wanting to their accommodation. In the former description 
are comprehended, the works at Portland, in the District of Maine; Portsmouth, in New Hampshire; Gloucester, 
Cape Ann, Salem, Marblehead, Massachusetts; Newport, Rhode Island; New London, Connecticut; and Savan- 
nah, and Point Petre, Georgia. 

In the latter description are comprised, the defences at Governor's Island, New York; Mud Island, Philadel- 
phia; Whetstone Point, Baltimore; Norfolk, Virginia; Wilmington, North Carolina: and Fort Johnston, Charles- 
ton, South Carolina. • , u, ■ • i- ■ 

The forts which have been without troops, must be presumed to have suttered considerable injury trom time 
alone, and will require, if the circumstances of the military establishment and frontiers should not admit of their 
bein "'garrisoned, about three thousand five hundred dollars, annually, to pay persons to live in it, and superintend 
them, and for certain repairs necessary to prevent them from being perfectly useless. 

The forts that are garrisoned have been kept in repairs, so tar as the force stationed in them permitted; but it 
will require an additional grant of money to finish some necessary buildings, and complete certain works, indispen- 
sable to their defence and preservation. u ■ , u ■ j f .u , r -. 1 

I have subjoined an estimate of the expense which may probably be required tor the before recited purposes, dur- 
ing the present year, and the balance, stated by the treasurer to be unexpended, of former appropriations. 
I have the honor to be, sir, your most obedient servant, 

JAMES McHENRY. 



An estimate of the sums necessary, on account of the Fortifications of the ports and harbors of the United States, 

for the year 1797. 

Superintendents, and certain repairs to the forts at Portland, Portsmouth, New Hampshire; Gloucester, Cape 
Ann, Salem, Marblehead, Massachusetts; Newport, Rhode Island; New London, Connecticut; and Savannah, 
and Point Petre, Georgia; in case of being without garrisons. - ■ ' ™ -, . ," ^^^^^^ "0 

Repairs, or additions, to the forts at Governor's Island, New York; Mud Island, near Philadel- 
phia; Whetstone Point. Baltimore; Norfolk, Virginia; Wilmington, North Carohna; and Fort John- 
ston, near Charleston, South Carolina, ------ 24,00000 



irgs.] ^ FORTIFICATIONS. 119 

Four temporary engineers, -..-... 3,832 00 

$31,832 00 
Balance unexpended of appropriations for 1794 and 1795, - . . . 8,437 45 



To be provided for, for the year 1797, - - " - - - - $23,394 55 

War Office, January 10, 1797'. 



5th Congress.] No. 32. [2d Session . 

FORTIFICATIONS. 

COMMUNICATED TO THE HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES, MARCH 8, 1798. 

Mr. Sewall, from the committee to whom was referred that part of the President's speech, which relates to the pro- 
tection of commerce, and the defence of the country, further reported in part: 

That, considering the increasing dangers which threaten the peace and security of the United States, and to 
which their extensive sea coast, and their domestic as well as foreign commerce, are alarmingly exposed, the neces- 
sary provisions of a maritime defence ought to receive the earnest and immediate attention of Congress; and espe- 
cially recommend a concurrence, without delay, in the resolutions now before the House of Representatives, re- 
ported to them on the twelfth day of January last. 

The committee further report, that, a considerable sum remains unexpended of the sums heretofore appropriated 
for fortifying the ports and harbors of the United States, as appears by the statement from the Department of War, 
exhibited herewith; and that, in tlie opinion of the committee, a further appropriation, and a more vigorous regard 
to this important object, has become immediately necessary. 

They further report, that in the view which, on several occasions, this committee have taken of the subject of 
providing a naval armament, they have not failed to observe the apparently enormous expenses, and unaccountable 
delays, which have attended every attempt of this kind. It has appeared to them that a better economy might be 
introduced in this branch of the public expenditure, by establishing, m the War Department, some officer who should 
be employed in the immediate superintendence of the naval concerns of the United States. 

The Department of War, as at present established,' is unsuitable to this purpose, especially considering its sta- 
tionary situation, and how much it is occupied by numerous cares of a nature very different. 

On these subjects, they recommend the following resolutions to be adopted, viz: 

Resolved, That the sum of ; — -, in addition to the sum of , remaining unexpended of former ap- 
propriations, be appropriated to fortifying the ports and harbors of the United States. 

Resolved, That there be established in the Department of War, a Commissioner of Marine, who shall have charge 
of the construction, equipment, and supplies of the public vessels of the United States, and all other matters 
relating to their naval concerns, which shall be entrusted to him, according to law. 



War Office, 27^/t February, 1798. 
Sir: 

The committee, to whom was referred " so much of the President's speech as relates to the protection of 
commerce, and the defence of the country," desire to know the amount of the moneys expended since the last ses- 
sion of Congress, on the maritime fortifications, and whether, in the opinion of the Secretary of War, any further 
appropriation is required for the same object. The following information and remarks are, therefore, respectfully 
submitted. 

That there remained unexpended of preceding appropriations for maritime fortifications, on 

the 6th of June, 1797, --..-.. 
Appropriation of June 23, 1797, - - . . . 

That of this sum there has been expended, viz: 
At Mud Island, ----... 

Baltimore, ----... 

Charleston, ---.... 

Portsmouth,N.H. (balance of account) ..... 

Newbern, (on account of balance) ..... 

Norfolk, (balance of account) ...... 

St. Mary's, Georgia, do. ..... 

Balance unexpended the 27th February, 1797, 



The cominittee will perceive, that the principal sum expended since the last session of Congress, has been upon 
Fort Mifiiin, in the State of Pennsylvania. This fortress, from several considerations, seemed entitled to particular 
attention. The ground on which it fetands, and necessary to it, has been ceded to the United States. The works, 
as far as they have been erected, were composed of good materials, and put together in such a manner as to promise 
long duration and utility. An experiment had likewise shown where the works were most vulnerable, and that this 
fortress may be rendered competent, with certain auxiliary works, to afford essential protection to an important com- 
mercial city, against the operations of a powerful naval armament. It has, therefore, been deemed proper, under 
the trust committed to me by the President, to contemplate completing this fortress as expeditiously as possible. 

The Secretary has suggested, on a former reference, that, to derive real advantage from any considerable expen- 
diture of money for completing the seaboard fortresses, the military establishment should be such as to admit of 
their being occupied by garrisons equal to keeping them in a tenable situation, and to the preservation of their stores 
and artillery. It is certain that this cannot be done by militia, unless when called into actual service, and that no 
part of the regular force, employed on the Western frontiers, can be transferred from thence for such purposes, with- 
out endangering the peace of the Union, and opening the way, in that quarter, to the immediate execution of projects 



$22,065 58 
115,000 00 














$23,640 87 
188 93 




9,978 


00 




488 


46 




800 


00 




266 


50 




4,018 


89 


$39,381 65 
97,683 93 


- 


i 




6137,065 58 



120 MILITARY AFFAIRS. [1798. 

and enterprises, contrary to law and treaties, and subversive of all order and government. It is but too evident, also, 
that the course of things and circumstances, peculiar to the frontiers, shuts out any well founded expectation, that 
we have approached near to the time wiien the military force may be safely diminished or withdrawn. 

Independent, therefore, of considerations resulting from our present situation, with respect to foreign nations, it 
would appear necessary and proper, that the seaboard fortifications should be generally improved, and tliis defence 
of our country rendered respectable, and, also, that the army should be proportionably augmented. A regard to ul- 
timate economy will require, that such of the fortifications as may be always important to the general defence.should 
be constructed, like fort Mifflin, of the most durable materials. 

It may be proper to mention, that, besides the want of men to garrison these forts, there is another difficulty 
which it is desirable should be removed. But few of the States have made cessions of land, on which forts have 
been, or ought to be, erected, for the protection of their harbors: a circumstance calculated to impede such under- 
taking's, and embarrass the intentions of government to provide for their defence. Neither is it known to the Se- 
cretary that any of the States which were found indebted to the United States, on a settlement of the accounts 
between them and the respective States, have thought of availing themselves of the third section of the " act to pro- 
vide for the further defence of the ports and harbors of the United States," passed the 33d June, 1797. 

The committee will perceive, that many good causes have prevented a greater expenditure of the appropriations, 
and that while these continued to exist, they must interrupt the completion of our maritime defence by fortifications. 
With respect to the last inquiry of the committee, a full consideration of all circumstances induces the Secretary 
to an opinion, that a further appropriation should be made, to be in readiness, and commensurate to meet such a 
state of things as may require our ports and harbors to be promptly and completely fortified, vi'hether proper sites be 
ceded or not by the States more immediately concerned. 

With great respect, I am, sir, your most obedient servant, 

JAMES McHENRY 
Samuel Sew all, Esq. Chairman of the Committee, SfC. 



5th Congress.] JVo. 33. [2d Session. 

FORTIFICATIONS, MUNITIONS, AND INCREASE OF THE ARMY. 

COMMUNICATED TO THE HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES, APRIL 9, 1798. 

Mr. Sewall, from the committee on that part of the President's speech, which regards the protection of commerce^ 
and the defence of the country, further reported: 

That it is expedient to authorize the President of the United States to erect fortifiications in such ports and 
places, near the sea coast, as, in his judgment, shall be requisite, and advantageous, for the common defence. 

That a considerable addition is requisite to be made to the corps of artillerists and engineers already established, 
to be employed in tiie several fortifications which have been, and which shall be, erected on or near the sea coast. 

That a large supply of cannon, arms, and ammunition, is necessary to be immediately provided for the service of 
the United States. 

An addition to a resolve heretofore reported, and under the consideration of the House, will effect the first men- 
tioned object. 

For the others, the committee recommend the following resolutions: 

Resolved, That the President of the United States be authorized to raise and establish ——^ companies of ar- 
tillerists and engineers, in addition to the present establishment. 

Resolved, That the sum of — ; dollars shall be appropriated by law for the purchase of cannon, arms, and ammu- 
nition, for the service of the United States. 



War Department, ^pril 9, 1798. 

What measures are necessary and proper to be adopted by Congress, in the present conjuncture, to preserve 
character abroad, esteem for the Government at home, safety to our sea property, and protection to our territory 
and sovereignty.'' 

France derives several important advantages from the system she is pursuing towards the United States. Be- 
sides the sweets of plunder, obtained by her privateers, she keeps in them a nursery of seamen, to be drawn upon, 
in all conjunctures, ^y her navy. She unfits, by the same means, the United States for energetic measures, ancl 
thereby prepares us for the last degree of humiliation and subjection. 

To forbear, under such circumstances, from taking naval and military measures, to secure our trade, defend our 
territory in case of invasion, and prevent or suppress domestic insurrection, would be to offer up the United 
States a certain prey to France, and exhibit to the world a sad spectacle of national degradation and imbecility. 

The United States possess an extensive trade, heavy expenses must be submitted to for its protection. The 
United States border upon the provinces of great and powerful kingdoms, heavy expenses must be incurred, that 
we may be at all times in a situation to assert our rights to our own territory. The measures which appear indis- 
pensably necessary for Congress to take, are as follows, viz: 

1st. An increase of the naval I'orce, to serve as convoys, protect our fisheries, coast, and harbors. 2d. An aug- 
mentation of the present military establishment. 3d. Arrangements which, in case of emergency, will give to the 
President the prompt command of a further and efficacious military force. 4th. The more complete defence of our 
principal ports by fortifications. 5th. A supply of ordnance, small arms, powder, saltpetre, copper, and military 
stores. 6th. Additional revenue. 

To answer the 1st. Congress ought to provide for the building or purchasing, equipping, &c. of two vessels of 
twenty-two guns; ,eight vessels of twenty guns; and ten vessels of sixteen guns, in addition to the tliree frigates. 

Congress ought also to vest the President with authority, in case of open rupture, to provide, equip, and by such 
means as he may judge best, a number of ships of the line, not exceeding six, or an equivalent force in frigates. 

The first may be either built or purchased in the United States. The latter may, perhaps, be obtained in Eu- 
rope: for which purpose the law should use general expressions, admitting this mode of procuring them. 

To build the twenty vessels, equip, man, and provision them for twelve months, will require, as per annexed 
estimate, .--..-..- $1,941,181 

It may, under this head, be also advisable to make a provision for six galleys, carrying each one or two twenty- 
four pounders. This will require for galleys carrying one twenty -four pounder each, as per annexed estimate,* $68,826. 

2d. An augmentation of the present military establishment. This ought to consist of one regiment of infantry; 

one regiment of artillery; and one regiment of cavalry. The artillery is considered as indispensable, and the 

cavalry may be highly useful in the Southern States. These will require, agreeably to the annexed estimate, $517,998 

.3d. An arrangement which, in cat^e of emergency, will give to the President the prompt command of a further 

and efficacious military force. 

• For this and the preceding; estimate, set Naval Affairs, No. 11. 



1798.] 



FORTIFICATIONS, MUNITIONS, AND INCREASE OF THE ARMY. 



m 



bill 



This ought to be a provisional army of 20,000 men, and may be organized agreeable to the principles of a 
proposed in the Senate, during the late extraordinary session, to which I beg leave to refer. 
4th. The more complete defence of our principal ports by fortifications. 
This may require $1,000,000; but, should the naval force be rendered respectable, much of this sum may be 



5th. A supply of cannon, small arms, saltpetre, copper, &c. which, severally, will require — 
For cannon, as per annexed estimate, -,.-.-- $308,900 

For small arms, say 50,000 stands, at twelve dollars, -..-.. 600,000 

For powder, saltpetre, copper for sheathing, &c. . . - . . 200,000 

In framing the law to furnish our magazines with ordnance, it will be proper to employ such expressions as will 
enable the President to procure brass cannon, mortars, &c. with the necessary quantities of ball, shells, &c. These 
have not been specified in the estimate,- but the sum may, perhaps, be sufficient to comprehend them. 

To render the regiment of infantry as useful as possible, it is proposed, that the men should be enlisted to act 
in the double capacity of marines and infantry. By an arrangement of tliis kind, and having the men stationed at 
the principal sea ports, they will be always ready to be put on board such vessels as want them, and when not so 
wanted, will serve to defend the coast, work upon the fortifications, or in dock yards, and guard the public property 
from thefts or embezzlement. 

All which is respectfully submitted, 

JAMES McHENRY. 
Hon. Samuel Sewall, 

Chairman of the Committee for the protection of Commerce and the defence of the country. 



Estimate of the pay, Sfc. of a Regiment of Infantry. 



1 Lieut, col. commandant, at $75 per month. 



3 Majors, 

1 Surgeon, 

2 Surgeon's mates, 
1 Adjutant, 

1 Quartermaster, 
1 Paymaster, 
8 Captains,' 
8 Lieutenants, - 
8 Ensigns, 



50 
43 
30 
10 
10 
10 
40 
30 



do 
do 
do 
do 
do 
do 
do 
do 
do 



Rations. 

1 Lieut, col. commandant, at 6 per day, 2,190 

2 Majors, - - 4 do. 2,920 

1 Surgeon, - - 3 do. 1,095 

2 Surgeon's mates, - 2 do. 1,460 
8 Captains, - - 3 do. 8,760 

16 Subalterns, - - 2 do. 11,680 



900 

1,200 

540 

720 

120 

120 

120 

3,840 

2,880 

2,400 



SUBSISTENCE. 



2 Sergeant-majors, 


- 


at $8 


per month, 


192 


2 Quartermaster-sergeants, 


8 


do 


192 


32 Sergeants, 


- 


7 


do 


2,688 


32 Corporals, 


- 


6 


do 


2,304 


2 Senior musicians, 


- 


7 


do 


168 


16 Musicians, 


. 


5 


do 


960 


416 Privates, 


- 


4 


do 


19,968 



502 Non-commissioned and pri 

vates, 
30 Women, 



$39,312 



1 p'rday,183,230 
1 do. 10,950 



At twenty cents each, is 



Rations, 222,285 

- $44,457 



1 Lieut col. commandant, at $12 per month, 144 

2 Majors, - - 10 do. 240 
1 Surgeon, - - 10 do. 120 
4 Surgeon's mates, - 6 do. 288 
1 Adjutant, - - 6 do. 72 



1 Paymaster, 
1 Quartermaster, 



at $6 per month, 
6 do. 



72 
72 



$1,008 



BOUNTY AND PREMIUM. 

502 Non-commissioned officers and privates, at sixteen dollars each, is 



$8,033 



502 Suits, at twenty-five dollars per suit, is 



Pay, 

Subsistence, 

Forage, 

Bounty and premium, 



CLOTHING. 



RECAPITULATION. 



$39,312 

44,450 

1,008 

8,032 



Clothing, 



$12,550 



12,550 
$105,359 



Estimate of the pay, fyc. of a Regiment of Light Dragoons of six Companies. 



1 Lieut, col. commandant, at $75 per month, 

1 " 

1 

1 



Major, 

Surgeon, 

Surgeon's mate, 
6 Captains, 
12 Lieutenants, - 
6 Cornets, 
1 Adjutant, 
1 Quartermaster, 
1 Paymaster, 



55 
45 
30 
40 
30 
25 
10 
10 
10 



do. 
do. 
do. 
do. 
do. 
do. 
do. 
do. 
do. 



660 

540 

360 

2,880 

4,320 

1,800 

120 

120 

120 



24 Sergeants, 
24 Corporals, 
6 Farriers, 
6 Saddlers, 
6 Trumpeters, 
312 Dragoons, 



at $7 per month, 2,016 



6 


do. 


1,728 


9 


do. 


648 


9 


do. 


648 


5 


do. 


360 


4 


do. 


14,976 




$32,196 



122 



MILITARY AFFAIRS. 



[1798. 



SUBSISTENCE. 



1 Lieut, colonel commandant, at 6 rations 

per day, 
1 Major, at 4 rations per day, 

1 Surgeon, 3 ditto, 

1 Surgeon's mate, 2 ditto, 
6 Captains, 3 ditto, 

12 Lieutenants. 2 ditto, 



1 Lieut, col. commandant, at $12 per month, 

1 Major, - - 10 ■ 

1 Surgeon, - - 10 

1 Surgeon's mate, - 6 

6 Captains, - - 8 

12 liieutenants, - - 6 

6 Cornets, - - 6 



2,190 




1,460 




1,095 




730 




6,570 




8,760 




month. 


$144 


do. 


120 


do. 


120 


do. 


72 


do. 


576 


do. 


864 


do. 


432 



6 Cornets, 2 rations per day, 4,380 

378 Non-commission- 
ed and privates, 1 ditto, 137,970 
22 Women, 1 ditto, 8,030 



At twenty cents each, is. 



Rations, 171,185 



$34,237 



1 Adjutant, - - at $6 per month, 

1 Quartermaster, - 6 do. 

1 Paymaster, - - 6 do. 

378 Non-commissioned & privates, 6 do. 



BOUNTY. 

378 Non-commissioned and privates, at sixteen dollars each, is 

CLOTHING. 

378 Suits, at twenty-tive dollars per suit, is - 

EQUIPMENTS. 

Bridles, saddles, &c. - - ' " 

HORSES FOR THE CAVALRY. 

378 Horses, at one hundred and fifty dollars each, is 



72 
72 
72 
27,216 

$29,760 



$6,048 



$9,450 



$12,840 



$56,700 



RECAPITULATION. 



Pay, 

Subsistence, 

Forage, 
Bounty, 
Clothing, 



$32,196 I 

34,237 

29,760 

6,048 

9,450 



Equipments, 

Horses for the Cavalry, 



12,840 
56,700 



$181,231 



Estimate of the pay, fyc. of a Regiment of Artillery. 



1 Lieut, col. commandant, at $75 per month, 



4 Majors, 

5 Adjutants, 

4 Quartermasters, 

4 Paymasters, 

1 Surgeon, 

4 Surgeon's mates, 
16 Captains, 
32 Lieutenants, - 
32 Cadets, 

4 Sergeant-majors, 



55 
10 
10 
10 
45 
30 
40 
30 
7 



do. 

do. . 

do. 

do. 

do. 

do. 

do. 

do. 

do. 

do. 



900 

2,640 

600 

480 

4H0 

540 

1,440 

7,680 

11,520 

2,688 

384 



4 Quartermaster-sergeants, at $8 per month, 

2 Senior Musicians, - 7 do. 

64 Sergeants, - - 7 do. 

64 Corporals, - - 6 do. 

160 Artificers, to act as privates, 9 do. 

32 Musicians. - - 5 do. 

672 Privates, - - 4 do. 



384 

168 

5,376 

4,608 

17,280 

1,920 

32,256 

$91,344 



SUBSISTENCE. 



1 Lieut, colonel commandant, at 6 rations 

per day, - - - 2,190 
4 Majors, at 4 rations per day, 5,840 

1 Surgeon, 3 ditto, 1,095 

4 Surgeon's mates, 2 ditto, 2,930 

16 Captains, 3 ditto, 17,520 

32 Lieutenants, 2 ditto, 23,360 

32 Cadets, 1 ditto. 11,680 



1,002 Non-commissioned 

and privates, at 1 ratio per day, 365,730 



160 Artificers, extra 
59 Women, 



ditto, 
ditto, 



At twenty cents each, is 



29,200 
21.535 



Rations, 481,070 



$96,214 



1 Lieut, col. commandant, at $12 per month. 144 

4 Majors, - 10 do. 480 

1 Surgeon, - - 10 do. 120 

4 Surgeon's mates, - 6 do. 288 

5 Adjutants, - - G do. 360 



4 Paymasters, 
4 Quartermasters. 



at $6 per month. 
6 do. 



288 
$1,968 



BOUNTIES AND PREMIUM. 

1,002 Non-commissioned and privates, at sixteen dollars each, - 

CLOTHING. 

32 Cadets, and 1,002 non-commissioned and privates, at twenty -five dollars per suit. 



$16,032 



$25,850 



1798.] CONTRACTS FOR THE SUPPLY OF CANNON. 123 



RECAPITULATION. 



Clothing, - - - - 25,850 



$231,408 



Pay, .... $91,344 

Subsistence, - - - 96,214 

Forage, - . - - - 1,968 

Bounties and premium, - - 16,032 

This diflfers from the existing corps of artillerists and engineers, by having Sergeant-majors, Quartermaster Ser- 
geants, and Senior Musicians, which were supposed to be necessary. 



Estimate of the Cost qf 1,300 Cannon. 

100 Cannon, 32 pounders, at $420 each, is - - - - - $42,000 

200 do. 24 do. at 350 do. - - - - - - 72,000 

200 do- IS do. at 318 do. - - - - - - 63,600 

300 do. 12 do. at 211 do. - - - - - - 63,300 

300 do. 9 do. at 140 do. - - - -. - - 42,000 

200 do. 6 do. at 130 do. - - - - - - 26,000 



$308,900 



5th Congress.] No. 34. [2d Session . 

CONTRACTS FOR THE SUPPLY OF CANNON. 

COMMUNICATED TO THE HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES, ON THE 12tH DAY OF APRIL, 1798. 

By direction of the President of the United States, the Secretary of War has the honor to submit to the House 
of Representatives, the annexed statement, pursuant to a resolution of the House of Representatives, passed Wed- 
nesday, the 28th day of March, 1798. 

That a contract was made on the 8(h of August, 1794, by the Commissioner of the Revenue, with Messrs. Brown 
and Francis and others, owners of the Hope Furnace in Rhode Island, for the delivery of iron cannon, viz: 34 of cali- 
ber to carry 32 pound shot, and 34 of caliber to carry 24 pound shot, suitable for fortifications, and sixty of caliber 
to carry 24 pound shot, suitable for frigates, two-thirds of said cannon, by contract, to be delivered on the first day 
of January, 1793, and the remainder on the first day of May following. The United States to pay one hundred and 
six dollars and two-thirds, for every ton the cannon should weigh when delivered, and also an allowance for the 
extra expense of boring out the solid metal, beyond that which would arise from boring them, if cast with a cavity 
nearly of the size of the intended caliber. 

That under this contract, there has been delivered and receipted for, on account of the United States, 34 cannon 
of caliber to carry 32 pound shot, and 34 of caliber to carry 24 pound shot, suitable for fortifications, and 59 of cali- 
ber to carry 24 pound shot, suitable for frigates; and the owners of Hope Furnace have been paid for the same, at the 
rate of one hundred and six dollars and two-thirds per ton, and also an allowance of five thousand nine hundred and 
fifty-three dollars and sixty-eight cents, for the extra expense of boring out of the solid. 

That another contract was made on the 28th June, 1794, by the Commissioner of the Revenue, with Samuel 
Hughes on behalf of himself and others, owners of a furnace in Cecil county, Maryland, for the delivery of iron can- 
non, viz: 50 of caliber to' carry 32 pound shot, and 50 of caliber to carry 24 pound shot, suitable for fortifications, 
and 90 of caliber to carry 24 pound shot, suitable for frigates or ships of war. Two-thirds of said cannon to be de- 
livered on or before the first day of January. 1795, and the remainder on or before the first day of May, 1795. The 
United States to pay for cannon, conformably to, and delivered under, this contract, one hundred and six dollars 
and two-thirds, for every ton such cannon should weigh, and also an allowance for the extra expense of boring out 
of the solid metal. 

That under this contract, there have been delivered and receipted for, on account of the United States, 18 cannon 
of caliber to carry 24 pound shot, suitable for fortifications, and 36 of caliber to carry 24 pound shot, suitable for 
frigates. No settlement having been made with Mr. Hughes, it cannot be determined what should be allowed for 
the extra expense of boring out of the solid. 

That a third contract was made by the Secretary of the Treasury, on the 25th of October, 1796, with Samuel 
Hughes and others, owners of a furnace in Cecil county, Maryland, for the delivery of 40 iron cannon of caliber to 
carry 13 pound shot; all of which to be delivered on or before the first day of May, 1797. The United States to pay 
for the same one hundred and thirty -three dollars and one-quarter, for every ton they might weigh, without en- 
gaging to allow for the extra expense of boring out of the solid. 

Only three cannon have been receipted for under this contract, for account of the United States. 
For information on the subject of cannon purchased, employed, or contracted for, for the revenue cutters, the 
Secretary takes leave to refer to the letter of the Secretary of the Treasury, dated the 7th December, 1797, ad- 
dressed to the chairman of the committee to devise measures for the protection of commerce. 
All which is respectfully submitted, 

JAMES McHENRY. 
War Department, lith Mpril, 1798. 



154 MILITARY AFFAIRS. [1798. 



5th Congress.] ■ No. 35. ^^ Session. 

REORGANIZATION OF THE ARMY. 

COMMUNICATED TO CONGRESS, DEC. 31, 1798. 

Gentlemen qfthe Senate, and Gentlemen of the House of Representatives, 

A Report of the Secretary of War, made to me on the twenty-fourth of this month, relative to the military esta- 
blishment, I think it my duty to transmit to Congress, and recommend to their consideration. 

JOHN ADAMS. 
December Zlst, 1798. 

The Secretary ef War respectfully reports to the President of the United States: 

That, there are several subjects which, in his opinion, will deserve the attention of Congress, to render the mili- 
tary establishment more manageable and systematic ; and procure to it the means of further improvement. 

It is not presumed that Congress will think it prudent to relinquish any of the measures of security which have 
been so wisely adopted ; nor need it be observed, that any relaxation in these may frustrate their object, by afford- 
ing argument of weakness or irresolution. It may be true, that some late occurrences have rendered the prospect 
of invasion by France less probable, or more remote ; yet, duly considering the rapid vicissitudes, at all times, of 
political and military events ; the extraordinary fluctuations which have been peculiarly characteristic of the still 
subsisting contest in Europe ; and the more extraordinary position of most of the principal nations of that quarter 
of the globe ; it can never be wise to vary our measures of security, with the continually varying aspect of European 
affairs. On the contrary, a very obvious policy dictates to us, a strenuous endeavor, as far as may be practicable, 
to place our safety out of the reach of casualties which may befall the contending parties, and the powers more imme- 
diately within their vortices. Paying due respect to this state of things ; regarding the overthrow of a large portion 
of Europe as not entirely chimerical, and standing as it were in the midst of falling empires, it will be our prudence 
to cultivate a spirit of self-dependence, and to endeavor, by unremitting vigilance and exertion, under the blessing 
of providence, to hold the scales of our destiny in our own hands. In oflering these preliminary observations, the 
Secretary presents nothing new to the President ; most, if not all of them, having received, directly or impliedly, 
in his communications to Congress, his deliberate sanction and authority. 

Circumstanced as the United States now are, the progress of public danger may render an extension of military 
preparations indispensable, and a proper organization for the troops of the United States extremely beneficial. 

In proportion as the policy of the country is adverse to extensive military establishments, it ought to be our care 
to render the principles of our military system as perfect as possible, our endeavors to turn to the best account, such 
force as we at any time may have on foot, and to provide an eligible standard for the augmentations to which par- 
ticular emergencies may compel a resort. 

In these views, it is conceived the organization of our military force would be much improved by modelling it 
according to the following plan : — 

1st. That a regiment of infantry, composed, as at present, of two battalions, and each battalion of five companies, 
consist of one colonel; two majors, a first and second ,• one adjutant, one quartermaster, and one paymaster, each 
of whom shall be a lieutenant; one surgeon, and two surgeon's mates; ten captains; ten first lieutenants, and ten 
second lieutenants, besides the three lieutenants abovementioned ; two cadets, with the pay and emoluments of ser- 
geants; two sergeant majars; two quartermaster sergeants; two chief musicians, first and second; twenty other mu- 
, sicians; forty sergeants; forty corporals; and nine hundred and twenty privates. 

2d. That a regiment of dragoons consist of ten troops, making five squadrons, and the following officers and 
men, viz : one colonel; two majors, a first and second ; one adjutant, one quartermaster, and one paymaster, each 
of whom shall be a lieutenant ; one surgeon, and two surgeon's mates; ten captains; ten first, and ten second lieu- 
tenants, besides the three lieutenants above mentioned; five cadets, with the pay and emoluments of sergeants; 
two sergeant majors; two quartermaster sergeants; two chief musicians, first and second. Ten other musicians; 
forty sergeants; forty corporals; and nine hundred and twenty privates. The privates, including to each troop one 
saddler, one blacksmith, and one bootmaker. 

3d. That a regiment of artillery consist of four battalions, each battalion of four companies, and of the following 
officers and men, viz: one colonel; four majors; one adjutant, one quartermaster, and one paymaster, each of whom 
shall be a lieutenant. One surgeon, and two surgeon's mates; sixteen captains; sixteen first, and sixteen second 
lieutenants, besides the three lieutenants abovementioned; thirty-two cadets, with the pay and emoluments 
as at present established; four sergeant majors; four quartermaster sergeants; sixty-four sergeants; sixty-four cor- 
porals; one chief musician, and ten other musicians; and eight hundred and ninety-six privates, including to each 
coinpany eight artificers. 

The principal reasons for this organization will be briefly suggested and explained. 

1st. it will be observed, that the proposed proportion of men to officers in the infantry and cavalry is considera- 
bly greater than by the present establishment. This presents, in the first place, the advantage of economy. By the 
proportional decrease of the officers, savings will result in their pay, subsistence, and the transportation of theii- 
baggage ; and (he last circumstance, by lessening the impediments of an army, is also favorable to the celerity of its 
movements. 

3d. The command of each officer will become more respectable. This will be an inducement to respectable 
men to accept military appointments, and it will be an incentive to exertion among those who shall be engaged, by 
upholding that justifiable pride which-is a necessary ingredient in the military character. A company will tnen 
admit of an eligible sub-division into platoons, sections, and demi-sections, each of a perfect front. 

3d. Each battalion will be of the size judged proper for a manoeuvring column in the field, and it is that portion 
of an army, which in the most approved system of tactics is destined to fulfil this object. A batialion, according 
to the best judges, sanctioned by experience, ought neither to be too unwieldy for rapid movements, nor so small as 
to multiply too much the sub-divisions, and render each incapable either of a vigorous impulse or resistance. 

4th. The proportion of oflicers to men ought not to be greater than is adequate to the due management and com- 
mand of them. A careful examination of this point will satisfy every judge, that the number now proposed will be 
adequate to both : and it is illustrated by the expectation, that our fundamental orders, in conformity with those of 
the nations of Europe generally, ought to place our infantry in three ranks, to oppose to an enemy, who shall be in 
the same order, an equal mass for attack or defence. 

But it is not intended to recommend a present augmentation of the number of rank and file, to the proposed 
standard. It is only wished that it may be adopted provisionally, as that of the war establishment. 

The regiments which have been authorized may continue in this respect upon the footing already prescribed ; 
leaving the actual augmentation to depend on events which may create a necessity for the increase of our force. 

The other alterations recommended have relation rather to systematic propriety, than to very important military 
effects. 

1st. The term lieutenant-colonel, in our present establishment, has a relative signification, without any thing, 
in fact, to which it relates : it was introduced during our revolutionary war to facilitate exchanges of prisoners, as 
our then enemy united the grade of colonel with that of general. But the permanent forms of our military system 
ought to be regulated by principle, not by the changeable and arbitrary arrangement of a particular nation. The 



1798.] REORGANIZATION OF THE ARM Y. 125 



title of colonel, which has greater respectability, is more proper for the commander of a regiment, because it does 
not, like the other, imply a relation having no existence. ,,,... l jj-.- ■ 

2d. The term ensign is changed into that ot lieutenant, as well because the latter, from usage, has additional re- 
spectability, offering an inducement to desirable candidates, as because the former, in its origin, signified a standard 
bearer, and 'supposed that each company had a distinct standard. 

This in practice, has ceased to be the case; and, for a variety of good reasons, a standard ot colors to each 

battalion' of infantry is deemed sufficient. This standard is intended to be confided to a cadet, in whom it may be 

expected to excite emulation and exertion. The multiplication of grades, inconvenient in exchanges, is thus avoided. 

In the cavalry it is proper to allow a standard to each squadron consisting of two troops, and hence it is proposed 

to have five cadets to a regiment. , - , , ^ , 

3d. The nature of the artillery service, being constantly in detachment, renders it proper to compose a regi- 
ment of a greater number of battalions than the other corps. Tliis our present establishment has recognized. But 
there is now a want of uniformity, which leads to disorderly consequences; one regiment being composed of four 
battalions, the other of three. The same organization ought to be common to all. Tlie diminution of the number 
of musicians, while it will save expense, is also warranted liy the peculiar nature of the artillery service. They 
answer in this corps few of the purposes they are applied to in the infantry. 

Existing laws contemplate, and with good reason, that the aids of general ofncers (except of the commander in 
chief ) shall be taken from the regiments; but they do not provide, that, when so taken, their places in the regiment 
shall be supplied by others. It is conceived, that this ought to be the case. The principles ot the establishment 
supposes, for example, that three officers to a company of a given number are the just and due proportion. If, 
when an officer be taken from a company to fill one of the stations alluded to, his place be not filled by another, so 
that the number of officers to a company may remain the same, it must follow, that the conipany will be deficient in 
officers. It is true, that the number ot a company is continually diminishing, but it diminishes in officers as well 
as men; and it is not known that the proportion is varied. Practice, in every institution, ought to conform to prin- 
ciple, or there will result more or less of disorder. An army is. in many respects, a machine, of which the dis- 
placement of any of the organs, if permitted to continue, injures its symmetry and energy, and leads to disorder 
and weakness. The increase of the number of rank and file, while it strengthens the reasons for replacing the offi- 
cers who may be removed, will more than compensate, in point of economy, for the addition of officers by the sub- 
stitution. This may be submitted to the test of calculation. But, though the place of an officer in his regiment 
ought to be supplied upon any such removal, he ought not to lose his station in the regiment, but ought to rank, and 
rise, as if he had continued to serve in it. . . 

I should do injustice to this subject, if I did not acknowledge this plan of organization had received the full and 
unequivocal approbation of the commander in chief. Lieutenant General Washington. 

The annexed schedule (A) will show, in one view, the difference between the present and the proposed estab- 
lishment. 

The provision that aids-de-camp and the officers of inspection shall be drawn from the line of the army is not 
restricted as to grade: there ought to be such a restriction. The aids of major generals ought not to be taken from 
a rank superior to that of captain, nor those of the brigadiers from a rank superior to that of first lieutenant- The 
rank from which inspectors may be taken ought, in like manner, to be limited; those of brigades to the rank of cap- 
tain; those of divisions to that of major. This will guard against the multiplication of the superior grades, by re- 
movals to fill such stations. 

The two companies, which it is proposed to add to the actual number of the cavalry, it is desirable should be 
raised immediately. If this is agreed to, they might receive the denomination of hussar companies — a description 
of cavalry extremely serviceable in an army. 

It is incidentally noticed, that the act of last session, augmenting the dragoon corps to eight companies, and as- 
signing to it a lieutenant colonel and other officers, to constitute it a regiment, has not provided a surgeon or mate. 
This omission will require attention. 

If there shall be occasion for the actual employment of military force, a corps of riflemen will be, for several 
purposes, extremely useful. The eligible proportion nf riflemen to infantry of the line may be taken at a twentieth- 
It is submitted, whether a specific provision to this effect will not be proper, in arranging the army for a war estab- 
lishment. 

The only provision for the appointment of a quartermaster general is to be found m the act of the 28th of May. 
authorizing the President to raise a provisional army, which limits his rank and emoluments to those of lieutenant 
colonel; this provision is conceived to be entirely inadequate for a war establishment. The military duties of the of- 
fice are of a nature to render it of the first importance in an army — demanding great and peculiar abilities, and a 
character every way worthy of trust; accordingly, it is the general practice, founded upon very substantial rea- 
sons, to confide it to an officer of high military rank. The probability is, that, without a similar arrangement on 
our part, we shall not be able to command a fit character, and, in taking one of inferior pretensions, we shall sub- 
ject the service to disadvantages out of all proportion to any objections which may be supposed to militate against 
the conferring of such rank. It is feared that an appointment under such a provision will only create embarrass- 
ment, should there be real necessity for military exertions, and that the alternative must be, either to leave the army 
destitute of so necessary an organ, or to give it one likely, in the progress of things, to prove unequal to the task. 
A new provision on this subject appears absolutely indispensable. 

The Secretary does not discover, in any of the acts, the necessary provisions for the appointment of hospital 
officers, or a hospital establishment. As military hospitals are indispensable to an army, especially in time of war, 
it is respectfully suggested, that provisions on the subject ought to be made by law, and that the regulations to be 
found in the resolutions of the old Congress, more particularly in those under date of September 30th, 1780, and 3d 
January, 1782, as containing the faithful results of much experience, may afford some important lights respecting this 
department. 

The certain consequence of disregarding so essential a measure, in the event of war, and the encampments of 
our army, will be a train of diseases which must cut off a large proportion of our troops. 

It is deeply to be Ir.mented, that a very precious period of leisure was not improved, towards forming among our- 
selves engineers and artillerists; and that, owing to this neglect, we are in danger of being overtaken by war, with- 
out a competent number of characters of these descriptions. To form them suddenly is impracticable: much pre- 
vious study and experiment are essential. If possible to avoid it, a war ought not to find us unprovided. What 
has been done to facilitate this object, and the perfection of our artillery, will be seen by the annexed extract of a 
letter from the Secretary, marked (B), to the chairman of a committee of the House of Representatives, for the 
protection of commerce and the defence of the country, taken in connexion with the act providing for raising 
the corps of artillerists and engineers, with the act to augment the army of the United States, and \ot other pur- 
poses, passed the 16th of July, 1798. What has resulted from the latter act will make the subject of a particular 
report. In the mean while, it is conceived to be advisable to endeavor to introduce, from abroad, at least one distin- 
guished engineer, and one distinguished officer of artillery. They may be sought for preferably in the Austrian, 
and next in the Prussian, armies. The grade of colonels, with adequate pecuniary compensations, may attract offi- 
cers of a rank inferior to that grade in those armies, who will be of distinguished abilities and merit. But, in this, 
as we know from past experience, nothing is more easy than to be imposeil upon, nothing more difficult than to avoia 
imposition, and that, therefore, should the measure be sanctioned by a law, it will be requisite to commit the busi- 
ness of procuring such characters to some very judicious hand, under every precaution that can put him on his guard. 
It is also suggested, that an inspector of fortifications is much wanted. In case of a legislative provision on this 
subject, the officer may be either cfrawn from the corps of artillerists and engineers, or it may be left discretionary 
with the President to choose him where he pleases. If, however, the choice is to be restricted to that corps, it will 
be proper, that withdrawing him from it shall not prevent his right to rise in it, and that his place in the corps should 
be filled by an officer of the same grade. 
17 m 



126 MILITARY AFFAIRS. [1798. 

It will be easily imagined, that without such an oflScer the service may essentially suflFer. To obviate this, the 
Department of War has always founil it necessary to employ a person who has been paid out of the contingencies 
for performing that and some other duties of a military nature. 

The improtance of a faithful representation of the real state of the fortifications, public buildings, and barracks, 
the qualifications of the cominar.daiits of forts, the police they observe, and degree of attention they bestow on the 
works, magazines, and the like, can stand in need of no comment. 

It is further submitted, whether it will not be proper, and conduce to the improvement of our artillery, to en- 
large the field from which to select a fit character for inspector of artillerists. As the law now is, the inspector 
must be chosen from the corps of artillerists and engineers, and would require one of its most experienced officers, 
all whose services arc indispensable to the corps itself. 

It has been often observed, by officers of the army, that the public would save by the measure, and more satis- 
faction be given to the soldiers, generally, if a regulation was adopted to insure his clothing shall be fitted to the 
soldier. It cannot fail to happen, that clothing, made at a distance from the army, will, in numerous instances, be 
ill fitted to the person to whom it is issued. This is an inconvenience, as it respects appearance, comfort, and ease, 
and causes the soldier to be careless of his dress. It of course merits consideration, whether it will not be reme- 
died by making provision, by law, for the necessary alteration, at the cost of the soldier. As there are always to be 
found tailors in an army, the alterations may be made there during seasons of inactivity, and moderate compensation 
may be established, to be deducted out of the pay of the soldiers. The tailors, who, when so employed, will be ex- 
empted from military duty, will be satisfied with very small allowances; and the soldiery will, from the best infor- 
mation I can obtain, prefer this expense to the inconveniences of wearing clothes which do not fit them. 

Another point, no less deserving of particular attention, is, the composition of the ration of provisions. It was, 
in the last session, augmented beyond all former example. It is not recollected that the ration which was allowed 
during the war with Great Britain was found insufficient by troops once formed to military habits, and acquainted 
with the best methods of managing their provisions. The present ration, estimating by price, is understood to be 
greater than the ration in that war, by above fifty per cent. This is evidently a very important augmentation: va- 
rious disadvantages attend it; a great increase of expense; additional difficulty in furnishing, under all circumstances, 
the stipulated allowance; consequently, a multiplication of the possible causes of discontent, murmurs, and perhaps 
even mutiny; the necessity of a greater number of wagons for transportation; and, of course, the extension of this 
always serious source of embarrassment to military operations. 

The quantity of spirituous liquors, which is a component part of the ration, is so large as to endanger, where there 
might not before exist, habits of intemperance, alike fatal to health and discipline. Experience has repeatedly 
shown, that many soldiers will exchange their rum for other articles, which is productive of the double mischief of 
subjecting those with whom the exchange is made to the loss of what is far more necessary, and to all the con- 
sequences of brutal intoxication. 

These, and such considerations, have induced the Secretary to cause to be inserted in the contracts made under 
his orders a proviso, " that, if the quantities of the component articles of a ration shall be reduced, by law, the price 
to be allowed therefor shall be propurtionably reduced." And, in the article of enlistment, a proviso, " that the 
soldier is to accept such ration as is, or shall be, established by Idw." 

It is well understood, that the increase having been once made, a change is delicate; but it is believed to be in- 
dispensable, and that the temporary evils of a change can bear no proportion to the permanent and immense evils 
of a continuance of the error. 

It may not, perhaps, be advisable to bring back the ration to the standard of the late war, but to modify it, in 
some respects, differently, so as not materially to affect the aggregate expense. 

For example, it may consist of eighteen ounces of bread or flour, or an equivalent in rice, or Indian meal, when 
flour cannot be wbtained; one pound and a quarter of fresh beef, or one pound of salted beef, or three quarters of a 
pound of salted pork; salt, when fresh meat is issued, at the rate of two quarts; and candles at the rate of a pound 
and an half for every hundred rations. 

With regard to liquor, it may be best to exclude it from being a component part of the ration, allowing a discre- 
tion to commanding officers to cause it to be issued, in quantities not exceeding half a gill per day, except on extra- 
ordinary occasions. 

Vinegar, also, ought to be furnished, when to be had, at the rate of two quarts, and soap at the rate of two pounds 
per hunSred rations; but this ought to depend on circumstances, and ought not to make part of the established 

There are often difficulties in furnishing articles of the latter description, and the equivalent in money is fre- 
quently rather pernicious than beneficial. Where there is a contract, the promise of such articles is apt to prove 
more beneficial to the contractor than to any other person. He commonly so manages it that the substitute is not a 
real equivalent. . . 

But it need not be remarked, that, whatever is to be done in this respect, must be so conducted, as not to infract 
the conditions on which the old troops, now in service, were enlisted. 

The act which authorizes to raise the twelve regiments of infantry, and six troops of dragoons, provides, that they 
shall be kept in service during the continuance of the existing differences between the United States and the French 
republic,if not sooner discharged. Upon the disbanding of these troops, it is to be presumed by far the greatest 
number of both officers and men will find themselves at a considerable distance from their homes. The same thing 
also happens to officers on the establishment, whose age or time of life, or scanty fortune, does not admit of their 
continuance in the army, as well as to privates serving on the frontiers, whose engagements are successively expir- 
ing. These all have, or will have, to travel to their respective places of residence, at their own expense, if no pro- 
vision is made by Congress to meet the case. This, to many of them, must be, and is, an extreme hardship, espe- 
cially when it is considered, that the profession of arms, however important to the country, and noble in itself, is so 
far from furnishing to the officers, even of the highest grades, the means of making a tolerable provision out of the 
savings of their pay, for the future support of themselves and families, in advanced old age, or when their services 
maybe dispensed with by the public, that it requires them to observe the greatest economy to be able to proceed in 
their career, and defray the expense of their necessary wants. 

In the English service, the officer, when disbanded, receives half pay; the private soldier in the cavalry has his 
horse, and an allowance for his sword, with fourteen days' pay to carry him home; the infantry have likewise four- 
teen days' pay granted them for the same purpose. 

It is respectfully suggested, whether it would not comport with justice, and have a tendency to encourage men 
to enter into the army, it a provision was made for an allowance to each officer and soldier, on quitting the service, 
or being disbanded, equivalent to the expense he must incur in returning home. 

The act authorising the President of the United States to raise a provisional army, is too important to the peace 
and safety of the Union, not to require from Congress such a matured revision as may render it efifectual to the pur- 
poses for which it was framed. 

The first section, by which the President was vested with the power to raise ten thousand troops, has expired by 
its own limitation. . 

It is conceived advisable, and founded on the soundest policy, that the power to raise such troops as are contem- 
plated by this clause should be extended at least to twenty thousand. To be on safe ground, our preparations and 
supplies ought to contemplate an army of fifty thousand men. 

The act in question contemplates also a.w auxiliary force, under the denomination of volunteer companies, who 
shall be armed, clothed, and equipped at their own expense. 

It is highly pleasing to mention, that 'sufficient evidence has appeared, that the patriotism of our independent 
citizens will not shrink from this measure of defence; the number of volunteer companies which have oflered their 
services being already considerable. 



1798.] REORGANIZATION OF THE ARMY. l^? 

As it may be questioned, whether the act enables the President to appoint .tU appropriate officers to these com- 
panies, when organized into regiments, brigades, and divisions, it is desirable that such power should be expressly- 
given. 

A specific provision for the pay and rations to volunteers, during the days it may be necessary to assemble them 
in bodies in each j;ear, for the purpose of general discipline and manoeuvres, would be very benehcial- 

To form effective soldiers at this moment, and at so light an expense to the public, must be looked upon as an 
object of great national concern, especially when we take into view the difficulty of getting men, trained to arms, in 
time of actual war. 

The value of those patriotic bands of volunteers, who destine themselves to the front of danger, is inappreciable. 
If well instructed and disciplined, they will, in the event of sudden invasion, be of immense utility and importance. 
Besides the direct effects of their own exertions in resisting the enemy, till they can be succored by the regular 
force, if at a distance, the militia, rallying to them, would derive, from their example and countenance, additional 
courage and perseverance. They would, thus disciplined and aided by the regular force, though small, give a con- 
sistency and stability to our first efforts, of which these would otherwise be destitute, and would tend powerfully 
to prevent great, though, perhaps, partial, calamities. 

It is impossible to contemplate the duties of the office of inspector general, without perceiving that their due 
discharge will require the exercise of extraordinary skill and labor, and that the existing law has assigned no com 
pensation whatever for the exercise of this skill and labor. 

Ill the case of officers taken from the line to perform the specific duties of assistant inspectors, quartermasters, 
&c. we find the law has made a specific allowance. The principle applies, and with augmented force, to the inspec- 
tor general, who has not only to create regulations, but to superintend their execution, in addition to his duties as a 
general officer. 

To discharge, with effect, the duties of his office, he must make frequent journeys from one part of the army to 
another, when it is encamped in different and distant places. It must be conceived that the expenses of such jour- 
neys must quickly eat out the narrow allowance of a major general. If filled by a man of talents, v/ithuut a fortune 
to meet such expenses, he must either compiomit his reputation, and that of the Government, by not producing the 
results to be expected from his department, or he must ruin himself in performing services for which there is no 
adequate compensation- The precedent of last war establishes the propriety of an extra allowance for the extra 
services and expenses to this officer; and it would be infinitely more agreeable and less embarrassing to the Depart- 
ment of War, that the latter, or his expenses on journeys from one part of the army to anodiei-, should be settled by 
a fixed allowance by law, instead of being chargeable to the contingencies of the War Department. A further ar- 
rangement is necessary to give full effect to the inspector general's department. During our war with Great Britain, 
this officer was allowed secretaries, in addition to his aids as major general. It is thought that one secretary to the 
present officer is indispensable. 

It is proper, before closing this reference, to mention a circumstance intimately connected with our military 
system. 

Owing to the increase of the naval and military establishments, the business of purveyor of public supplies has 
been so augmented, as to require for the War Department alone the exclusive and uninterrupted services of such an 
officer. 

It seems to be improper, that the head of the War Department should be obliged to employ himself in any other 
manner in the business of the purveyor, than merely to make'requisitions for articles wanted j to prescribe the quan- 
tities, the times, and places of delivery; and that the whole responsibility for the execution of the order should rest 
upon the purveyor. A Secretary of War will always find ample employment in the general superintendence and 
direction of the great operations of his department. If a portion of his time is to be occupied in the details of lesser 
concerns, it is morally certain that the greater must languish or suffer. 

Besides these duties, the purveyor should be charged exclusively with the disposing of all returns from the In- 
dian factories, corresponding with these, keeping all accounts, and conducting all concerns relative to them, under 
the direction of the Secretary. 

He might also be the agent and organ to procure the means of transportation for all supplies sent from the seat 
of Government, or elsewhere, to the army, agents, or quartermasters, to arsenals, and distant places of deposite. 

The Secretary takes leave to recapitulate, for the purpose of presenting, in a concise view, the propositions re- 
spectfully recommended to attention, by the foregoing observations. 

1st. A new modification of the militarj', so as to admit of an increase of numbers to the companies and regi- 
ments, in case of war; an alteration in the denomination of certain grades: and a perfect uniformity of arrangements 
in corps of the same species of troops. 

2d. Regulations to preserve to the companies and regiments, their competent number of officers, in cases where 
any are taken from the line to act as aids-de-camp, inspectors, paymasters, quartermasters, &c. 

3d. To designate the grades from which aids-de-camp and officers of inspection may be taken, in order to pre- 
vent the multiplication of the higher grades. 

4th. To add to the existing establishment two companies of horse, to be denominated and act as hussars; and a 
surgeon and mate to the regiment of cavalry. 

5th. To include, in the arrangement for the war establishment, a proportion of riflemen, estimated at one-twen- 
tieth of the whole number of infantry. 

6th. An alteration in the provision for a quartermaster general, to ensure the procurement of a fit character to 
execute the duties of this important office. 

7th. A provision for a hospital department for the army. 

8th. A power to procure from abroad one distinguished engineer, and also an officer of artillery, .and suitable 
appointments for the same. 

9th. To provide for the appointment of an inspector of fortifications. 
10th: That the choice of an inspector of artillery be left at large. 
11th. A provision for altering and fitting the clothing issued to the soldiers. 
12th. An alteration in the ration to be issued to the troops. • 

13th. A provision for the reasonable expenses of officers and soldiers in returning to their homes, when disbanded, 
or incapacitated by age or sickness, for further service. 

14th. A revival and extension of the power to raise a provisional army. 

15th. A specific provision for the appointment of appropriate officers for the volunteer companies, that are or may 
be accepted , when iormed into regiments, brigades, or divisions; and for pay and rations to such volunteers, for those 
days in every year it may be necessary to assemble them in bodies, for the purposes of discipline and training. 

16th. A further provision for the extra services and expenses of the inspector general, and to allow him, besides 
his aids, one secretary. 

17th. The employment of a purveyor of public supplies, exclusively for the War Department. 
All which the Secretary has the honor most respectfully to submit, 

JAMES McHENRY. 
War Department, December 'iith, 1798. 



128 



MILITARY AFFAIRS. 



[1798. 



A. 

A REGIMENT OP INFANTRY. 



Present Establishment. 



J lieutenant colonel commandant, 

2 majors, 

1 adjutant, n 

1 paymaster, ^ to be taken from the line. 

1 quartermaster, J 

I surgeon, 

3 surgeon's mates, 
10 captains, 

10 lieutenants, 
10 ensigns, 

1 Serjeant major, 

1 quartermaster sergeant, 

•2 senior musicians, 
40 sergeants, 
40 corporals, 
20 musicians, 
600 privates. 



Proposed Establishment. 



J 



1 colonel, 

2 majors, 
1 adjutant, 
1 paymaster, 
1 quartermaster. 

1 surgeon, 

2 surgeon's mates, 
10 captains, 

10 first lieutenants, 
10 second lieutenants, 

2 cadets, 

2 sergeant majors, 

2 quartermaster sergeants, 

2 senior musicians, 
20 musicians, 
40 sergeants, 
40 corporals, 
920 privates. 



to be lieutenants, and in addition to 
the lieutenants hereinafter mention- 
ed. 



REGIMENT OF DRAGOONS. 



Present Establishment. 



1 

3 
1 
I 
1 

No 



lieutenant colonel commandant, 

majors, 

adjutant, ^ 

paymaster, C to be taken from the line. 

quartermaster, J 

surgeon or mate provided by law. 

captains, 

lieutenants, ' 

cornets, 

sergeant major, 

quartermaster sergeant, 

sergeants, 

corporals, 

farriers, 

saddlers, 

trumpeters, 

dragoons. 



Proposed Establishment. 



1 colonel, 

2 majors, 

I adjutant, ~f to be lieutenants, and in addition 

1 paymaster, ^ to the lieutenants after mention- 
1 quartermaster,j ed. 

1 surgeon, 

2 surgeon's mates, 
1 captains, 

10 first lieutenants, 
10 second lieutenants, 

5 cadets, 

2 sergeant majors, 

2 quartermaster sergeants, 

2 chief musicians, 
40 sergeants, 
40 corporals, 
10 musicians, 
10 saddlers, 
10 blacksmiths, 
10 boot makers, 
890 privates. 



A REGIMENT OF ARTILLERY. 



Present Establishment. 
First Regiment. 



1 lieutenant colonel commandant, 

4 majors, 

X adjutant, 7 

4 adjutants and paymasters, 5 

1 surgeon, 

4 surgeon's mates, 
16 captains, 
32 lieutenants, 
32 cadets, 
64 sergeants, 
64 corporals, 
32 musicians, 
160 artificers, 
672 privates. 



to be taken from the 
line. 



Proposed Establishment. 



"I 



I colonel, 
4 majors, 
1 adjutant, 
I quartermaster, 
1 paymaster, 

1 surgeon, 

2 surgeon's mates, 
16 captains, 

' 16 first lieutenants, 
16 second lieutenants, 
32 cadets, 
4 sergeant majors, 
4 quartermaster sergeants, 
64 sergeants, 
64 corporals, 
1 senior musician, 
10 musicians, 
128 artificers, 
768 privates. 



to be lieutenants, and in addition 
to the lieutenants hereinafter 
mentioned. 



Extract of a letter from the Secretary of War^ to the Hon. Samuel Sewall, Chairman of the Committee of De- 
fence, S/-C. dated 

" War Department, June 28, 1798- 

" 3d. The act providing for raising and organizing a corps of artillerists and engineers, and the act to provide 
an additional regiment of the same, both enjoin the procurement, at the public expense, of all necessary books, in- 
struments, and apparatus, for the benefit of the said respective regiments. 

" The Secretary, without designing to derogate from the merits of tlie officers appointed to the corps established 
by the acts cited, feels it his duty to suggest, that other, and supplementary means of instruction, to the books and 
instruments to be provided, appear to be absolutely indispensable to enable them to acquire a due degree of know- 
ledge in the objects of their corps. It is certain, (hat the best faculties and inclinations for the arts and sciences 



1799.] POWERS AND EMOLUMENTS OF BREVET RANK. 129 

cannot be unfolded and applied to useful purposes, when proper encouragement and assistance have been denied or 
neglected. 

"The art of fortification is connected with so many others, is of such extent, and its operations dependent on, 
and affected by, circumstances so infinitely varied, that it is impossible any man can be rendered master of it by 
experience alone. Besides, the knowledge acquired by experience is often the result of our own faults, and 
acquired by a heavy, and, it may be, in this art, disastrous expense to the public. 

" It is certainly to be wished, that more attention had been paid to this subject, and that past recommendations 
had found a favorable access to the ear of Congress. 

" If the present moment does not admit of carrying into effect all that is desirable, and ought, under different 
circumstances, to be done, to create a body of qualified and scientific engineers, it may, notwithstanding, be advi- 
sable to advance towards this point by such measures as are compatible with our present situation. 

"The knowledge of certain arts and sciences is absolutely necessary to the artillerist and engineer,- such are 
arithmetic, geometry, mechanics, hydraulics, and designing. 

" Without a knowledge of arithmetic, an officer cannot calculate the expense incurred, or to be incurred, on 
any work, or any subject whatever. 

" Without that of geometry, he cannot form a just plan or chart, regulate the design of a fortification, with its 
lines and angles, trace it upon the ground it is to occupy, nor estimate and measure the solidity and surface of its 
several parts. 

" Without that of mechanics, he will not be able to appreciate the proportion of the machines used in war, the 
dimensions of carriages for artillery, nor to augment or diminish the force of the several kinds of machines, when it 
may be necessary. 

" Without that of designing, he will not have it in his power, to give plans and profiles of works, nor to exhibit 
the topography of the environs of a work, or any part of a country. 

"Without that of hydraulics, he will not be qualified to conduct water from one place to another, or to sustain 
and elevate it when there may be a necessity in sieges, or other military operations, for so doing. 

"It is therefore submitted, whether provision ought not to be made for the employment of three or four teachers 
of the enumerated sciences, to be attached generally to the two corps of artillerists and engineers, and obligated to 
give instructions and lessons, at such times, places, and under such regulations, as the President may direct. 

"The employment of teachers would give the intended effect to the provision of the laws, for the appointment 
of two cadets to each company. It was supposed, that these cadets would form a nursery, from which qualified 
officers might be drawn to fill vacancies, &c. but it must occur, that without proper masters to teach them the sciences, 
necessary to the engineer and artillerist, this nursery can produce no valuable plants. 

"It is also submitted, whether it might not be proper to augment the [)ay of cadets to nine dollars per month, 
with two rations. This would excite their emulation, give them a consideration above sergeants, and enable them 
to appear in a more respectable dress. 

"It is with infinite regret the Secretary is obliged to mention, that the ordnance of our country is by no means 
in a situation to command respect. That part of it was collected during a season of difficulty and necessity, from 
different countries, and consequently, the guns are, many of them, essentially defective, and those of the same class 
differ in length, weight, and caliber. The variance in these particulars occasions much trouble and inconvenience, 
in providing appropriate ammunition, stores, apparatus, and carriages, besides subjecting the military service to in- 
jurious delays, and the fatal consequences which might result from ammunition and implements being supplied 
which, in time of need, will be found not adapted to the piece. 

" As there is no established standard, it has also happened, from a defect of knowledge in our founders, or some 
other cause, that most of the cannon that have been cast within, or on account of, the United States, are defective in 
very essential points, and exhibit varieties in those cast at the same furnace, and of the same class, with those pro- 
cured from abroad. 

" It is important that some arrangement should be immediately adopted, calculated to give efficacy to a proper 
system, and correct these evils. It is not enough that the President determine upon the size, weight, dimensions, 
and calibers of the different kinds of cannon, either to be made, or imported into the United States, for their use, 
unless an inspector of arlillery can be appointed, to see that all regulations appertaining to the ordnance depart- 
ment be executed and observed with exactitude. 

" We cannot presume that contracts, however carefully made, and conditioned, or even a national foundry, 
will produce cannon conformable to a given specific standard for each class, so long as the United States are with- 
out an officer of skill to inspect, and receive, or reject them. 

" I cannot conceive any appointment more necessary to our military undertakings, and infant navy, than au in- 
spector of arlillery, and I must flatter myself that the committee will feel as I do upon this occasion. 

"They will not, I am persuaded, imagine that it can be possible for a Secretary of War, to discharge the duties 
of his appointment, and, at the same time, to visit foundries, examine all kinds of ordnance, direct the dimensions 
of gun carriages and implements, order the proper moulds for casting shot, shells, &c. review and decide upon the 
qualities of every different production, and point out the means of remedying existing defects, and generally perform 
all the other duties attached to the office of inspector of artillery. 

"The Secretary indulges the hope, that the committee will recommend, and the wisdom of Congress think proper 
to create, in the Department of War, the office of inspector of artillery, with a salary adequate to its nature and 
importance, and calculated to obtain a person qualified to fill it. On this important head he takes leave further to 
mention, that other countries owe the excellency of their ordnance to the establishment of such an officer, and that 
in England, particularly, and at a late day, the appointment of a scientific and experienced inspector has given a 
perfection to their ordnance never before known." 



5th Congress.] JVo. 36. [3d Session. 



POWERS AND EMOLUMENTS OF BREVET RANK. 

COMMUNICATED TO THE HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES, FEBRUARY 4, 1799. 

Mr. DwiGHT Foster, from the committee of claims, to whom was referred the petition of Moses White, with the 
report of the former Secretary of the Treasury thereon, made the following report: 

That the object of the petitioner was to obtain a settlement and allowance of his account against the United 
States, for services and expenditures on behalf of the public during the war. 

The powers vested by law in the officers of the Treasury Department are competent to adjust and settle most of 
the items mentioned in the account of the petitioner; and, since his petition was originally referred to the Secretary 
of the Treasury, those items have been considered, and partially adjusted by the proper officers. The committee are 



130 MILITARY AFFAIRS. [1800. 

therefore of opinion, that with respect to that part of the petitioner's account, it would not be expedient or proper for 
the Legislature to interfere: but the item of the greatest magnitude, and of most importance to the petitioner, which 
is a claim for additional pay as aid-de-camp to Brigadier General Moses Hazen, from the first of August, 1781, 
to November 3d, 1783, not having been expressly authorized by an act of Congress, has not been allowed in the 
settlement of the account- 

With respect to this part of the petitioner's claim, the committee report, that by the act of Congress of the 21st of 
June, 1775, the commander in chief was allowed three, and each major general two aids-de-camp, whose pay and 
rank were established by subsequent resolutions. By a resolution of Congress on the 30th of March, 1776,each briga- 
dier general, when oncommand, was empowered to appoint abrigadier major, and, by another resolution, on the first 
day of July, in the same year, a brigadier general, acting in a separate department, was allowed an aid-de-camp. 
On the 27th day of May, 1778, it was provided, '• that the brigade major should be appointed as heretofore by the 
commander in chief, or commander in a separate department, out of the captains in the brigade to which he should 
be appointed"' — and by a resolution of that date, the additional pay of aids-de-camp and of brigade majors was 
estaolished. Upon the 28th of June, 1782, so much of the act of the 27th day of May, 1778, as relates to the addi- 
tional pay given to captains and subalterns, acting as aids-de-camp and brigade majors, was repealed, and on the 
same day Congress resolved " that there should be such additional pay and emolum.ents to the pay of captains and 
subalterns, serving as aids-de-camp to major generals, or brigadier generals, and to brigade majors, as should 
make their pay and emoluments equal to the pay and emoluments of a major in the line of the army." 

By a resolution of Congress, onlhe 29th day of June, 1781. Generjil Hazen was"appointed abrigadier in the army 
of the United States, by brevet." It appears by a certilicate from General Hazen, that the petitioner acted as his aid- 
de-camp during the time for which he prays compensation. 

The only doubt which appears to have arisen respecting the propriety of allowing this claim is understood to have 
been because General Hazen held the rank of brigadier by brevet commission only. 

Although brevet officers were not entitled to any additional pay in consequence of their brevet promotion, yet it 
gave them conditional rank — when on command of mixed corps, or on court martials, they took rank with the young- 
est officer of the grade to which they were promoted — hence, in the local command of his own regiment, General 
Hazen had no additional rank; but on command, &c. he took rank as the youngest brigadier. With respect to the 
circumstance of his receiving no additional pay, in consequence of the appointment, the committee conceive it will 
not apply to the question now under consideration. If a brigadier held the rank and command, whether he was a 
volunteer, or held it by courtesy, or received no pay, they apprehend, by established custom, he was entitled to his 
staff officers, and they to the customary allowance for their services. The Secretary of the Treasury, in his report on 
this part of the petitioner's claim, states that he had not been able ' ' to discover any resolution of Congress by whicli 
the claim could be decided; but that there were precedents in practice in favor of it as applied to brigadiers by com- 
mission; that, if this practice were to govern, the circumstance of a brevet appointment would not, in the opinion of 
the Secretary, constitute a ground of difference, to the prejudice of the petitioner, inasmuch us the brigadier is 
understood to have the actual command of a brigade at the time; in which case, the principles of service, with re- 
gard to an aid-de-camp, would apply as fully to him as to the brigadier bjr commission." 

The committee concur with the Secretary of the Treasury in the opinion above expressed, and think that the 
petitioner ought to receive compensation for his services as aid-de-camp; they therefore submit to the consideration 
of the House the following resolutions, viz: 

Resolved, That in the adjustment of the amount of Moses White, late a captain in the army of the United States, 
the accounting officers of the treasury be, and they are hereby, directed to credit and allow the account of the said 
Moses White, for his additional pay and emoluments as an aid-de-camp, during the time he acted in that capacity 
to Brigadier General Moses Hazen, upon the same principles which have heretofore prevailed in the settlement of 
accounts of officers acting as aids-de-camp to brigadier generals in the line of the army. 



6th,CoNGRE Ss.l No_ 37_ [1st Session. 



ARMORY AT SPRINGFIELD. 

COMMUNICATED TO THE SENATE, JANUARY 7, 1800. 

War Department, January 6, 1800. 

I have the honor to transmit a report, exhibiting the expenses of the national armory at Springfield, Massa- 

husetts, together with the fullest information I have been able to obtain, relative to the said establishment. 

1 am, sir, with great respect, your obedient servant, 

^, T, , .- T, . , ,r . , o JAMES McHENRY. 

The Hon. the V ice President of the United States. 



Sir: 



War Department, January G, 1800. 

The Secretary of War has the honor to lay before the Senate of the United States, an exhibit of the expenses 
of the national armory at Springfield, Massachusetts, together with the fullest information he has been able to obtain 
relative to the said establishment. 

The following sums appear to comprise the annual expenditures at, and upon, this armory, from the commence- 
ment of the same, in the year 1795, down to the 1st of October, 1799. 

In the year 1795, expended ---... $12,095 25 

Do. 1796, do. ---... 12,286 49 

Do. 1797, do. - - - - . ■ - 11,175 28 

Do. 1798, do. - . . ... 22,245 00 

From 1st January, to 1st October, 1799, - ... - 48,90000 

Cost of rations issued during the above periods, - . . . 20,663 00 

Estimated value of musket stocks, --.... 2,00000 



Making a total of, - - $129,365 2 



1800.] ARMORY AT SPRINGFIELD. I3I 

The muskets annually fabricated, in the same period, were, viz: 

In the year 1795, - - - 245 I To July 1st, 1799, - - - 1,888 

Do. 1796, - - - 825 In July, August, and September, 1799, - 1,184 

Do. 1797, - - - 1,028 

Do. 1798, - - - 1,044 I Total number, - 6,224 

In order to form a just opinion of the average price, or cost, of the muskets manufactured as aforesaid, it will be 
proper to distinguish, and deduct from tna total amount, the sums which have been expended upon the buildings, 
raaclunery, tools, &.C., and the value of the unfinished works, the tools and materials on hand, the 1st October, 1799; 
as well as of certain incidental" work, in repairing French arms in store, and making or repairing cannon carriages. 

Although it is stated by the superintendent of the armory to tlie Secretary, to be wholly out of his power to de- 
termine accurately, and with certainty, what proportion of the money expended was laid out on the works, and what 
on the arms; which, he observes, will be readily conceived on reflecting, that, at the commencement of the business, 
the public buildings were out of repair; that large sums were expended on them; that new buildings were erected; 
and that for want of proper assistants and system, he did not keep separate accounts; that, besides, the artificers 
were employed for some time on the buildings, instead of the manufactory, and in making the necessary pieces of 
machinery and tools; yet, according to the best judgment he can form, the cost of the worksliops and other buildings 
for the armorers, water dam. and privilege, together with the machinery belonging thereto, and rations drawn by 
the men while employed in tnese incidentallabors, may be estimated at - - - - $20,006 00 

Value of parts of muskets on hand, ..---.. 7,591 50 

Stock on hand, -.-..--.. 6,958 17 

Expense of cleaning and repairing French arras in store, and work done to cannon carriages for five 

years. - - - - - - - - - - 3,800 00 

Tools and utensils, estimated at .----.. 9,000 00 

$47,349 67 



This latter sum, deducted from the total amount of expenditures, leaves a balance of $82,015 35, which, divid- 
ed by 6,224, the number of muskets fabribated since the commencement of the armory down to the 1st of October, 
1799, makes each musket to cost about $13 17. 

If we take into view the ditficulties always attendant upon the first operations of an establishment, requiring so 
much skill as the fabrication of arms; that few or none of the workmen were, at first, masters of the business; that 
some unsuccessful attempts in the proper construction of the machinery, and formation of parts of the musket, must 
necessarily have occurred; that time and some experience was essential to adjust the various branches of the busi- 
ness to each oiher, and to ascertain to what branches the capacities and skill of the different persons employed were 
most appropriate; we shall find reason to be satisfied with the average cost of the muskets, and a sufficient ex- 
planation, should any defects appear in some of the earliest manufactured. 

The works being now complete, and labor-saving machines operating to great advantage, the artificers, too, being 
generally well instructed, and the business better arranged, and carried on more systematically, what do muskets 
now cost the United States at Springfield? 

There are, at this time, employed in the armory, 183 artificers, and 11 apprentices. The number employed for 
the months of August, September, and October ultimo, average 137 per month. In two of these months, there were 
completed, 884 muskets, being 17 to each working day, or 442 muskets per month. 

The superintendent states, as the result of positive experience, the monthly expenditures of the armory to be as 
follows, viz: 

Iron, 3tons, 15cwt. 2qrs. cost ....... 

Wages of workmen, including the pay of the superintendent and master armorers. 
Rations for the men, - . . . ... 

Wear of grindstones, ... . . . _ 

Charcoal and sea coal, .._.--. 

Estimated cost of musket stocks, .-..-. 

Emery, oil, buff leather, &c. - 

Cast steel, brass, crucibles, and wire, -..-.. 
Screvvs, sand paper, and tallow, _.-.-- 

Clothing apprentices, and team work, .----- 

Files, -.-....-- 

Contingent charges, ....... 



This sum, then, or the monthly expenditures apportioned on the number of muskets made monthly, shows their 
cost to the United States, to be about $9 29 per musket. 

This difference in the cost of the musket may be attributed to the price of the ration being less now than here- 
tofore; to the workmen having become more expert; to the materials being bought in larger quantities, cominglower; 
to supplies being more regularly furnished; and, generally, to the improvements in the machinery and system for 
carrying on the manufactory. 

The high prices offered artificers by private contractors for small arms, have obliged the superintendent to give 
higher wages since these contracts have been formed. This, however, cannot be long felt disadvantageously, and 
must operate to increase the number of workmen skilled in the business, and ultimately lower the price of wages. 
At present, the average wages to workmen at the armory is nearly fifteen dollars per month. 

The superintendent, however, expresses himself confidently, that the cost of each musket to the Government, 
in future, cannot exceed ten dollars. 

The progressive improvements in the manufactory will be best evidenced by the statement of the arms made in 
each year; and the following one, of the number made and turned into the store, during certain parts of the years 
1798 and 1799: 
In the month of September, 1798, there were made and delivered to the store keeper. 
Do. October, 

r, 

1799, 



$ 592 


17 


2,180 


69 


546 


00 


50 


00 


250 


00 


150 


00 


36 00 


18 


50 


38 


00 


45 


00 


100 


00 


100 


00 


$4,106 36 



Do. 


November, 


Do. 


December, 


In the month of January, 


Do. 


February, 


Do. 


March, 


Do. 


April, 


Do. 


May, 


Do. 


June, 


Do. 


July, 


Do. 


August, 


Do. 


September, 



80 muskets. 


80 


do. 


150 


do. 


196 


do. 


200 


do. 


250 


do. 


339 


do. 


338 


do. 


336 


do. 


425 


do. 


300 


do. 


442 


do. 


442 


do. 



(short, owing to a failure in stocks) 

During the last six months, there has been nearly the same number of hands employed, or between 130 and 150. 
In October, 1798, there werell8 men, and these made 80 muskets only; in November, 121 men, who made 150 mus- 
kets; which last is at the rate of near 21 days' work to each musket. The superintendent observes, on this head, that 



132 



MILITARY AFFAIRS. 



[1800. 



the men can now do double, and. in some instances, treble the work, in the same time; and that a workman, at pre- 
sent, makes a complete musket in somewhat less than nine days; that he finds the workmen now make and com- 
plete, in every part, 17 muskets per day, in the usual working hours; andwhat is, perhaps, of more consequence, that 
the work, besides being sooner, is much better done. 

Before closing this report, it will be proper to mention, that cogent considerations seem to require there should 
be a power vested in the Secretary of War, under the direction of the President, to vary the compensation of the 
superintendents and master armorers. Superintendents, in particular, are subjected to expenses wiiich attaches to 
their station, and cannot be avoided by them. 

It is essential also to notice, that it would greatly conduce to the success and improvement of our armories, were. 

1st. The workmen, while employed in them, to be exempted from militia service; and, during the term of their 
engagement, from civil process for all debts or contracts. 

2. Were they to be obliged, by a summary process, to fulfil their engagements with the armory. 

3. Were a fine to be imposed upon any person who shall withdraw them from the armory, or in whose service 
they shall be found, after due notice shall be given of their engagements with the armory. 

All which is respectfully submitted, 

JAMES McHEyinY, Secreim-y of IVar. 



6th Congress.] 



No. 38. 



1st Session. 



SUSPENSION OF THE RECRUITING SERVICE. 

COMMUNICATED TO THE HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES, JAN. 13, 1800. 

Mr. Harrison Gray Otis, from the committee to \vhom was referred so much of the speech of the President of 
the United States as relates to " a system of national defence, commensurate with our resources, and the situa- 
tion of our country," reported in part: 

That, in the opinion of the committee, no such material change in the state of the foreign relations of the United 
States has happened, as would justify a relinquishment of any of the means of defence heretofore adopted by Con- 
gress, but that the national honor and interest, in the present posture of affairs, make it prudent and necessary to 
continue prepared for the worst event; but while danger still threatens our country, yet circumstances having 
diminished the probability of an immediate invasion, the attention of the committee has been particularly directed 
to the state of the military establishment, with a view to reconcile safety with economy, to preserve the establish- 
ment, and retrench the expense. The annexed abstract, and letter from the Secretary of War, exhibit the state of 
the twelve new regiments of infantry according to the latest returns. As these men have received their bounty and 
clothing, and are daily improving in discipline; as they would be useful in any sudden emergency; and the greater 
part of them may also be usefully employed, until wanted for actual service, on the fortifications of ports and har- 
bors; it is conceived proper to retain them, but to suspend the recruiting service until the approach of danger shall 
compel the Government to resume it. This project combines the advantage of an important reduction of the national 
expense, with that of having at command a bady of officers ready for the service upon short notice, and a number of 
disciplined troops sufficient for the present occasion. 

Tlie committee, therefore, submit the following resolutions: 

Resolved, That, from and after the day of next, all enlistments, under an act entitled '* An act 

to augment the army of the United States, and for other purposes," shall be suspended until the next session of 
Congress, unless war shauld break out between the United States and a foreign European power, or in case immi- 
nent danger of invasion of their territory, by any such power, shall, in the opinion of the President of the United 
States, be discovered to exist. 



Sir: War Department, 'id January, 1800. 

I received your letter dated yesterday, and have the honor to inform the committee of defence, that I am pre- 
paring, and have nearly finished, a report to the President of the United States, on the subject of the military esta- 
blishment, containing propositions which it is conceived would improve it, and detailing inlbrmation from the latest 
documents, as fiir as they go, that have been transmitted to me, relative to the number of men that have been 
actually enlisted in the new regiments. 

It will be conceived the report mentioned is intended to embrace die most material objects that have occurred 
to me, as promising amelioration to our military system. The President, I respectfully presume, will communicate 
the same to Congress. 

The number of men enlisted, at the dates therein specified, as appears from the latest returns to the War De- 
partment, in the twelve new regiments of infantry, will be seen by the enclosed statements, whicii is respectfully 
submitted. 

The other requisitions will require some time to prepare an accurate reply to. They shall claim my attention, 
and an answer be furnished as soon as possible. 

I have the honor to be, with great respect, your obedient humble servant, 

JAMES McHENRY. 
H. G. Otis, Esquire, Chairman 

cffthe Committee of Defence, of the House of Representatives of the United Stales. 



Return of the non-commissioned Officers, Musicians, and Privates, enlisted for the twelve regiments, directed to 
be raised in pursuance of the act of July, IG, 1798. 



c ""S 








-tj" t. 


c 


c . 






c" jj 


c S3 


c 53 




1^ 


e E 


11 


S.S 


1> J3 


6| 


.S.S 


e-g 


s e 


H 


^1 


6-i 




lfj= 


■SdS 


?f > 


•SdB 


ba& 


Si) bo 


to o 




be^ 


^^ 


^^ 


5f^ 




Is 


•5 S« 


■B ° 


«o 




■3 o 
o -^-^ 


■5 o 


s s 


1? 


51 
1- 




^1 




No re- 


134 


258 


424 


314 


448 


458 


287 


371 


327 


145 


233 


3.399 


turn. 



























War Department, January 2d, 1800. 



1800.] MILITARY ACADEMY, AND REORGANIZATION OF THE ARMY. 133 



tith Congress.] No. 39. [1st SESsio>f. 

MILITARY ACADEMY, AND REORGANIZATION OF THE ARMY. 

COMMUNICATED TO CONGRESS, JANUARY 14, 1800. 

Gentlemen of the Senate, and Gentlemen of the House of Representatives: 

A report, made to me on the fifth of this month, by the Secretary of War, contains various matters, in which 
the honor and safety of the nation are deeply interested; I transmit it, therefore, to Congress, and recommend it 
to their serious consideration. 

JOHN ADAMS. 
United States, January I3lh, 1800. 

The Secretary of War respectfully requests the attention of the President of the United States, to certain mea- 
sures and arrangements, which appear to him to be indispensable to the improvement of our military system, and 
solicits, if it shall be thought proper, that the same may be submitted to Congress. 

No sentiment is more; just than this, that, in proportion as the circumstances and policy of a people are opposed 
to the maintenance of a large military force, it is important that as much perfection as possible be given to that 
which may at any time e.xist. 

It is not, however, enough, that the troops it may be deemed proper to maintain be rendered as perfect as pos- 
sible, in form, organization, and discipline; the dignity, the character to be supported, and the safety of the country, 
further require that it should have military institutions, should be capable of perpetuating the art of war, and of 
furnishing the means for forming a new and enlarged army, tit for service, in the shortest time possible, and at the 
least practicable expense to the State. 

Let it not be presumed, that a country, however distantly situated from other nations, or favored by the courage 
and genius of its inhabitants, can neglect, with impunity, military institutions, or that it may, safely, consider all 
regular force to be useless, except when there is an enemy present to employ it. A country which acts upon such 
a maxim will invariably attract injuries and enemies, and, sooner or later, sink by internal discords, or see its 
noble spirit broke down by repeated humiliations, and the whole people thus prepared for the last stage of national 
degradation. 

If the farmer would secure his flocks, he must go to the expense of shepherds; if preserve his crops, he must en- 
close his fields. In like manner, to ensure safety to the nation, it is necessary that the leading avenues into it be 
guarded by troops and fortifications. Before the invention of gunpowder, the smallest villages were invested with 
walls, so that a long siege was often requisite to reduce them. Since that epoch, the history of almost, if not every 
war, contains undeniable proofs of the utility of fortifications, and the necessity of disciplined troops, to the defence 
of a country. Would it be wise or expedient in us to pursue a different course, and shut our eyes against the in- 
numerable facts on record, in favor of their essentiality. Are we without regular troops, we may soon lose the 
military art; are we without engineers, not a little of the money employed on fortifications will be always hazarded, 
if not actually thrown away, and generals of the most consummate genius forced to capitulate in the field, whose 
retreat might have been covered by a fortification, or the battle decided in his favor by a happily contrived in- 
trenchment. 

Since, however, it seems to be agreed, that we are not to keep on foot numerous forces, and it would be impos- 
sible, on a sudden, to extend, to every essential point, our fortifications, military science, in its various branches, 
ought to be cultivated with peculiar care, in proper nurseries; so that a sufficient stock may always exist, ready to 
be imparted and diffused to any extent, and a competent number of persons be prepared and qualified to act as en- 
gineers, and others as instructors, to additional troops, which events may successively require to be raised. This 
will be to substitute the elements of an army to the thing itself, and will greatly tend to enable the Government to 
dispense with a large body of standing forces, from the facility which it w;ll give of procuring officers, and forming 
soldiers promptly in all emergencies. 

No sound mind, after a fair view of the subject, can doubt the essentiality of military science in time of war, 
any more than the moral certainty that the most pacific policy on the part of Government, and the most solemn and 
well observed treaties, will not preserve a country from being engaged in war more or less frequently. To avoid 
great evils, we must either have a respectable force always ready for service, or the means of preparing such a force 
with certainty and expedition. The latter, as most agreeable to the genius of our Government and nation, is the 
object of the following propositions. 

1st. .5 Military Academy. 

This object has repeatedly engaged the favorable attention of the Legislature, and some laws towards its con- 
summation have been passed. These, however, being yet inadequate to afford the requisite instruction to officers, 
and others, in " the principles of war, the exercises it requires, and the sciences upon which they are founded," the 
adoption of a more perfect plan is conceived to be indispensable for these purposes. With this view, the following 
plan is respectfully suggested, formed upon those of institutions of a similar nature, from which the nations who 
have founded them derive the most decided advantages. 

It is proposed, that this academy shall consist of four schools: one, to be called " The Fundamental School;" 
•another, " The School of Engineers and Artillerists;" another, "The School of Cavalry and Infantry;" and a 
fourth, " The School of the Navy;" and be provided with the following officers, professors, and teachers. 

A Director General to superintend the three first schools. 

A Director of the Fundamental School. 

A Director of the School of Engineers and Artillerists. 

A Director of the School of Cavalry and Infantry. 

A Director of the School of the Navy. 

Six Professors of Mathematics. 

Four Professors of Geography and Natural Philosophy. 

Two Professors of Chemistry, including Mineralogy. 

Three Architects. 

Four Designing and Drawing Masters. 

One Riding Master. 

One Fencing Master. 

To be thus distributed among the several schools: 

To the Fundamental School- 
One. Director. 

Four Professors of Mathematics. 
Two Professors of Geography and Natural Philosophy. 
One Designing and Drawing Master. 
One Professor of Chemistry. 
18 m 



134 MILITARY AFFAIRS. [1800. 

To the School of Engineers and Artillerists. 
One Director. 

Two Professors of Matlicmatics. 
Two Professors of Geography and Natural Philosophy. 
One Professor of Chemistry. 
Two Architects. 
Three Designing and Drawing Masters. 

To the School of Cavalry and Infantry. 

A Director. 

A Riding Master- 

A Fencing Master. 

To the School of the Navy. 

s\. Director. 

A Professor of Mathematics. 

A Professor of Geography and Natural Philosophy. 

An Architect. 

One Designing and Drawing Master. 

The Fundamental School is designed to form Engineers, including Geographical Engineers, Miners, and officers 
for the Artillery, Cavalry, Infantry, and Navy; consequently, in this school is to be taught all the sciences neces- 
sary to a perfect knowledge of the different branches of the military art. 

The School of Engineers and Artillerists, to teach those admitted therein, and appointed or designed for Engi- 
neers, the application of the theoretic knowledge which they had acquired in the Fundamental School, to the con- 
struction of all sorts of fortifications and military buildings appertaining thereto, to mines, and countermines, 
sieges, attack and defence, to mineralogy, to the art of projecting and constructing bridges, roads, canals, and 
maritime posts, and all works relative thereto, to all geographic and topographic operations, the calculations rela- 
tive to the same, to designing and drawing charts, &c. 

To those appointed or designed for the artillery service, the application of the theoretic knowledge, acquired in 
the Fundamental School, to the construction of gun carriages, pontoons, the fabrication of cannon and fire arms, and 
to all the manoeuvres of war which depend upon artillery. 

The School of Cavalry and Infantry, to teach those admitted therein, and appointed to, or destined for, the cavalry, 
the tactics, exercise, ancl police of cavaliy; those for the infantry, the tactics of infantry, and all that concerns the 
police of an army, in the field and in quarters. 

The School of the Navy, to teach those appointed to, or destined for, this service, the application of the knowledge 
acquired in the Fundamental School in arithmetic, algebra, geometry, statics, and navigation. To this end, after 
having passed exanlination, they shall make voyages or cruises, under skilful officers, for certain periods, during 
which tmie they ousht to be exercised in the manoeuvres and observations most useful in service, and be instructed 
in whatever respects rigging of vessels of war, pilotage, and the management of cannon. 

Functions of the Principal Officers. 

The Director General to have the general superintendence of the schools, particularly of the Fundamental School; 
to occupy himself incessantly vidth the means of attaining the end of the institution, which is the greatest possible 
instruction to the pupils. 

He will inform himself of their progress in the studies relative to the service to which they are destined, and 
collect all the facts proper to be laid before the President, to enable him to form an opinion of the fitness of any 
individual, who has not had one, for an appointment; or, in case he has, to judge how, and when, his talents can, 
upon occasion, be most beneficially employed. 

He will attend, particularly, to the execution of whatever respects the admission of pupils; their transfer from 
the school of theory into that of practice; their passage from one class or division, in the same school, to another; 
and the examinations which they ought respectively to undergo. 

He will propose a list of the officers of the army, proper to be received into the schools, and will furnish the 
Secretary of War with information, from time to time, relative to their progress, conduct, and capacity to fill 
stations to which their genius and knowledge may particularly point. 

He \\\\\ give such certificates to the officers, cadets, or pupils, as they shall have merited. 
The directors of each of the military schools will receive from the Director General, instructions detailing their 
functions and powers; to him they will make their reports. 

With respect to the School of the Navy, the director thereof will receive his instructions from the Secretary of 
the Navy. 

The Director General, and the other directors, to be officers of the army or navy, according as the studies and 
exercises of the particular school shall be most intimately connected with either service. 

These schools to be provided with proper apparatus and instruments, ibr philosophical and chemical experiments, 
for astronomical and nautical observations, for surveying, and such other processes as are requisite to the several 
topics and branches of instruction. 

The site of schools of engineers and artillerists, and of the navy, ought to be on navigable water. For this pur- 
pose, a piece of ground ought to be purchased, sufficient for experiments in tactics, gunnery, and fortification. The 
situation upon a navigable water is also requisite, to admit of specimens of naval construction and naval exercises. 
It would also tend greatly to the perfection of the plan, if the academy of artillerists and engineers was situated 
m the neighborhood of foundries of cannon and manufactories of small arms. 

BarracKs and other proper buildings must be erected, for the accommodation of the directors, professors, and stu- 
dents, and for the laboratories and other works to be carried on at the respective schools. 

The cadets of the army, and a certain number of young persons, destined for military and naval service, ought 
to study at least two years in the Fundamental School; and if destined for the corps of engineers or artillerists, or 
for the navy, two years more in the appropriate school; if for the cavalry or infantry, one year more in the appro- 
priate school. But persons who, by previous instruction elsewhere, may have become acquainted with some or all 
of the branches taught in the Fundamental School, may, after due examination by the directors and professors of that 
school, be either received then for a shorter time, or pass immediately to one or other of the schools of practice, ac- 
cording to the nature and extent of their acquirements and intended destination. 

In addition to these, detachments of officers and non-commissioned officeis of the army ought to attend one or 
other of the schools, in rotation, for the purposes of instruction and exercise, according to the nature of the corps to 
which they respectively belong. 

It may be noticed also in this place, that it would be a wise addition if Government would authorize such a 
number of sergeants, supernumerary to those belonging to the regiments on the establishment, as would suffice with 
them for an army of fifty thousand men. All the supernumeraries to receive, according to their capacities, instruc- 
tion at the academy, and occasionally sent to do duty with the army. 

This outline of a Military Academy, which is conformable to that of similar institutions in other countries, par- 
ticularly in France, is not meant to imply any thing conclusive: the plan may be modified, perhaps, to advantage. 
At all events, it ought to be left with the President to proportion the number of cadets, and others, to be admitted 
into the schools, ancTto prescribe, definitively, relative to the requisites to entitle to admission, the periods of noviciate, 
transfers from the schools to particular corps, and whatever respects organization, regulations, and police. 



18b6.] 



MILITARY ACADEMY, AND REORGANIZATION OF THE ARMY. 



135 



And here it may be proper to observe, that though provision should be made by law for the proposed establish- 
ment, in its full latitude, yet it may be left in the discretion of the President to appoint so many of the professors 
and masters only, as experience shall show to be necessary. 

Will it be thought superfluous to remark, relative to the utility of this institution, that it is from the military 
schools of France have issued those general and other officers, whose skill and recent achievements in war havi- 
rendered them subjects for military histoiy, and enabled the present governors of that nation, successively, anil 
almost instantaneously, to form immense disciplined armies. 

Is it not greatly desirable to be so provided and prepared for all emergencies? 

An enemy who meditates invasion will naturally examine what he will have to encounter before he undertakes 
it. Acting with common prudence, he must proportion his military array to the obstacles in fortifications and dis- 
posable force it will have to overcome, and which may be so stationed and improved, as to require from him an armv 
and apparatus, expensive beyond his resources to support. Our country, by a skilful application of very moderate 
means, may thus avert from its bosom the most expensive and calamitous wars. 

In treating upon such an institution, it was encouraging to reflect, that, happily, it coincided with your uniform 
wish to see our country placed in a situation which would entitle the just maxims of its policy to be respected, and 
enable it to meet any adverse accidents it may be reserved to encounter. 

The measure proposed has also the high sanction of our late venerated President, whose talents and services 
were devoted, not to produce personal results, but to render a whole people great, flourishing, and happy. 

" The institution of a Military Academy," this great man observes, in his last impressive speech, "is also recom- 
mended by cogent reasons: however pacific the general policy of a nation may be, it ought never to be without an 
adequate stock of military knowledge, for emergencies. The first would impair the energy of its character; and 
both would hazard its safety, or expose it to greater evils, when war could not be avoided. Besides, that war 
might often not depend upon its own choice. In proportion as the observance of pacific maxims might exempt a 
nation from the necessity of practising the rules of the military art, ought to be its care in preserving and transmit- 
ting, by proper establishments, the knowledge of tiiat art. "Whatever argument may be drawn from particular ex- 
amples, superficially viewed, a thorough examination of the subject witl evince that the art of war is at once 
comprehensive and complicated; that it demands much previous study; and that the possession of it, in its most 
improved and perfect state, is always of great moment to the security of a nation. This, therefore, ought to be a 
serious care of every government; and, for this purpose, an academy, where a regular course of instruction is given, 
is an obvious expedient, which diflerenl nations have successfully employed." 

Will not the patriotism and good sense of our country readily consent to found an institution, at a moderate 
expense, recommended by such authorities, and which must produce the happiest effects? And yet. it ought not to 
excite surprise, if, in a season of profound peace, the minds of a generality of a people, partaking of the public calm, 
should become inattentive to the storm that may be collecting at a distance. Are we in the midst of tliat profound 
calm, and can the eye perceive no cloud in the horizon? But, were the heavens without one threatening spot, and 
peace universal on earth, ought the watchmen of a nation to trust to such evanescent and deceptive appearances? 
And will not an intelligent people, instructed by the wisdom of ages, and having every reason to confide in those to 
whom they have assigned the direction of their affiiirs, gladly see establishments arise, and arrangements made, which 
shall render the thunder harmless when it shall burst over their heads. In such conjunctures, (and such must hap- 
pen to the United States,) corps of well instructed officers and troops are to a country, what anchors are to a 
ship, driven by a tempest towards a rocky shore. 



Second. ./2 modification of the two Regiments of Artillerists and Engineers, so as to create, instead thereof, one 
Regiment of Foot Artillerists, another of Horse Artillerists, and a third of Engineers. 

It is conceived, that the entire union of the officers of artillerists and engineers, in one corps, as in our present 
establishment, is not advisable. The art of fortification, and the service of artillery, though touching each other in 
many points, are, in the main, distinct branches, and eacii so comprehensive, that their separation is essential to 
perfection in either. This has been ascertained by long experience. Among the powers of Europe, there is not one 
recollected, which, at the present day, is not conscious of this truth. When any of them have attempted to unite 
these corps, the disadvantages which resulted were soon felt to be so momentous, as to produce conviction that each 
required a separate organization. Such an union was once attempted in France. 

According to an ordinance of the 8th of December, 1755, the artillery and engineer corps of that nation, which 
had been separate, were combined into one. The experiment, however, was of short duration. In 1758, the engineer 
corps was disjoined from the corps of artillery, and called, as before, the corps of engineers; since which time these 
corps have remained separate. 

The two regimeiits of artillerists and engineers consist of the following officers, non-commissioned officers, and 
privates; each of, viz: 



1 Lieutenant Colonel Commandant, 

4 Majors, 

1 Adjutant, ^ 

1 Quartermaster, ^ each being a Lieutenant, 

1 Paymaster, j 

1 Surgeon, 

2 Surgeon's Mates, 
IG Captains, 

32 Lieutenants, besides the three above mentioned. 



32 Cadets, 
4 Sergeant Majors, 
4 Quartermaster Sergeants, 
64 .Sergeants, 
64 Corporals, 
1 Chief Musician, 
10 Musicians, 
128 Artificers, 
763 Privates. 



Let the regiments of foot artillerists and horse artillerists consist each as follows, viz: 



1 Lieutenant Colonel Commandant, 

3 Majors, 

1 Adjutant, ~) 

1 Quartermaster, S-each being a Lieutenant, 

1 Paymaster, j 

1 Surgeon, 

2 Surgeon's Mates, 
12 Captains, 

24 Lieutenants, besides the three above mentioned. 



24 Cadets, 
3 Sergeant Majors, 
3 Quartermaster Sergeants, 

48 Sergeants, 

48 Corporals, 
1 Chief Musician, 

12 Musicians, 
780 Privates, including Artificers 



The artificers forming a part of each company in the regiments as they now exist, to form two companies of nv. - 
ners, and two companies of artificers, to be arranged as will be hereafter noticed. 

It is also proposed: First. In the event of a war, that these two regiments shall be augmented to the complement of 
officers and men, composing the existing regiments of artillerists and engineers. Second. That the regiment of 
horse- artillerists shall pertorm their service on horseback during war only. Third. That provision be made to 
enable the President of the United States, in case war shall break out between the United States and a foreign Eu- 
ropean power, or in case imminent danger of invasion of their territory, by any such power shall, in his opinion, be 
discovered to exist, to organize, and cause to be organized, two additional regiments of horse artillery. Fourth. That 
the officers which shall become supernumerary, by this aforesaid organization, shall, at the discretion of the Presi- 
dent, be transferred to fill vacancies in other regiments, on the establishment, corresponding with their grades, 
or be retained to fill appropriate vacancies which shall happen in their respective regiments, by deaths, resigna- 
tions, &c. 



136 MILITARY AFFAIRS. [1800. 

In addition to the economical effect of the latter arrangement, it may be mentioned, that the officers to one whole 
battalion of the Second Regiment of Artillerists and Engineers have not yet been appointed. 

The regiment of engineers consisting entirely of officers, if we exclude the companies of miners, it remains to 
speak of its organization. 

Let it consist of, viz: 

Two Lieutenant Colonels, one first and one second, Twenty-four First Lieutenants, 

as already provided by law. Twenty-four Second Lieutenants, 

Three Majors, . Twenty-four Cadets. 

Twelve Captains, 

The companies of miners and their labors to be under the direction and immediate command of officers of this 
corps, and to make a part thereof. 

It will be perceived, and it is observed with regret, that, the engineer regiment cannot be immediately formed, 
by the mere act of transferring into it officers from any of the existing regiments. In order to answer its high des- 
tination, it must be filled slowly, and under the exercise of great caution and responsibility. 

For this purpose, selections may be made from among the officers of the army, and others who shall have passed 
through the military schools, and prescribed examinations, and obtain certificates of their possessing the requisite 
knowledge and qualifications. 

It may also be permitted, in cases of uncommon urgency, requiring the completion of the corps, to choose offi- 
cers among our citizens, whose professions or functions are most analogous to those of engineers, after an examina- 
tion made by a special commission named by the President. 

But lot it be remembered, that this corps is too essential to the success of military operations, to be hurried in its 
formation, or composed of other than persons qualified to discharge its high and important functions. Is authority 
necessary to support this truth ? A general, of the first reputation as a commander, observes on this subject, in 
speaking to his Government of an officer, who had been killed in action, " He was the best officer of engineers, a 
body on which so much of the success of campaigns and the fate of a country depend, and where the least fault may 
be attended with the most fatal consequences. " 

The horse artillery being a subject that cannot fail to attract attention, it will not, it is conceived, be deemed su- 
perfluous to submit a few observations and facts, relative to its structure, advantages, and importance. 

The Prussians were the first who employed horse artillery, invented by the great Frederick, at a time, when the 
league which was formed against him, called upon his genius to multiply his resources. It was then, that the same 
army, transported with a celerity and precision, till then unknown in war, was seen to triumph against superior 
forces during the same campaign, upon opposite frontiers, to the East and to the West of his states. It was then 
were seen horse artillery accompanying strong advanced bodies of cavalry without embarrassing, or retarding, their 
rapid marches and evolutions. 

Horse artillery was introduced into the Suslrian army during the reign of Joseph II., but it was not made a 
principal object, and remained in a state of imperfection. The cannoneers were transported upon the ridges of 
covered caissons, stuffed in the attitude of men on horseback. These carriages were called TVurst-wagen. 

Some attempts were made in France to introduce the horse artillery before the revolution there: tlie subject, 
however, was not well understood; the general officers, who were present at the attempt, proposed to place the 
cannoneers, like the ^ustrians, on Wursts. 

In 1791, Mr. Duportail, Minister of War, authorized the commandant of the division of Mity to form two 
companies of horse artillery. The success of this experiment was decisive, and answerable to the minister's expec- 
tations. The officers and men were in a few weeks in a condition to manoeuvre with light troops. 

In 1792, Mr. Narbonne, who succeeded to Mr. Duportail, composed a committee of the most enlightened officers 
of the army, to examine and decide upon the means ot improving and extending, in the French army, the use. of 
horse artillery. 

As no better idea can be given of this new military arm, than what is reported of the result of this conference, 
the Secretary takes the liberty to introduce it. 

These officers resolved, as fundamental points— 

1 . That a numerous horse artillery well served, and kept complete in cannoneers and horses, was the most certain 
mean to protect the evolutions of tooops indifferently instructed, to support their attack with bajronets, and to render 
null, by positions seasonably taken and with celerity, the advantage which troops 6e//ej- (/isap/merf, might confi- 
dently promise themselves from superiority in manosuvres. 

2. That with respect to the employment of this arm, the rules of service, instruction, &c. the horse artillery 
ought to differ from the field artillery only, in having its pieces so managed, as to be drawn \yith the utmost celerity 
wherever they can produce the greatest effect, and in the cannoneers being able to follow their guns, and commence 
action as soon as they are placed. 

3. That to fulfil this object, it is more convenient to have the cannoneers all mounted on horses, than a part of 
them on wursts, because on horses they are less subject to accidents, their movement more rapid, their retreat more 
secure, and the replacing of horses easy. 

4. That without excluding any caliber, it appears pieces carrying balls of eight and twelve pounds, and howitzers, 
may be most advantageously employed. 

5. That it is unnecessary to discipline a horse artillerist in the manoeuvres of cavalry; that this would be a de- 
parture, without utility, from the principal object; that it is enough for him to know to sit firm on his horse, to 
mount and descend quickly, and conduct him boldly; that it is not requisite to oblige him to preserve any order in 
following his piece, leaving it to his intelligence to learn, if he chooses, to execute the manoeuvres of cavalry. 

S. That the manoeuvre, a, la prolonge,. ought to be employed in every case in which it is practicable to use it. 
That the horses remaining attached while the pieces are firing, one gains thereby all the time which would be lost 
in removing or replacing the avant train, awA t\\\K one may pass tosses and rivers with the utmost celerity, antl 
profit of positions. 

7. That in order to form at once a requisite number of companies of horse artillery, without weakening the 
artillery regiments, it is sufficient to employ for every piece two skilful cannoneers, and to draw upon the infantry 
for the rest. . . ■ ■ 

On these principles the French have organized an establishment in their armies, from which they have derived 
the most important advantages in most, if not all their campaigns. . . . . ' 

The decisive agency of horse artillery in offensive war was manifested in the invasion of Belgium, by General 
Dumouriez, at the end of his campaign in 1792. Tiie affair of TVaterloo is equally in point, as to its superiority in 
defensive operations. 

Whilst General Pichegru commanded the army oi Flanders, iom- thousand cavalry, manoeuvring with his horse 
artillery, sustained the immense effort of an army of thirty thousand men, supporting an artillery chiefly of a difller- 
ent kind, of at least triple the force of that opposed to it. 

Bonaparte, at the battle of Castiglione, after raising the siege of Mantua, having re-assembled several divi- 
sions of his horse artillery in a well chosen position, under General Domartin, broke, by their means, the Austrian 
line, and thus decided a victory upon which depended the most important consequences in his favor- 
It is also certain, that the horse artillery contributed not a little to gain the battle of Ettingen, where General 
Moreau, very inferior in cavalry, maintained, by its means, his left wing against the whole cavalry of the Arch 
Duke. The application of the horse artillery procured to General Hoclie, upon the Rhine, in the late affair of 
Neuvied, like success. 

The Arch Duke Charles, instructed by such events, has greatly augmented and improved this arm of the Aus- 
trian army. The English, also, have lately introduced horse artillery into their service, but, it is supposed, too 
sparingly to derive therefrom its full effect. 



1800.] MILITARY ACADEMY, AND REORGANIZATION OF THE ARMY. J 37 

Can an agent, so superior in all offensive and defensive operations, and so vastly important from its nature, as 
well as the use made of it by other nations, be dispensed with in the composition of our army, or neglected with 
impunity.'^ 

The author of a recent work, entitled " Precis des evenements militaires," published in numbers at Hamburg, 
from which most of the aforesaid facts respecting this powerful military agent have been taken, observes, " that It 
is become indispensable in all armies; it can accompany almost every where cavalry; it crosses rivers and morasses 
impassable to foot artillery; it thunders in mass and with great rapidity upon an unexpected point of attack; turns 
a body of the enemy; takes him in flank or rear; can perform the service of advance posts; of artillery position; of 
the rear guard; and, in fine, that of a corps of reserve, from which detachments may be made as wanted: it is free 
from the inconvenience ascribed to foot artillery, of retarding and restraining the manoeuvres and marches of 
troops: the French have, therefore, already confined the use of foot artillery to the service of sieges, with the ex- 
ception of four pounders, which they have yet left attached to battalions." 

Horse artillery would seem to be peculiarly recommended to the United States by the reflection, that all attacks 
on the sea-board must be made by an enemy, water borne from a distant country, who will consequently be ill 
provided with horses, whereas, the United States, having a knowledge of this agent, and resorting to their re- 
sources in horses, might be able to oppose a horse artillery so superior and so promptly, as to give decided advan- 
tages in attack or defence, and relieve their territory from being ravaged, or long possessed in any part of it. If the 
United States shall prevent an enemy from procuring the horses of the country, and shall maintain a superiority in 
this forcible arm, they will have little to fear from invaders, however powerful in infantry. 

The two regiments of artillerists and engineers, as they now stand on the establishment, cost the United States 
four hundred and twenty-seven thousand five hundred and fifty three dollars and eighty cents annually. There 
will result from the proposed arrangement of these regiments, as will appear by Schedule A. a difference in time ol 
peace of twenty thousand nine hundred and fifty-five dollars and thirty cents annually, which sum may be applied 
to the expenses of the Military Academy. 

When the preceding propositions are respectfully submitted, as essential to the improvement of our military 
establishment, it vvould be improper to overlook such other measures as may occur, and, it is believed, would conduce 
to perfect our preparations, for securing our rights. 

The importance of the volunteer associations or companies, which may be accepted under "An Act authorizing 
the President to raise a provisional army," passed the 28th May, 1798, has heretofore been presented by the Secretary. 
They may be considered as a reserve body, from which prompt and efiicient reinforcements can be drawn, to our 
regular army, and as rallying and supporting points, when completely organized into regiments, brigades, and divi- 
sions, for the militia, in all cases of great and comprehensive urgency or danger. 

A revision of the law respecting these valuable associations, is earnestly recommended. No other force being 
so economical, will it not be proper, in order to derive full and permanent utility from the volunteer companies 
in all hazardous conjunctures, that the power of the President to accept their patriotic offers of service should no 
longer be confined to a limited period, and that the duration only of their engagements, after acceptance, should be 
defined by law. Can a time be fairly presumed to arrive, when we can have nothing to apprehend from either 
foreign or domestic enemies ? 

An omission in the law to provide the same compensation to the volunteer cavalry, for the use of their horses, 
that is allowed to militia cavalry, when in actual service, has been felt, with some sensibility^ by the former, who 
were employed during the last insurrection in the same service with militia cavalry. It is, therefore, recommended 
that an appropriation be made for compensating the volunteer cavalry so employed, for the use of their horses, during 
their service, at the same rates of allowance, which have been paid to the militia cavalry on the same service; and 
that equal rates of compensation for the future shall be provided for both by law, for the use of their horses in actual 
service. 

, The militia of the United States ought to be considered as an essential arm of our defence, and a sure resource 
from which reinforcements may be drawn to supply deficiencies in the regular army, in the event of a sudden inva- 
sion, or the wasting progress of a long war. 

To obtain their aid, however, with celerity and order, in such cases, other provisions are necessary than are to 
be found at present in the laws. 

The act of the 28th of February, 1795, authorizes the President, whenever the United States shall be invaded, or 
in imminent danger of invasion from any foreign nation or Indian tribe, to call forth such numbers of militia of 'the 
state, or states adjoining, most convenient to the place of danger, or scene of action, as he may judge necessary to 
repel such invasion, and to issue his orders for the purpose to such officer or officers of the militia as he shall think 
proper. 

To give effect to this power, and enable the President to carry upon an enemy with promptitude the force nearest 
to, or best calculated to, annoy him, it is indispensable that he should know the number and species of militia in each 
county of a State, and the names and places of residence of their officers respectively. 

If these particulars are not precisely known to the President, at the time the force is wanted, the delay which 
must necessarily intervene in the circuitous course of orders and instructions, will often, if not always, be productive 
of disastrous consequences. To avoid these, the proper officer of the militia in each State should be obliged, by 
heavy penalties, and high responsibility, to make quarterly returns to the Department of War, comprehending the 
aforesaid particulars. 

The troops raised under, and comfonnably to the provisions of " An act to augment the army of the United States. 
and for other purposes," passed the 16th July, 1798, demand, at this time, particular attention. 

This additional force was to consist of twelve regiments of infantry, and six troops of cavalry, the latter 
intended, with the two troops of cavalry, heretofore, and now, in service, to form one regiment of cavalry. For the 
infantry, the officers have been appointed, and the recruiting service some time in operation. For the cavalry, the 
offi cers have also been appointed ; but, to avoid the expense of this kind of troops, which is always much greater than 
that of any species of foot, the recruiting service has not been ordered, as yet, into operation, nor have horses been 
purchased, although preparatory measures have been taken. 

For the twelve regiments of infantry, the enlistments amount as follows, according to the last returns which have 
been received by the department. 

From the fifth regiment, which is the first of the twelve, there has been no returns. 
Returned for the sixth regiment, enlisted.in North Carolina, from August to December, 1799, viz: 134. 
For the seventh, enlisted in Virginia, from May to the first Monday in November, 1799, viz. 258. 
For the eighth, enlisted in Virginia, from May to October the 1st, 1799, viz. 424. 
For the ninth, enlisted in Maryland, from May to September the 17th, 1799, viz. 314. 
For the tenth, enlisted in Pennsylvania, from May to August the 1st, 1799, viz. 448. 

For the eleventh, enlisted in New Jersey, Pennsylvania, and Delaware, from April to the first Monday in Octo- 
ber, 1799, viz. 458. 

B'or the twelfth, enlisted in New York, from May to the first Monday in September, 1799, viz. 287. 
For the thirteenth, enlisted in Connecticut, from May to the first Monday in November, 1799, viz. 371. 
For the fourteenth, enlisted in Massachusetts, from May to the first Monday in November, 1799,'viz. 337. 
For the fifteenth, enlisted in Massachusetts, Maine, from June to the first Monday in November, 1799, viz. 145. 
For the sixteenth, enlisted in New Hampshire, from July to the first Monday in November, 1799, viz 233 
Total enlisted, 3,399. 

Agreeably to the provisions of the act of the 16th July, 1798, all these troops have been, by the terms of their re- 
spective enlistments, engaged*' for and during the continuance of the existing differences between the United States 
and the French Republic." 

The Secretary thinks it necessary to mention that, immediately upon the accommodation of the existing differ- 
ences aforesaid, the engagements of all these troops will expire, and every man be entitled to demand his discharge 
That, in consequence, if it shall be deemed expedient to keep up a peace establishment, more extended than here- 



^33 MILITARY AFFAIRS. [1800. 



tof'ore or any events should intervene to render a larger army indispensable, it will not be practicable to apply one of 
tliese men to the same, who have already received a bounty, without a re-enlistment, and the expense of a new 

It is' therefore, thought advisable, that the terms of enlistment prescribed by the law be superceded by a provi- 
sion in I'uture to enlist for tlie term of five years, if not sooner discharged. This modification leaves ■with the Presi- 
dent the power of reducing tlie numbers of the army at any time, to a prescribed establishment, and if the negotia- 
tions of our envoys to the French republic shall be successful, it will procure a number of men, who, without addi- 
tional expense, can be retained, if necessary, in service, for the period mentioned, a measure which appears equally 
recommended by its policy and economy. ^ ., , ^^ .^ , ^^ ^ , ,, , ,. ■ .u , 

The Secretary has before observed, that if the United States shall prevent an enemy Irom procuring the horses 
of the country, and maintain a superiority in horse artillery, they will have little to fear from an invading enemy, 
however powerful in infantry. It certainly would be an important addition to our system of defence, was an arrange- 
ment devised, to deprive an enemy, as much as possible, after he had eft'ected a landing upon our coast, of the means 
of subsistence, and especially to prevent iiim from possessing himself of horses, indispensable to the transport of his 
baggage, stores, and pi-ovisions, and for his artillery and cavalry. 

An operation promising to be so efficient, and sanctioned by experience in other countries, will perhaps require, 
on the part of Government, a promise of indemnification to the individual, for the value of all stock and horse? 
which may be removed in consequence of invasion, if not restored to their respective owners. 

Provisions and restrictions, it is conceived, may be made, calculated to secure the public against frauds, and 
to encourage, at the same time, the aid of proprietors tliemselves in the execution of such a law. It should explicitly 
provide, that no compensation will ever be allowed for property of the kind described, destroyed either by the 
enemy, or by our own army, to prevent its falling into the hands of an enemy; in all cases, where it shall appear no 
previous preparation or exertion had been made use of to remove it, and authorize the destruction of all stock, and 
horses in particular, left in an exposed situation, wiien necessary, to prevent their being useful to an enemy, or 
employed against the armies of the United States. . , . ■ 

The Government of a country, blessed with every convenience for an extensive foreign trade, and peopled witlt 
iniiabitants distinguished for their commercial spirit, will, from the natural operation of circumstances, and the im- 
pulse given by its citizens, consider it a duty to prepare either gradually or promptly, as policy, interest, or neces- 
sity, may dictate, the means of aifbrding protection to its property on the ocean. 

We find accordingly the foundation of a navy already laid, and its advantages so far felt as to induce a belief 
its progress will be permitted to keep pace with the purposes for which it was instituted. This navy, however, whicli 
is specially intended to protect trade, will in its turn require to be protected, when in harbor, by suitable fortifica- 
tions. Without a place of safety, to which it may retire from a superior fleet, the labors and resources of years 
may be destroyed in a single hour. 

The fortifications erected for tlie defence of our cities and harbors cannot yet be considered competent to anm'd 
this security. Many new and extensive works, even at those places where the fortifications are advanced, will yet 
be required to render any of them a secure asylum for our navy. 

Whenever, therefore, the harbors in which our dock yards and great naval deposites are to be established, and 
to which our navy may retire in time of war or danger, siiall be determined upon, it will be indispensable to make 
them impregnable, if possible, to an enemy. 

Schedule B will show the sums which have been appropriated and annually expended in fortifying our harboi s, 
since the " act to provide for tiie defence of certain ports and harbors in the United States," passed the 20th March, 
1794, and the balance remaining on the 1st October, 1799. 

The Paymaster General of the Armies of the United States has been, agreeably to the provision of the 15th sec- 
tion of" an act for the better organization of the troops of the United States, and for other purposes," quartered by 
direction of the late commander in chief, at the seat of Government, it being the station deemed most proper, to 
enable him to perform his iunctions with convenience, facility, and the least probable risk of the public moneys. 

The functions of this office are, by law, highly important: his trust is eminently responsible. All moneys for 
the pay of the armies pass through his hands, including military bounties, and the subsistence and forage of officers, 
and he is the auditor, in the first instance, of all accounts for such objects. 

The compensation provided for him is eighty dollars per month, with the rations and forage of a major. This 
compensation the Secretary conceives, not merely inadequate to remunerate the duties and responsibilities attached 
to the office, but insufficient for the decent support of a respectable character, and certainly none other should fill it. 
It is, therefore, respectfully suggested to increase the compensation to the Paymaster General of the Armies of 
the United States, and submitted whether it might not be attended with some beneficial eftects to vest him with a 
suitable brevet rank in the army. 

The regularity, discipline, and, of course, the efficiency of all armies have always depended very essentially upor 
the system provided for their government. Impressed with this conviction, the Secretary takes the liberty to bring 
into your view, " the rules and articles for the better government of the troops raited, or to be raised, and kept in 
pay, by and at the expense of the United States of America." This system contains many excellent provisions, 
but experience has produced a pretty general wish among military men, that it could be submitted to a complete 
revision, as in many particulars it is presumed to require amendments. 

This revision would be a \ery serious work, and there is reason to fear could not be undertaken, with a prospect 
of being speedily finished. Some things, howevei-, can be done, which would be important improvements. 

A great obscurity envelopes the provisions of the existing articles, respecting the power to appoint or order 
general courts martial. One construction, by confining the power to the general or commander in chief only, is 
inconveniently narrow, and has occasioned too great delay, as well in instituting courts, as in giving effect to their 
sentences. Another construction, winch has been practised upon, (commandants of posts, as sucn, of whatever grade, 
having assumed the power of constituting general courts martial) is too much diffused, and would place in too many 
hands a trust no less delicate than important. 

To attempt to attain the proper medium by a more exact legislative definition, of the characters who may exer- 
cise the power, would perhaps be attended with difficulty, and might often not meet the new situations which are 
constantly occurring in the infinite combinations of military service. The expedient which has appeared most proper, 
is to give a discretionary authority to the President, to empower other officers, (than those the soundest interpreta 
tion has decided to be designated by the articles of war, viz. generals, or those on whom a general's command has 
devolved) to appoint general courts martial, under such circumstances, and with such limitations, as he may deer.i 
advisable. 

The provisions which refer the determination on sentences extending to the loss of life, or the dismission of a 
commissioned officer in time of peace, to the President, must no doubt have frequently been attended with per- 
plexity to him, and are inconvenient, if not injurious to the service. It is scarcely possible, for any but the military 
commander, to appreciate duly the motives which, in such cases, deniand severity, or recommend clemency. T(. 
this, an accurate view of all the circumstances of the army, in detail, is often necessary. The efficacy of punishment, 
when requisite in an army, depends much on its celerity, and must be greatly weakened by the unavoidable delay 
of a resort to the Executive: during which delay, the mischief it was intended to remedy, may, and sometimes most 
probably will, have happened. The reasons mentioned induce an opinion, that it is expedient to empower the com- 
manding general of an army, to decide upon, and command to be executed when proper, all sentences of genera! 
courts martial, except only such as respect a general officer. The responsibility of the commanding general to the 
President, and to his country, must ensure a discreet exercise of the required authority, and its utility is manifest. 
The best mode of treating the crime of desertion has been an embarrassing investigation in most countries. 
To fix upon a punishment, tliat gives the surest promise of checking or preventing the evil, or which, when it does 
happen, in its application will be most analogous to the generally received opinions of a country, and the habits or 



1800.] MILITARY ACADEMY, AND REORGANIZATION OF THE ARMY. 139 

military life, is indeed difficult. The same punishment ought not, perhaps, to be applied to this crime, the most 
injurious to armies, and complicated in its nature, at all times and under all circumstances. ' 

To punish it with death in time of peace in all cases, would, in this country, do violence to the popular habits of 
thinking. Whipping is found to be ineffectual. Confinement to hard labur.it is supposed, will produce more 
beneficial results, and courts martial have, in their discretion, been lately much influenced by this belief. As, howevei-, 
our soldiers are enlisted for given periods, when an engagement is nearly expired, confinement would be an inade 
quate punishment, for it could not continue beyond the term of service, and although a soldier may be supposed to 
have fewer inducements to withdraw from an engagement which is near terminating, yet, it has sometimes happened, 
and may be expected in future, that men, under such circumstances, have been the authors of combinations, to revolt, 
desert, and commit other crimes, consequently have been the most atrocious olfenders; and it is known that they fre- 
quently have themselves deserted. To make this punishment, then, in time of peace, in all cases, commensurate with, 
and proportioned to, the crime, an auxiliary provision to extend the confineiiient and labor beyond the period of ser- 
vice the criminal had engaged for, would appear necessary. Such a' provision would have a tendency to render the 
sentences of the courts less sanguinary. 

The Secretary by no means designs to suggest, that it would be proper to abolish the punishment of death for 
desertion even in time of peace. He considers that in aggravated and complicated cases, it would always be proper, 
and that in time of war or civil commotion, it should always be applied to this crime. He also inclines to the opinion, 
that the power of pardoning ought never to be extended in any instance of desertion, or an attempt to desert to 
enemies or traitors. 

Connected with the perfection of our military establishment, is a code of well digested rules for the formations, 
field exercise, movements, and police, of the different species of ti oops composing our army. 

Major General Hamilton has, some time since, been specially charged with this work. As it was not, however, 
expected that so extensive an undertaking could be completed without a sub-division of labor, and the co-operation 
of various talents and experience, he informs, that he has assigned to Major General Pinckney an important 
portion of the task. The execution, it is also understood, will require the aid of other and subordinate officers, for 
whose extra service a special compensation is suggested, as being agreeable to usage, and essential to a cheerful and 
zealous performance of their duty. This, should it meet your approbation, demands no particular act of the Legis- 
lature. 

There is another point relative to the army, which he has made the subject of a recent communication to the 
Department of War, to which it may be proper to request attention. 

The General observes, that " the detaching from their corps, soldiers as servants to the various officers of the 
general staff is productive of material inconvenience, by withdrawing altogether, from military service, a coiisidera 
ble number of persons; and occasioning dissatisfactions to the commandants of corps, ^^■ho never see their men re- 
moved without uneasiness, and are sometimes much disgusted by the selection of those whom they are anxious to 
retain. There is no doubt, he adds, that it would operate beneficially, if, after fixing the number of servants to which 
the several characters of the general staff should be entitled, they were to be allowed an equivalent in money, regu- 
lated by the cost of a soldier to the public, and were to be required to provide their own servants." 

Should this measure be adopted, which is agreeable to an obsolete legulation of the old Congress, penalties may 
be devised to secure a faithful execution, which, from the force of circumstances, would be very little liable to 
abuse. 

^yhen treating upon military subjects, it may not be improper to give a general vievv of the positions of the 
existing regular force, composing the armies of the United States, conformably to a disposition of the same by your 
approbation, and that of the late commander in chief. 

The four regiments of infantry, and the two companies of cavalry, on the permanent establishment, are disposed 
of as follows: 

One regiment is assigned to the frontiers of Tennessee and Georgia. There are also in that quarter the two 
companies of cavalry. 

The three other regiments are distributed along the lakes from Niagara to Michillimackinac, upon the Miami, 
Ohio, Mississippi, and Tombigbee. 

There is also one battalion of the artillerists and engineers distributed with the aforesaid troops. 

This entire force is manifestly inadequate to the purposes it is intended to answer on our Northern, Western, 
and Southern frontiers. 

The twelve regiments of infantry now raising, have taken, or are to take, the following provisional positions, viz: 

Three of the twelve regiments of infantry in the vicinity of Providence river, near Uxbridge, Massachusetts. 

Three regiments in the vicinity of Brunswick, New Jersey. 

Three regiments in the vicinity of Potomac, near Harper's Feriy, Virginia. 

Three regiments in the vicinity of Augusta, above the Falls of Savannah. 

This disposition, it is conceived, combines considerations relative to the discipline and health of the troops with 
the economical supply of their wants. It has, also, some military aspects, in the first instance, towards the security 
of Boston and Newport; in the second, towards that of New York and Philadelphia; in the third and fourth, towards 
that of Baltimore, Charleston, Savannah, and the Southern States generally, and in the third, particularly towards 
the reinforcement of the Western army. 

The residue of the two regiments of artillerists and engineers, except one battalion stated to be on our Northern, 
Western, and Southern frontiers, are stationed in our sea-board fortifications, from Portland, Massachusetts, to the 
St. Mary's, Georgia. From these are to be drawn two battalions in succession for the army, when in the field, with 
;. vie w to a course of regular instruction. 

Schedule C exhibits the actual force (according to the latest returns) of the four regimervts of infantry, aiid two 
companies of cavalry on the old establishment, and the two regiments of artilleri'its and engiueei-';. 
All which is respectfully submitted. 

War Department, 5lh January, 1800. 



140 



MILITARY AFFAIRS. 



[1800. 



Estimate of the Pay, Forage, Subsistence, and Clothing, of a regiment of Artillerists and Engineers, on the 

present establishment. 





■S 




s 


S3 


^ 




.- 






e 


i 


e 


>< 


■3 


c 


a 


60 




>> 


















u 


D. 


e.- 


p. 


"3 


^ . 
























^ 


&- 


be 


a' 






|i 


O 




Ph 


fc 


& 


Pu 


fH 


B 
1) 
o 


.2 S 




I Lieut. Colonel Commandant, 


75 


$900 


$12 


$144 


6 


5P 


4 Majors, 


55 


2,640 


10 


480 


16 




s-s 




I Adjutant, ^ Including 


40 


480 


6 


72 


2 


-S 




cTrt 


1 Quartermaster, ^ their pay as 


40 


480 


6 


72 


2 




O 0) 


c ^ 


1 Paymaster, j Lieutenants, 


40 


480 


6 


72 


2 


> 


,;r >■ 


-2 !> 


1 Surgeon, 


45 


540 


10 


120 


3 


m 


42-E 


•sS 


2 Surgeon's Mates, 
16 Captains, 


30 
40 


720 
7,680 


6 


144 


4 
120 


>> 




X) 


32 Lieutenants, 


30 


11,520 


- 




64 


t^ 




X 


32 Cadets, 


10 


3,840 


. 




■ 64 


>, 




D. 


4 Sergeant Majors, 


10 


480 


- 




4 




C.2 


1^- 
o 


4 Quartermaster Sergeants, 


10 


480 


- 




4 


o 


^•i 


^J 


64 Sergeants, 


8 


6,144 


- 




64 


tS 


3 = 


3 


64 Corporals, 


7 


5,376 


- 


- 


64 


~ 




S 


1 Chief Musician, 


8 


96 


- 




1 


o 


o 


a 


10 Musicians, 


6 


720 


- 


- 


10 


o 


(U 


H 


128 Artificers, - 


10 


15,360 




- 


192 




cd 


o 


768 Privates, 


5 


46,080 


- 


- 


768 


> 


> 


H 




^_ 


$104,016 


- 


$1,104 


2,318 


$81,781 90 


$26,875 


$213,776 90 



For two regiments of artillerists and engineers, - 



$427,553 80 



Estimate of the Pay, Forage, Subsistence, and Clothing, of a regim,ent of Artillery, on the proposed peace 

establishment. 







C 


i 


>> 


■a 


a. 


i 


bS 

c 




S 


>. 




53 


53 


42 


SB 


o 






c. 


(i. 


o. 


s 




o 




p. 


a. 


V 


5? 


i 


" 


XI 


— 




Ph 






1 


W 


OJ 

1 




cS 


1 Lieut. Colonel Commandant, 


$75 


$900 


$12 


$144 


6 




3 Majors, 


55 


1,980 


10 


360 


12 


-^ 


w ^ 


oj" •" 


1 Adjutant, T Including 


40 


480 


6 


72 


2 




§1 


gg 


1 Quartermaster, S- their pay as 


40 


480 


6 


72 


2 


gg 


c-c 


j) *»> 


1 Paymaster, J Lieutenants, 


40 


480 


6 


72 


2 


^''S 




•s c 


1 Surgeon, . . - 


45 


540 


10 


120 


3 


u £ 


|c 


^ o 


2 Surgeon's Mates, 


30 


720 


6 


144 


4 


o 


s =« 


g^ 


12 Captains, 


40 


5,760 


- 


- 


36 


u 




X 


24 Lieutenants, 


30 


8,640 


- 


- 


48 


t*. 




p. 


24 Cadets, 


10 


2,880 


- 




48 




tuo.S 


u- 


3 Sergeant Majors, 


10 


360 


- 


- 


3 




^g 


-i.^ 


3 Quartermaster Sergeants, 


10 


360 


- 




3 


g 


oS 


^ 


48 Sergeants, 


» 


4,608 


- 


•■ 


48 




o 




48 Corporals, - - - 


7 


4,032 


- 


- 


48 


o 


=3 


cs 


1 Chief Musician, 


8 


96 


- 


- 


1 


3 


(U 




12 Musicians, - 


6 


864 




- 


12 


cS 


s 


"c 


130 Artificers, - 


10 


15,600 




- 


195 


> 


;> 


H 


650 Privates, 


5 


39,000 


- 


- 


650 








For one regiment, 


- 


$87,780 




$984 


1,123 


$69,682 15 


$22,975 


$181,421 15 



For two regiments, 



$362,842 30 



1800.] 



MILITARY ACADEMY, AND REORGANIZATION OF THE ARMY. 



141 



Estimate of the Pay, Subsistence, and Forage, of the proposed corps of Engineers, including the Clothing for 

the Cadets. 









j= 








_^ 






.d 




a 


A 


a" 


■sg 


rt 






o 


>^ 


g 




p. 


ll 


SB 

C 


Total. 




c 


p. 


J* 


& 


c 


S o- 


-ss 










^^ 
































P- 


P^ 


f^ 


fM 


Ph 


> § 


■so- 




2 Lieutenant Colonels, 


$75 


$1,800 


$12, 


$288 


12 




3 Majors, - - - 


55 


1,980 


10 


360 


12 


■^g 




12 Captains, 


40 


5,760 


- 


- 


36 


s > 


3 




48 Lieutenants, - 


30 


17,280 


- 


- 


96 


!» ^ 


CS 
> 




24 Cadets, 


10 


2,880 


- 


- 


48 








- 


$29,700 


- 


$648 


- 


$12,658 20 


750 


$43,756 20 



Cost of two regiments of artillery, on the present establishment, for one year, $427,553 80 

Cost of two regiments, for one year, on the proposed establishment, $362,842 30 

Annual expense of the proposed corps of engineers, - - 43,756 20 



Saving, in favor of the proposed establishment. 



406,598 50 
$20,955 30 



B. 

Statement of moneys applied to the dtfence of certain ports in the United States, in pursuance of the act to provide 
for the defence of certain ports and harbors in the United^ States, passed the 20lh March, 1794, distinguishing 
the moneys expended in earn year, from and after the passing the said act, upon the fortifications of each harbor, 
to the 1st day of October, 1799. 





1794. 


1795. 


1796. 


1797. 


1798. 


1799. 




Portland, 

Portsmouth, . 

Salem, 

Marblehead, . 

Gloucester, . 

Boston, 

Newport, 

New Ijondon, 

New York, . 

Philadelphia, . 

Baltimore, 

Annapolis, 

Norfolk, 

Alexandria, . 

Cape Fear River and Ocracoek, . 

Beacon Island, 

Charleston, . 

Georgetown, . 

Savannah, 

St. Mary's, . 


$1,275 41 
1,615 80 
1,723 08 
1,963 78 
2,258 39 
496 27 
6,383 33 
5,437 36 

13,737 73 
9,187 86 

,6,086 49 
2,997 75 
9,019 52 
3,728 36 
4,275 02 
1,816 49 

10,471 94 

250 00 

2,641 74 

1,192 73 


$1,791 00 
2,266 00 
1,000 00 
2,011 68 
1,000 00 
1,342 50 
5,231 22 
1,144 73 

11,866 54 
6,658 00 
6,922 09 
268 50 
7,873 95 
1,208 00 
5,334 49 

11,265 45 

572 54 

2,086 00 

2,000 00 


$1,369 00 
316 00 

1,508 8*7 
1,280 27 

'l98 91 

200 85 

1,124 oa 

14,991 31 

2,802 23 

1,286 23 

1,430 95 

8',027 06 

3,330 30 
2,000 00 


$1,068 25 
114 84 

23,201 87 
2,347 41 

3,000 00 
5,413 03 


$1 
1 

5 

30 
51 

18 

4 


,200 00 
000 00 

,900 00 

,117 24 
,365 44 
,022 72 

205 98 


$4,264 06 

2,000 00 
6,000 00 

50,000 00 

7,520 00 

30,116 18 

43,503 32 

4,468 51 

402 00 

5,333 33 

11,500 00 

2,000 00 


$10,967 72 
5,197 80 
4,723 08 

11,599 17 
4,538 66 
1,838 77 

67,763 46 

14,302 94 

86,961 69 
148,907 80 

40,649 45 
3,266 25 

21,581 70 
4,936 36 

16,373 79 
1,816 49 

50,883 46 

822 54 

8,058 04 

7,192 73 


Remaining unexpended of the 
$620,000 appropriated by the se- 
veral acts ot Congress, 




512,381 90 
107,618 10 








$620,000 00 



Statement of the number of non-commissioned officers, musicians, and privates, in the two companies of cavalry, 
two regiments of artillerists and engineers, and four old regiments of infantry, taken from the last returns. 



Cavalry, 

Artillerists, 

Infantry, 



Total, 



116 
1,501 
1,813 

3,429 



k 



19 m 



142 MILITARY AFFAIRS. [1800. 



6th Congress.] No. 40. [1st Session. 

MILITARY ACADEMY. 

COMMUNICATED TO THE HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES, FEBRUARY 13, 1800. 

War Department, January 31, 1800. 
Sir: 

I have the honor to submit, in compliance with your requisition, a few supplementary observations, and a 
view of the probable expense of the military schools respectfully recommended to consideration in my report, com- 
municated to Congress, by a message dated the 13th instant, from the President of tlie United States. 

The report contemplates certain military schools as an essential mean, in conjunction with a small military esta- 
blishment, to prepare tor, and perpetuate to, the United States, at a very moderate expense, a body of scientific offi- 
cers and engineers, adequate to any future exigency, qualified to discipline for the field, in the shortest time, the 
most extended armies, and to give the most decisive and useful effects to their operations. 

It is not conceived the United States will ever think it expedient to employ militia upon their frontiers, or to 
garrison their fortified places in time of peace, nor that they will be disposed to place their reliance, for defence, 
against a foreign invading enemy, upon militia alone, but that they will, at all times, maintain a body of regular 
troops, commensurate with their ability to maintain them, and the necessity or policy that may demand such an 
establishment. 

To qualify and keep our citizens, in general, of suitable bodily ability, prepared to take the field against regular 
forces, would demand the most radical ciianges in our militia system, and such an uninterrupted series of training, 
discipline, and instruction, to be applied, as well to the officers as to the men, as comports with regular troops only, 
while in its results the measure would be found, on account of the loss to the community, occasioned by the abstrac- 
tion from labor or occupation, and direct cost, greatly to exceed in expense what would be required to support a 
moderate military establishment. This position, which is thought to be a sound one, does not bring into view the 
effects of the measure upon the morals, industry, and habits of the citizens. 

Practically considered, may we not as well calculate to be commodiously lodged, and have the science of build- 
ing improved, by employing every man in the community in the construction of houses, and by exploding from 
society, as useless, architects, masons, and carpenters, as expect to be defended efficiently from an invading enemy, 
by causing every citizen to endeavor to make himself master of the several branches of the art of war, and excluding 
engineers, scientific officers, and regular troops. 

There is certainly, however, a system, as it respects our militia, which, if resorted to, and persevered in, may 
secure the utility of their services in times of danger, without much injury to the morals, or materially affecting the 
general industry of the nation. 

When the perfect order, and exact discipline, which are essential to regular troops, are contemplated, and with 
what ease and precision they execute the different manoeuvres indispensable to the success of offensive or defensive 
operations, the conviction cannot be resisted, that such troops will always have a decided advantage over more nume- 
rous forces composed of uninstructed militia or undisciplined recruits. 

It cannot yet be forgotten, that, in our Revolutionary war, it was not until after several years practice in arms, 
and the extension of the periods for which our soldiers were at first enlisted, that^we found them at all qualified to 
meet in the field of battle those to whom they were opposed. The occasional brilliant and justly celebrated acts of 
some of our militia, during that eventful period, detract nothing from this dear bought truth. With all the enthu- 
siasm which marked those days, it was perceived, and universally felt, that regular and disciplined troops were 
indispensable, and that it was utterly unsafe for us to trust to militia alone the issue of the war. The position, there- 
fore, is illustrated, that, even in times of the greatest danger, we cannot give to our militia that degree of discipline, 
or to their officers that degree of military science, upon which a nation may safely hazard its fate. 

The great man who conducted the war of our Revolution was continually compelled to conform his conduct to 
the circumstances growing out of the experimental lessons just mentioned. What was the secret of his conduct? 
Must it be told? It may, and without exciting a blush or uneasy sensation in any of his surviving companions in 
arms. He had an army of men, but he had few officers or soldiers in that army. Both were to be formed, which 
could not be effected in a single campaign, or while his regiments were continually returning home, and, like the 
waves of the sea, each in their turn lost in the abyss, and succeeded by new ones. It was not till after he was fur- 
nished with a less fluctuating and more stable kind of force, that he could commence, with a prospect of advantage, 
military instructions, or enforce the ordinances of discipline; and, even then, he felt that time and instructors were 
required to render his labors useful, and enable iiis army to meet the enemy upon any thing like equal terms. Are 
we to profit by, or is this experience to be lost to our country? 

The art of war, which gives to a small force the faculty to combat with advantage superior nnmbers, indifferently 
instructed, is subjected to mechanical, geometrical, moral, and physical rules; it calls for profound study; its theory 
is immense; the details infinite; and its principles rendered useful only by a happy adaptation of them to all the cir- 
cumstances of place and ground, variously combined, to which they may be applicable. Is it possible for an officer 
of militia to obtain a competent knowledge of these things in the short space his usual avocations will permit him to 
devote to their acquisition? Is it possible for any officer, having acquired a knowledge of these details, this theory, 
and these principles, to carry them into useful practice with a handful of militia, in the few days in each year allot- 
ted by law to trainings and exercises? Is tiiat perfect subordination and obedience of men to their officers, and of 
each inferior to his superior officer, through all the grades of rank from the corporal up to the commander in chief, 
which forms a vital principle essential to the energy and force of armies, to be acquired by, or communicated to, a 
body of militia organized and trained according to our laws? And does it consist with a humane and enlightened 
policy to march men so imperfectly instructed and disciplined, unless in cases of the last extremity, against veteran 
troops, (where this principle reigns in full activity) commanded by skilful and scientific officers? Admitting, however, 
that militia officers, during the few months the law permits their corps to be retained in actual service, could render 
their men, by incessant instruction, capable of fulfilling the object of their destination; yet, as that advantage is but 
momentary, as these borrowed instruments must be quickly returned to the depot which furnished them, as new 
ones must be resorted to, and successively instructed, what can be expected from such a system, but perpetual inco- 
herence between the means and the end, and certain shipwreck to the best connected and combined military projects. 
This, to be sure, is the old story — it cannot, however, be too often repeated, because it can never be refuted. 

The secret of discipline, and the importance of military science, were well known to those ancient Governments 
whose generals and troops have filled the world with the splendor of their victories. According to Scipio, nothing 
contributed to the success of enterprises so much as skill in the individual officers. The severity of the Roman 
discipline is well understood, and the estimation in which it was held by Cxsar. Livy has observed, that science 
does more in war than/rjrce. Vegetius, that it is neither numbers nor blind valor which ensures victory, but that it 
generally follows capacity and science in war. Machiavel, who has written upon military affairs, placed so much 
dependence on an exact discipline a.wA military science, as to efface from his list of great generals all those who with 
small armies did not execute great things: but to the committee it is unnecessary to repeat the authorities of gene- 
rals and writers of the first reputation, to show the high iniportance attached to military science and discipline in all 
ages of the world, or resort to history for evidence of its eflfects. They must be well acquainted with the facts, and, 
no doubt, will give them their due weight, in considering the subjects now before them. _ . 

There is, however, an authority, so much in point relative to the essentiality of the institution in question, that 
1 cannot forbear to mention it. 



1800.] MILITARY ACADEMY. l43 

The Marshal de Puisegur, who has left an excellent treatise on the art of war, the result of his experience, ob- 
serves: 

" I have been, perhaps, at as many sieges as any of those in service, and in all sorts of grades; as subaltern, I have 
commanded troops and working parties in a siege; as major, I have conducted to the trenches and posts to which' 
they were destined, troops and laborers; I have been major of brigade, marshal de camp, and lieutenant general: 
however, as I have not learned fortification, my practice has not enabled me to acquit myself in conducting attacks, 
so that I should be obliged to suft'er myself to be instructed in many things by the lights of engineers, their practice 
being founded upon principles which are known to them, an advantage I nave not in this branch of war." 

This is the candid acknowledgment of a man who had served sixty years in the army; who had learned the mill- 
try art under a father; that, in forty years service, had been present at two hundred sieges; and who had himself 
passed through all the military grades, and arrived from an inferior to a superior rank, but after having deserved 
each successive promotion by some distinguished action. 

A slight attention to circumstances, and the actual position of our country, must lead to the conviction, that a 
well connected seiies of fortifications is an object of the highest importance to the United States, not only as these 
will be conducive to the general security, but as a mean of lessening tiie necessity, and consequently the expense of 
a large military establishment. 

By strongly fortifying our harbors and frontiers, we may reasonably expect, either to keep at a distance the 
calamities of war, or render it less injurious when it shall happen. It is behind these ponderous masses only, that a 
small number of men can maintain themselves, for a length of time, against superior forces. Imposing, therefore, 
upon an enemy, who may have every thing to transport across the Atlantic, the necessity of undertaking long and 
hazardous sieges, increases the chances against his undertaking them at all, or, if he does, in despite of such circum- 
stances, insures to us the time he must consume in his operations, to rally our means to a point, and unite our efforts 
to resist him. 

We must not conclude, from these brief observations, that the services of the engineer is limited to constructing, 
connecting, consolidating, and keeping in repair fortifications. This is but a single branch of their profession, 
though, indeed, a most important one. Their utility extends to almost every department of war, and every descrip- 
tion of general officers, besides embracing whatever respects public buildings, roads, bridges, canals, and all such 
works ot a civil nature. I consider it, therefore, of vast consequence to the United States, that it should form in its 
own bosom, and out of its own native materials, men qualified to place the country in a proper posture of defence, 
to infuse science into our army, and give to our fortifications that degree of force, connexion, and perfection, which 
can alone counterbalance, the superiority of attack over defence. 

With these advantages in prospect, is it not incumbent upon us to hasten, with all reasonable diligence, the com- 
mencement and completion of an institution essential to realise them. And are expenditures, which give such valu- 
able results, to be otherwise viewed than as real economy.'' It is a well known fact, that England had neither native 
artillerists nor engineers before the time of the Duke of Cumberland, and till after she established military 
schools. 

1 shall now, having respectfully submitted tliese observations, present an estimate of the expense of the military 
schools, which it appears to me ought to be immediately instituted. 

Agreeably to the plan of the Military Academy, thedirectors thereof are to be officers taken from the army, con- 
sequently no expense will be incurred by such appointments. 

The plan also contemplates that officers of the army, cadets, and non-commissioned officers, shall receive instruc- 
tion in tne academy. As the rations and fuel which these are entitled to in the army, will suffice for them in the 
academy, no additional expense vidll be required for these objects of maintenance while there. 

The expenses of servants, and certain incidental charges relative to the police and administration, may be defrayed, 
by those who shall be admitted, out of their pay and emoluments. 

According to the plan contemplated, fifty officers, cadets, or non-commissioned officers, may be annually in- 
structed in the Fundamental School, and an equal number in the School of Artillerists and Engineers; the only 
schools which it is deemed expedient to bring into operation. 

To instruct these may require, when both schools are in full activity, the following professors, viz: 

In the Fundamental School. 

2 Professors of mathematics, at 800 dollars per annum, and two rations per day, 

3 do. geography and natural philosophy, . . - - 
1 Professor of chemistry, ------- 

1 Designing and drawing master, - - •• - 

In the School of Mrtillerists and Engineers. 
1 Professor of mathematics, at 800 dollars per annum, and two rations per day, 
1 do. geography and natural philosophy, - .. . - 

1 do. chemistry, ------- 

1 do. architecture, ------ 

2 Designing and drawing masters, at tiOO dollars per annum, and two rations per day, 

5,U4 60 

Total, $10,489 20 

The cost of the buildings for these two schools, as the one or the other of the annexed plan shall be adopted, will 
be, viz: 

Plan by John Foncin, Engineer. 
For the Fundamental School, ..--.-_ 19,423 00 

The School of Artillerists and Engineers, supposed to cost an equal sum, - - - 19,423 00 

$38,846 00 

Plan by B. H. Latrobe, Civil Jirchitect and Engineer- 

For the Fundamental School, .---... 40,000 00 

The School of Artillerists and Engineers, supposed to cost an equal sum, . - - 40,000 00 

$80,000 00 

It may be proper to remind the committee, that no appropriation for the School of Engineers and Artillerists will 
be required perhaps these two years, or till after the completion of the Fundamental School. 

The Secretary takes occasion also to mention, that the laws have already made provision for four teachers or pro- 
fessors to the artillerists and engineers, at a salary of eighty dollars per month, and two rations per day, which may 
be considered equivalent to four thousand three hundred and thirty-six dollars and forty-sis cents per annum; and 
that the act providing for raising and organizing a corps of artillerists and engineers, passed the 9th May, 1794, 
makes it " tne duty of the Secretary of War to provide, at the public expense, under such regulations as shall be 
directed by the President of the United States, the necessary books, instruments, and apparatus, for the use and 
benefit of the said corps." 



$1,848 


20 


1,848 20 


924 


10 


724 


10 


924 


10 


924 


10 


924 


10 


924 


10 


1,448 20 



5,344 60 



144 MILITARY AFFAIRS. - [1800. 

According to the plan and estimate of the buildings by Mr. Foncin, the two schools will cost thirty-eight thou- 
sand eight hundred and forty-six dollars. 

According to the plan and estimate by Mr. Latrobe, the two schools will cost eighty thousand dollars. 

The modification of the two regiments of artillerists and engineers will liberate twenty thousand nine hundred 
and fifty-five dollars annually. 

The establishment of the two schools will liberate the salaries of the four teachers before mentioned, or four 
thousand three hundred and thirty-six dollars annually. 

The books, apparatus, and instruments, directed to be provided for the use of the artillerists and engineers, are 
considered as an adequate offset for the books, apparatus, and instruments, required for the use of trie schools; 
consequently, no charge has been stated in the estmiate for these objects. 

If, therefore, we oppose the sums thus annually liberated, to the annual salary of the professors, and original 
cost of the buildings; whichever of the plans is adopted, we shall find the measure proposed, viewed merely in the 
light of an operation of finance, to result in a considerable saving to the United States. 

An individual would think it a good bargain to receive twenty-five thousand two hundred and ninety-one dol- 
lars, annually, the sum liberated, and to give, in lieu thereof, ten thousand four hundred and sixty-six dollars, an- 
nually, the salary of the professors, and a principal sum, equal to the cost of the buildings- In other words, he 
would receive fourteen thousand seven hundred and twenty-five dollars, annually, which is equivalent, at six per 
cent, to a capital, or principal, of two hundred and forty -five thousand four hundred and sixteen dollars; a sum 
greatly exceeding the estimated cost of the buildings, upon either estimate. 

The committee, while they perceive that the seed, which it is now proposed to sow, is to yield a future harvest, 
will, at the same time, justly appreciate the various beneficial consequences which must result from the immediate 
adoption, and the striking inconveniences, and danger, to be apprehended from a postponement of the measure. 

Whether our country is to be plunged into a war, or enjoy, for a length of time, the blessings of peace, and in- 
terior tranquillity; whether the portentous events which have afflicted Europe, and, in their progress, threatened 
the United States, are to subside into a settled state of things; whether the blessings of peace, and the customary 
relations, among the transatlantic powers, are to take place, or, hostilities shall be continued, protracted, and ex- 
tended, beyond their present limits — in either view, it is equally a suggestion of policy, and wisdom, to improve our 
means of defence, and give as much perfection as possible to such establishments as may be conceived essential to 
the maintenance of our rights, and security from insults. 

The unavoidable collisions growing out of trade, and the reciprocal restrictions of great commercial states; the 
apprehensions and jealousies natural to powers possessing contiguous territory; the inefficacy of religion and morality, 
to control the passions of men, or the interest and ambition of nations; the impossibility, at times, for governments 
to adjust their differences, or preserve their rights, without making sacrifices more to be dreaded than the hazards 
and calamities of war — all these considerations, illustrated by volumes of examples, teach the soundness of the 
axiom, si vis pacem para helium. And what time more proper to prepare the materials for war, than a time of 
peace, or more urgent, than that in which a nation is threatened with war. 

I have the honor to be, with the greatest respect, sir, your most obedient servant, 

JAMES McHENRY, Secretanj qf War- 

Harrison G. Otis, Esq. Chairman of the Committee of Defence. 



6th Congress.] Nq. 41. [1st Session. 

APPOINTMENT AND EMOLUMENTS OF CERTAIN STAFF OFFICERS. 

communicated to the house of representatives, feritary 21, 1800. 

Mr. DwiGHT Foster, from the committee of claims, to whom was referred the petition of Campbell Smith, made 

the following report: 

That the object of this petition is to obtain compensation for his services as "Judge Marshal and Advocate 
General to the legion of the United States," from the 16tli of July, 1794, until the 13th of July, 1796; and as an ex- 
tra aid-de camp to Brigadier General Wilkinson, from the 12th of August until the 5th of December ui the same 
year 1794, and from the 16th of January, in the year 179G, until the 31st of December following. 

With respect to the last mentioned claim for services as extra aid-de- camp, considering that during the whole 
of the period in which it is stated he acted in that capacity, Mr. Smith was an officer in the line of the army, and, as 
such, in the receipt of his pay and emoluments; and, considering that almost the whole of the same period is in- 
cluded within the term wherein it is understood he acted as Judge Advocate, the committee are of opinion, it would 
not be proper that any further or additional compensation should be made to him as an extra aid -de-camp. 

With respect to the other part of the petitioner's claim to compensation as Judge Advocate, &c., the committee 
find, that, on the 16th of July, 1794, General Wayne, then commanding the troops of the United States,'did, by his 
general orders of that date, give notice that the petitioner was "appointed Judge Marshal and Advocate General to 
the Legion of the United States, and that he was to be considered and respected accordingly;" and that the peti- 
tioner did accept the same appointment, and did discharge the duties thereof as stated in his petition- 
Sundry documents tending to elucidate the nature and extent of his claims are hereunto subjoined, and submitted 
as a part of this report. . ..... 

Upon a due and attentive consideration of the subject, the committee are of opinion, that the petitioner is justly 
entitled to relief, and therefore recommend to the House to agree to the following resolution, viz: 

Besolved, That the proper accounting officers of the treasury liquidate and settle the account of Campbell Smith, 
for his services as Judge Advocate to the Legion of the United States, while he acted in that capacity, under an ap- 
pointment made by General Wayne, on the 16th of July, 1794; and that he be allowed such pay and emoluments 
for said services, as are allowed by law to officers acting in that capacity. 



War Department, bth Febrtiary, 1800. 
Sir: 

In compliance with tiie request contained in your letter of this date, I transmit, for the information of the com- 
mittee of claims, copies of all the papers in my possession, relative to the claim of Lieutenant Campbell Smith- 
I have the honor to be, sir, your obedient servant, hi?mrv 

Hon. DwiGHT Foster, Chairman of the Committee of Claims. 



1800.] APPOINTMENT AND EMOLUMENTS OF CERTAIN STAFF OFFICERS. 145 

Philadelphia, lOtfi February, 1798. 
Sir: 

Relative to the claim of Lieutenant Smith, who was appointed Judge Advocate to the army, by the commanding 
officer General Wilkinson, in general orders, and who for some time, as it is stated to me, rendered services in that 
capacity.to the United States, it is my opinion he is equitably entitled to compensation for those services. Thougli 
General Wilkinson does not, in my opinion, possess the power of appointing the Judge Advocate, as I have seen no 
act of Congress vesting such power in him, yet as the President of the United States, with the advice of the Senate, 
has omitted to make tlie appointment, which omission has been supplied by the commanding officer for the good of the 
public service, I think the Judge Advocate should be paid for his services, as in any other case not expressly pro- 
vided for by law, where in justice compensation is due from the United States. For_ adjusting the quantum pay- 
able to Lieutenant Smith for his services as Judge Advocate, no better rule can be suggested, than the allowance 
fixed by law to this officej and the contingent fund appears to me to be the proper fund fur paying this claim. 

These principles apply to the case of Lieutenant Webb of the cavalry, who, formerly a captain of the cavalry and 
deranged, took the command of a company of cavalry by the orders of General Wayne, when there was no other 
officer holding a commission where the company was. He ought to be paid as captain during the period of this ex- 
traordinary service out of the contingent fund. 

The claim of Major Gushing is distinguishable from each of the former, as he was appointed Brigade Major and 
Inspector by General Wilkinson, who ought not to have appointed a field officer to either of these offices, but was 
directed by law to appoint to these offices out of the captains and subalterns of the line. Yet as these services were 
necessary, and were rendered, the United States owe a compensation to Major Gushing, which I think may also be 
paid out of tlie contingent fund, rather than he should go unpaid. 

I am, sir, most respectfully, your obedient servant, 

CHARLES LEE. 

To the Secretary of War. 

New York, October 25, 1799. 
Sir: 

Lieutenant Campbell Smith has made a representation to me, on the subject of some claims which he has 
pending in the Accountant's office, and has requested the interposition of my opinion. 

Thinking it due to him as an officer now under my command, I trouble you with this letter. 

He states that he has claims of two kinds: one for services rendered for more than two years as Judge Advocate, 
previous to the law authorizing that appointment, another for the legal emoluments of the office, in virtue of an ap- 
pointment of the commanding General, on the cases of that lawj that having been absent in consequence of ill health, 
induced by a severe wound received in the service, obstacles have occurred to the allowing of the compensation during 
the term of such absence; that the Attorney General has given an opinion, that the appointment was a regular one 
under the law, and that he understands this opinion to have been heretofore acted upon by your department- 

Upon these data I submit my ideas- 

I consider it to be a principle sanctioned by usage, that when an officer is called to exercise in s. permanent way 
an office of skill in the army, (such as that of Judge Advocate,) for which provision is not made by law, he is to re- 
ceive a quantum meruit, by special discretion,/or the time he officiates, which in our present system would be paid 
out of the fund for the contingencies of the War Department. 

This applies to the first claim. 

As to the second, this is my opinion— that, considering the appointment as regularly made under the law, the 
emoluments continue of course, until the office has been abdicated or superseded, the non-exercise of it for any pe- 
riod to the contrary notwithstanding. 

In the situation in which Lieutenant Smith was placed by his wound, he would seem entitled even to a libera! 
application of this rule of right 

With great respect and esteem, I have the honor to be, sir, your obedient servant, 

A. HAMILTON. 

The Secretary qf War. 



War Department, l-2th November, 1799. 
Sir: 

I received your letter of the 25th ultimo at Trenton, when the business of the office had closed there, and 
preparations were making to return to the seat of Government. 

This letter relates to claims against the United States, for services rendered by Lieutenant Campbell Smith, 
which are stated to be of two kinds: 1st. For services as Judge Advocate for more than two years previous to the 
law authorizing that appointment. 2d. For the legal emoluments of the office of Judge Advocate, in virtue of an ap- 
pointment of the commanding General, on the basis of that law. 

The first claim I am not sufficiently informed respecting. No general or special order of appointment appears 
upon the files of the office. No certificates are presented to show that the duties of the office of Judge Advocate were 
permanently performed. The circumstances on which its equity is grounded are not before me. If the appoint- 
ment was not permanent, but applied only to particular cases, and not to all, and did not oblige to perform the 
duties of the office at every military court, or at least every general court martial, held at or near the army where 
the officers served, I should apprehend no precedent authorizes the claim, and that its allowance would introduce a 
train of inconveniences; for, would not eveiy officer who has acted, or shall act, in the same capacity on any mili- 
tary court, and how many have done and are daily doing so, become likewise entitled to the same measure of com- 
pensation, for the time he performed, or shall perform, the same duties? In such case, the whole amount of claims 
equally founded, I can form no estimate of. 

As, however, no law sanctions this claim, as to do so would be contrary to past and present practice, unless the 
duties said to have been enjoined by the appointment were obligatory, permanent, and general; as no expectations 
have ever been indulged by other officers, who have heretofore or lately acted on military courts in the same office, 
and the balance ol the claim, if for temporary services, would introduce serious inconvenience, I think proper to de- 
cline having any thing to do with it. 

If, on the other hand, the appointment was intended to be permanent, and to enjoin general duties applicable to 
all military courts, held at or near the army with which this officer served, although I sliould then think the claim 
equitably founded, for compensation for the time services were performed under it, yet, as the appointment was not 
provided for, and no law established the office, I incline to suppose a legislative allowance would be most regular 
and conformable to the course heretofore pursued in similar cases, of which Captain Lewis's claim as volunteer aid 
is an instance. 

The second claim is for the legal emoluments of the office of Judge Advocate, in virtue of an appointment of the 
commanding officer, on.the basis of a law authorizing the appointment, relative to which you say it has been stated to 
y""- y}'^ Attorney General has given an opinion that the appointment was a regular one, under the law, and that 
this opinion is understood to have been heretofore acted upon in this department, but that Lieutenant Smith having 
been absent in consequence of ill health, induced by a severe wound in the service, obstacles have occurred to the 
allowing of the compensation, during the term of such absence. 

• ■^•'P^^^di'ig on the statement made to you as your data, you give your opinion on the second claim as follows, 
^ffi' ' C'0"sit*^'"ing the appointment as regulariy made under the law, the emoluments continue of course, until the 
office has been abdicated or superseded, the non-exercise of itjfor any period to the contrary notwithstanding." 

It will be proper to go into some detail respecting the second claim, and to show you that the opinion of tlie At- 
t^rney General by no means establishes the appointment of Lieutenant Smith, by the commanding General, on the basis 
ot the law authorizing the appointment of a Judge Advocate as regular, but the contrary. It, however, considers 



146 MILITARY AFFAIRS. [1800. 

Lieutenant Smith, under all circumstances, as equitably entitled to compensation, for the services he hadactually 
performed as Judge Advocate, although under an irregular appointment, and recommended the allovi'ance. fixed by 
• liw, to this office as the best rule for the compensation, and the contingent as the proper fund out of which it should 

When this claim was presented to me, I transmitted it, with those of two other gentlemen similarly circum- 
stanced, to tlie Attorney General, and requested his opinion. A copy of this opinion, dated the 10th February, 1798, 
I now enclose. 

On the 12th February, I wrote to the Accountant, " I enclose the opinions of the Attorney General of the United 
States, on the claims of Lieutenant Campbell Smith, Lieutenant Webb, and Major Gushing. I concur in them.'' 

Rel'erriug to the Accountant's office, I find that Lieutenant Smith was settled with, upon the principles of, and 
agreeably to, the rule recommended by the Attorney General's opinion, from the first of March, 1797, to the 30th 
of April, 1798. 

In consequence of a subsequent application, as I must suppose, by the same officer, referred to me by the Ac- 
countant, I wrote to the latter on the 26th of October, 1798 — " Lieutenant Campbell Smith is considered, upon the 
principles of an opinion of the Attorney General, dated 10th February last, copy of which was tiansmitted to your 
office, to be entitled to all the emoluments attached to the office of Judge Advocate, for such time only as he was 
actually employed by Brigadier General Wilkinson, or by orders from the Secretary of War, since the 30th April 
last, in that capacity. " 

When I wrote thus, I knew Lieutenant Smith had been employed specially, by a warrant directed to him as 
Judge Advocate pro hac, on the trial of Lieutenant Parmele, and intended to avoid any expression which could 
be construed into a confirmation of his appointment to the office of Judge Advocate generally, and to confine bis 
compensation to the time strictly for which he officiated in the capacity of Judge Advocate. No settlement was, how- 
ever, made with him, after that which allowed him compensation to the 30th April : he probably decliaed any settle- 
ment other than one under his appointment by the General, and giving to him monthly emoluments-" 

An act to amend and repeal in part the act entitled " An act to ascertain and fix the military establishment of 
the United States," passed the 3d March, 1797, " Provides, section 2d. That there shall be one Brigadier General, 
luho may choose his Brigade Major and Inspector from the captains and subalterns in the line, (to each of whom 
there shall be allowed the monthly pay of twenty-five dollars in addition to his pay in the line, and two rations ex- 
traordinary per day, and whenever forage shall not be furnished by the public, to ten dollars per month in lieu thereof;) 
that there shall be one Judge Advocate, who shall be taken from the commissioned officers of the line, and shall be 
entitled to receive two rations extra per day, and twenty-five dollars per month, in addition to his pay in the line, 
and whenever forage shall not be furnished by the public, to ten dollars per month in lieu thereof. 

It will be perceived, that the section of the law cited gives an express permission to-the Brigadier General, to 
choose his Brigade Majof and Inspector, but is silent respecting the appointment of the Judge Advocate, which is 
therefore conceived to rest in the President, by and with the advice and consent of the Senate. The second clause 
of the second section of article second ot the constitution, among other powers vested in the President, gives that, 
by and with the advice aforesaid, of appointing "all other officers of the United States,^whose appointments are not 
herein otherwise provided for, and which shall be established by law. But the Congress may by law vest the ap- 
pointment of such inferior officers, as they think proper, in the President alone, in the courts of law, or in the heads 
ofdepartment." 

It is proper to add that the nomination to the Senate of an officer to act in the capacity of Judge Advocate Gen- 
eral, was declared from a conviction that the dispersed situation that the troops had or would assume, was incom- 
patible with the attainment of much utility from such an officer, and that the same cause produced my disinclination 
to give any countenance to an expectation of permanent emoluments, under what I consider an irregular appoint- 
ment. 

I have the honor to be, &c. 

JAMES McHENRY. 

Major General A. Hamilton. 



6th Congress.] No. 42. [1st Session 



OFFICERS APPOINTED UNDER THE ACT OF JULY 16, 1798, "TO AUGMENT THE ARM\ 
OF THE UNITED STATES, AND FOR OTHER PURPOSES." 

COMMUNICATED TO THE SENATE, APRIL 17, 1800. 

Gentlemen of the Senate: 

In conformity with your request, I transmit you a return, from the War Office, of those officers who have 
been appointed under the act, entitled " An act to augment the army of the United States, and for other purposes,'" 
designating such officers who have accepted their appointments, and those who have declined accepting, resigned 
their commissions, died, &c. 

A report from the Secretary of War, which accompanied this return, as it contains observations which may 
throw some light upon the subject, I transmit with it. 

JOHN ADAMS. 

United States, Mpnl 17, 1800. 

War Department, April 15, 1800. 

The Secretary of War, in obedience to the directions of the President, agreeably to a resolution of tlie Senate, 
" That the President of the United States be requested to direct the proper officer to lay before the Senate a returii 
of all the officers who have been appointed under the act, entitled 'An act to augment the army of the United States, 
and for other purposes,' designating such officers who have accepted their appointments, and those who may have 
declined accepting, or resigned their commissions," has the honor to report the information required: 

The Secretary respectfully takes the present occasion to mention, that there are a number of vacancies of the 
office of second lieutenants in the four old regiments of infantry, and to suggest, that it might be desirable, upon 
the disbanding of the twelve additional regiments, to fill these vacancies with the most deserving of the disbandet) 
lieutenants. This measure would be particularly gratifying to such of the gentlemen contemplated, as look towards 
the military as a permanent profession, while it would cany into the old regiments, whatever military knowledge 
they may have already acquired. But it is proper also to observe, such necessary organs to companies and regiments 
as second lieutenants, can never long be dispensed with without injury to the service. 



1800.] OFFICERS APPOINTED UNDER THE ACT OF JULY 16, 1798. 



147 



The Secretary takes the liberty to represent also, that there are a number of vacancies in the twelve additional 
regiments of infantry, occasioned by resignations and other incidents, to which theofficers next in succession expect 
to 1)6 promoted, and that the uncertain duration of this force, and a principle of economy, has heretofore prevent- 
ed the Secretary from proposing to the President, in the usual manner, to fill such vacancies by appointments. 

As a general rule, the officer next in grade is entitled to a vacant post, and delay in promoting liim to it, when 
not liable to special objection, is considered to be a violation of his right. It also prevents the rise or advance to 
promotion of all officers who stand below him. 

Delay in permitting promotions to vacancies has injurious eft'ects. The officers who are now kept out of their 
rights believe, that they suffer from the influence of a parsimonious spirit in tlie Government, and this has a strong 
tendency to disgust them with the service of their country. For, notwithstanding the officers of the twelve regi- 
ments are at least generally informed of the uniform practice of the Department of War, when an officer is ad- 
vanced to a grade to which he is next in order, and entitled to date his commission on the day the vacancy occurred, 
and that he is always paid from the date of his commission, which is grounded upon the principle that the officer 
next in succession is always called upon the moment a vacancy happens, to do the same duty as the officer who be- 
fore filled it; yet they consider their military career as of uncertain duration, and feel a well grounded apprehen- 
sion that, if they shall never receive a new commission, the pay and emoluments of a higher grade will never attach 
to them, although now actually doing the duty of a higher grade. 
All of wliich is respectfulfy submitted, 

JAMES McHENRY. 



Return of the Officers who have been appointed under the act, entitled " Jin act to augment the Army of the United 
States, and for other purposes," designating- such officers ivho have accepted their appointments, and those who 
have declined accepting, resigned their commissions, died, ^c. 



Lieutenant General. 

George Washington, (dead.) 

Mqjor Generals. 

Alexander Ylamilton, Inspector General, 
Charles Cotesworth Pinckney, 
Henry Knox, declined. 

Brigadier Generals. 

John Brookes, declined, 
Jonathan Dayton, do. 
William Washington. 
William North, Adjutant General. 

Cavalry. 

John Watts, Lieutenant Colonel Commandant. 

Majors. 

Soloman Van Rensselaer, 
John Tayloe, declined. 

Captains. 

Richard Willing, 
Benjamin Williamson, 
Laurence Lewis, declined, 
John B- Armistead, 
William Spencer, 
Cliarles F. Mercer, declined, 
James Burn, 
James N. Ball. 

First Lieutenants. 

Robert Gray, 

John Wallback, 

George Washington Craik, 

Laurence Washington, 

Charles F. Mercer, declined, 

Richard Tilghman. 

Second Lieutenants. 

William C. Rogers, 
Alexander M'Comb, Jr. 
Charles Tutt, 

George Washington P. Custis, 
(barter B. Fontaine, 
Richard Cook, resigned, 

* Archibald Lee. 

FIFTH REGIMENT OF INFANTRY. 

*Johii Smith, Lieutenant Colonel Commandant. 
Majors. 

* James Annstrong, 

* Henry M. Rutledge. 



Captains. 

William Dangerfield, 
Fleming Wooldridge, 
" John Kershaw, 

* James Hartley, 

* Paul Thompson, 

* Benjamin Easely, 

* William Simons, declined, 

* Benjamin Fossin Trasier, 

* Noah Kelsey, 

" Zecharia Nettles, 

* John Mitchell. 

First Lieutenants. 

John Jameson, 
Charles Kilgore, 
' John Brown, 
' Charles Boyle, 

* William Taylor, 
' Josias Hey ward, 

' Peter Williamson, 

* Stanmore Butler, 

* George Clayton, 

* William W. Trasier, 

* Pierre Gaillard, declined. 

Second Lieutenants. 

Willis Morgan, 
Elijah Johnson, 
^ Samuel Taylor, declined, 

* Thomas Osborne, Jr. 

* John Parker, son of William, declined, 
' Charles Codnor Ash, 

' Johnson Wellborn, 

' Edward Croft, declined, 

* William Darkey, 
' Francis Rogers, 

Charles Jones Jenkins. 



SIXTH REGIMENT OF INFANTRY. 

' James Reed, Lieutenant Colonel Commandant. 

Mqjors. 

' Alexander D. Moore, 
' William Brickell. 

Captains. 

William P. Andei-son, resigned, 

* Jatnes Taylor, 

* William Dickson, 
1 Eli Gaither, 

' Edmund Sraithwick, 
William Hall, 

* John Williams, 
' John Nicholas, 

* Samuel Graves Barron, 

* Maurice Moore. 



148 



MILITARY AFFAIRS. 



[1800. 



First Lieutenants. 

Lewis Tiner, 

* Robert Troy, declined, 

* James Mackay, 

* George W. Davidson, declined, 

* McKenny Long, 

* Benjamin Sinitn, 

* Joseph Alexander, declined, 

* Carleton Walicer, 

* Edward Jones, 

* Hugh Newman, declined, 
" William Martin, ditto. 

Second Lieutenants. 

Edmund P. Gaines, 

* David T. W- Coolv, 

* Mareus Sharpe, 

* James Morris, 
*John Wilkinson, 

* John Carroway, 

* Abner Pasteur, 

* Benjamin Forsyth, 

' Hugh Montgomery, (not heard from,) 

* Alexander Hunter. 

* Roger Cutler, Surgeon. 

SEVENTH REGIMENT. 

l^^m. Bentley, Lieutenant Colonel Commandant. 

Majors. 
Robert Beale, 
James Baytop. 

Captains. 

Daniel Ball, resigned, 

Edmund Clark, 

John Davidson, 

Archibald C. Randolph, 

Bartholomew Dand ridge, declined, 

Thomas Turner, declined, 

William Campbell, 

Thomas Greene, 

Robert King, 

James Caldwell, 

^ William K. Blue. 

First Lieutenants. 
Van Bennet, 
John Brahan, 

Robert Carrington, declined. 
Brewer Godwin, resigned, 
Felix Wilton, 
Jesse Ewell, Jr. 
Joseph Grigsby, 
Robert Temple, declined, 
Addison Armistead, 
Samuel J. Winston, 
Calvin Morgan, 

* John Heiskell, 

* Jesse Dold, 

' Horatio Stark, 

* Marquis Combs, 

* George Armistead, 

Second Lieutenants. 

John Heiskell, (promoted during recess) 

Jesse Dold, ditto, 

Horatio Stark, ditto, 

Marquis Combs, ditto, 

George Armistead, ditto, 

William Potts, 

Peter Lambkin, 

Alexander Henderson, declined, 

William Dean, do. 

Andrew M. Lusk, 

James Brown, 

' William Saunders, 

* John Crump, declined, 

* Bartlett Anderson, 
' Francis W. Cook, 

* Philip Roots, 

' John F. Powell, 
'Jacob Call. 

* Francis H. Peyton, Surgeon. 



Surgeon's Mates. 

* Thaddeus Capron, 

* James W. Wallace, resigned. 

EIGHTH REGIMENT OF INFANTRY. 

Thomas Parker, Lieutenant Colonel Commandant. 



Simon Morgan, declined, 

* Laurence Butler, 
William Campbell. 

Captains. 
Presley Thornton, 
Robert Gregg, 
Henry Piercy, 
George S. Washington, 
Richard Chinn, 
Garnet Peyton, 
Daniel C. Lane, 
• Philip Lightfoot, 
Edmund Taylor, 
Nathaniel Henry. 

First Lieutenants. 

Francis Foushee, resigned, 

James Duncanson, 

Lemuel Bent, 

Robert Gustin, 

Geoi-ge Tate, 

Charles J. Love, , 

John G. Brown, 

John Williams, 

Thomas Jameson, 

John Campbell, 

* James Tutt, 

* Simon Owens. 

Second Lieutenants 

James Tutt, promoted during recess 
Simon Owens, ditto, 

Reuben Thornton, declined. , 
George W. Humphries, 
ObadTah Clifford, 
Strother Settle, declined, 
John C. Williams, do. 
Charles Shackleford, 
John T. Fitshugh, declined, 
Willis Wells, do. 

Hugh McCallister, 
John Craine, Jr. 

* John Meredith, 

* John Stephens, 

* Robert Bell, 

* Uriah Blue, 

* Richard Taylor, 

* Robert Little. 

* Edward Conrad, Surgeon. 

Surgeon's Mates. 

* Thomas Tiplett, resigned, 

* Samuel M. Griffith. 

NINTH REGIMENT OF INFANTRY- 

Josiah C. Hall, Lieutenant Colonel Commandant. 

Majors. 
David Hopkins, 
William D. Beall. 

Captains. 
John C. Beatty, declined, 
Thomas Beatty, 
Lloyd Beall, 
Gerard Briscoe, 
Rezin Davidge, 
Bradley Beans, declined, 
Isaac Spencer, 

William Nicholson, declined, 
.Jacob Norris, 
Valentine Brothers, 
John W. Hacket, 
Jonathan Hodgson, 
Richard Earle. 



1800.] OFFICERS APPOINTED UNDER THE ACT OF JULY 16,1798. 



149 



First Lieutenants. 

William Elliott, 

Edward A. Howard, declined, 

Richard W. West, do. 

John B. Barnes, 

Ninian Pinckney, 

Levi Alexander, 

Matthew Tilghman, 

Henry C. Neale, 

Aquila Beale, 

William Sarrn, 

Charles Clements, 

* John Thompson, 

* Robert Gover. 

Second Lieutenants. 

Alexander Cooper, 

John Brangle, declined, 

Enos Noland, 

Thomas Dent, 

Levi Hillary, 

John Warren, declined, 

William Swan, 

Levi G. Ford, 

Daniel Hughes, 

John Adlum, 

Edward Ford, declined, 

* George Peter, 

* Joseph Bentley, 

* Benjamin Nowland. 

* Robert Geddes, Surgeon. 

Surgeon's Mates. 

* Charles H. Winder, declined, ' 

* Anderson Warfield, do. 

* Dardan Brown, 

* William Beatty, declined, 

* Charles A. Beatty. 

TENTH REGIMENT OF INFANTRY. 

Lieutenant Colonel Commandant. 

Thomas L. Moore. 

Majors. 
William Henderson, 
George Stevenson. 

Captmns. 

Joseph McKinney, 
James Blaine, 
Andrew Johnson, 
Matthew Henry, 
William R. Atlee, declined, 
Hugh Brady, 
William Graham, 
David Duncan, 
Benjamin Gibbs, 
James Ashman, 

* Robert Westcott. 

First Lieutenants. 

John Sharp, dead, 
Samuel B. Magaw, 
Henry G. Slough, 
Samuel Fulton, declined, 
Josiah McElwaine, do. ,^ 
James P. Nelson, , do. 
Benjamin Wallace, 
Robert Laurence, 
Nelson Wade, 
Thomas Swearingen, 
Crumwell Pierce, 
Henry Westcott, declined, 

* Alexander McNair, 

* David Irving, 

* Paul Weitzell, 

* David Offley, 

* Samuel R. Franklin, 

* William Morrow- 

Second Lieutenants. 

William Morrow, promoted during recess, 
George Hamill, 

20 m 



Archibald Davis, resigned, 
John A. Douglass, 
Herman Witner, declined, 
Hugh H. Potts, 
John S. Porter, declined, 
John Smith, 
Robert Chambers, 
Alexander McNair, declined, 
Thomas Lee, 

* John Hay, 

* Robert George Barde, 

* Joseph Knox. 

Surgeons. 

* Henry Hall, declined, 

* William Hurst. 



Surgeon's Mates. 



* George Wilson, 

* James Irvine. 



ELEVENTH REGIMENT OF INFANTRY. 



Lieutenant Colonel Commandant. 



Aaron Ogden. 



William Shute, 
John Adlum. 



Majors. 



Captains. 

Robert Hunt, resigned, 
Charles Maries, 
Job Stockton, 
Denise Foreman, 
Almarine Brookes, 
Samuel White, 
Samuel Bowman, 
Peter Faulkner, 
Walter K. Cole, resigned, 
James Read, 

* Samuel Erwin. 

First Lieutenants. 

Samuel Erwin, promoted during recess, 

Thomas Reading, Jr. resigned, 

Robert C. Thompson, 

Samuel C. Voorhes, 

Walter K. Cole, declined, 

George M. Ogden, 

John G. Macwhorter, 

William Potter, 

Henry Betz, declined, 

William Carson, 

Lewis Howard, 

James Battel, 

* John Caldwell, 

* Samuel Owen Smith, declined, 

* Charles B. Green, 

* William J. Anderson, 

* Thomas BuUman, 

* Henry Drake. 

Second Lieutenants. 

William Piatt, 

Charles Read, resigned, 

Thomas Bullman, promoted during recess, 

Henry Drake, ditto. 

Hethcote Johnson, 

James Rhea, 

James Clayton, junr. declined, 

John Milroy, 

Benjamin Worrell, 

John Montgomery, 

Jabez Caldwell, 

* Thomas Y. How, 

* Joseph Vancleve, 

* Laurence Mulford. 

Surgeon. 

* John Chetwood, junr. 

Surgeon's Mates. 

* John Howell, 

* John C. Wynans. 



150 



MILITARY AFFAIRS. 



[1800. 



TWELFTH REGIMENT OF INFANTRY. 

Lieutenant Colonel Commandant. 

William S. Smith. 

Majors. 

William Willcocks, 
Christopher Hutton, declined, 

* Dowe J. Fondy. 

Captains. 

Dowe J. Fondy, promoted during recess, 

Philip Church, 

James Bennet, 

George W. Kirkland, 

Philip Cortland, 

Adrian Kissam, resigned, 

John W. Patterson, resigned, 

Justus B. Smith, 7iot heard from^ 

Jeremiah Landon, 

Andrew White. 

First Lieutenants. 

Philip S. Schuyler, 
Elhanan W. Wheeler^ 
Moses Foster, 
Thomas Thompson, 
David Jones, declined, 
Robert Le Roy Livingston, 
Henry W. Ludlow, 
Nathaniel Paulding, rMig-werf, 
James Smith, 
Richard Baldwin, resigned, 

* William Cocks, 

* William Cumming, 

* Joseph C. Cooper, 

* Thomas H. Williams, 

* Samuel Hoffman, dismissed. 

Second Lieutenants . 

William Cocks, promoted in recess- 

William Cumming, ditto, 

Joseph C. Cooper, ditto, 

Thomas H. Williams, ditto, 

Samuel Hoffman, ditto, 

John Duer, 

William W. Wands, 

Prosper Brown, dead, 

Jacob C. Ten Eyck, 

George F. Harrison, declined, 

* Israel Loring, 

* Joseph Herkeimer, 

* Jacob Mancius, 

* Nathaniel Smith, 

* Cornelius Kip, 

* Tobias V. Cuyler, resigned, 

* Walter B. Vrooman. 

Surgeon. 

* Samuel Finley, resigned. 

Sicrgeon's Mates. 

* John H. Douglas, 

* Samuel Davis. 

THIRTEENTH REGIMENT OF INFANTR1- 

Lieutenant Colonel Commandant. 
Timothy Taylor. 

Majors. 
John Riple)r, 
Jabez Huntington, resigned. 

Captains. 



John Benjamin, 
John Meigs, 
Elihu Sandiord, 
Stephen Ranney, 
Samuel Blakeslee, 
Jonathan Root, 
John Bulford, 
Asa Copeland, 
William Young, junr. 
Coleby Chew, declined. 



First Lieutenants. 

Samuel Waugh, 
Lemuel Harrison, 
Bennet Bronson, 
Reuben Hurd, 
Trueman Mosely, 
John Knox, 
William W. Cheney, 
Ludowick Gallup, 
John Eels, 
Waters Clark, 

* Nathaniel Ruggles, 

* John Beers. 

Second Lieutenants. 

Salmon Clark, 

Peter N. Brinsmade, 

Trueman Hinman, 

Walter Smith, 

Joseph A. Wells, declined, 

James Gordon, junr. 

Ebenezer Learned, declined, 

Peter Richards, do. 

Robert Hosmer, struck off the list, not being 

Solomon Allen, [heard of. 

* Austin Ledyard, declined, 

* Nathaniel Noyes, 

* Fanning Tracey, 

* Abijah Fenn, suspended and resigned. 

Surgeon. 

* Joseph Trowbridge. 

Surgeon's Mates. 

* Timothy Pierce, 

* John Spaukling, declined, 
'John Ortori, junr. 

FOURTEENTH REGIMENT OF INFANTRY. 

Lieutenant Colonel Commandant. 
Nathan Rice. 



Majors. 



John Walker, 
Isaac Winslow^. 



Captains. 

William Jones, declined, 

Erasmus Babbet, junr. 

Ephraim Emmery, 

John Tolman, 

Solomon Phelps, 

Ebenezer Thatciier, declined, 

Thomas Chandler, resigned. 

Nathaniel Thwing,_ 

John Burbeck, declined, 

Simeon Draper, 

Phineas Ashman, 

Joseph Peirce,junr. declined, 

Arthur Lithgow, do. 

* Samuel Mackay, 

* John Hastings. 

First Lieutenants. 

James Church, 

Nathaniel Soley, declined, 

Jacob Allen, 

William A. Baron, declined, 

Robert Duncan, junr. 

Phineas Ashman, declined, 

Alpheus Cheney, 

Samuel Flaeg,junr. resigned, • 

John Wheelwright, 

Isaac Rhand, junr, 

Benjamin Beale, junr. declined, 

* Henrjr Sargent, 

* Francis Barker, 

* William Gardner, 

* Rufus Child. 

Second Lieutenants. 

Thomas Heald, declined, 
Moses M. Bates, do. 



1800.] 



OFFICERS APPOINTED UNDER THE ACT OF JULY 16, 1798. 



151 



Charles Hunt, 
James Gardner, 
Marshall Spring, resigned, 
Daniel Hastings, 
-•Duncan Ingranam, resigned, 
William Leverett, 
John Roul stone, 
Thomas Durant, 
Samuel W. Church, resigned, 
Peyton Gay, 
Thos. Hall, 
Charles Leonard, declined. 

Surgeon. 

* Charles Blake. 

Surgeon's Mates. 

' liUther Stearns, declined, 

* Josiah Dwight, declined. 

FIFTEENTH REGIMENT. 

Lieutenant Colonel Commandant- 

Richard Hunnewell. 

Majors. 
John Rowe, 
William Jones. 

Captains. 
James Brown, 
Nathaniel Balch, jun. 
Hall Tufts. 
John Pynchon, 
John Blake, 
Samuel Jordan, 
William Heywood, 
Caleb Aspinwall, 
Stephen Peabody, 
Thomas Philips, declined, 

* Eli Forbes. 

First Lieutenants. 

Charles Cutler, 
William Swan, 
Samuel P. Fay, 
Eleazer Williams, declined, 
Nathaniel Kidder, 
Thomas Bowman, declined, 
Ebenezer Bradish, jun. 
John Shepherd, declined, 
Joseph Lee, declined, 
David C. D. Forrest, 
Charles P. Phelps, declined, 
Edmund Soper, 

* Thomas Stephens, 

* Augustus Hunt, 

* Daniel Morse, declined. 

Second Lieutenants. 

Abijah Harrington, 
Jonathan Nichols, 
Daniel Bell, 
John Page, jun. 
David Fales, 
Franklin Tinkham, 



Willard Fales, 
Warren Hall, declined, 
James D. Wheaton, 
Seth Bannister, 
' Nathan Parks. 



Surgeon. 



' Oliver Mann. 



Surgeons' Mates, 

* Jonathan White, 

' Ebenezer Laurence. 

SIXTEENTH REGIMENT. 

Lieutenant Colonel Commandant. 

" Rufus Graves. 

Majors. 

' Timothy Darling, resigned. 
'* Cornelius Lynde. 

Captains. 

Josiah Dunham, 
Nathaniel Green, 
Robert Parker, 
Henry Tiiton, 
William Woodward, 
Israel Elliot Trask, 
John Rogers, declined, 
George Tiilinghast, 
Abraham R. EUery, 
Jonathan Andrews, 
George Woodward. 

First Lieutenants. 

Francis Gardner, declined, 
Daniel M. Durell, 
Abel Hutchins, declined, 
Sylvester G. Whipple, 
Ephraim Whitney, declined, 
Whipple Lovett, 
Robert Overing, 
Thomas Brinley, 
Daniel Bissell, 
Isaac Putnam, 

* Israel W. Kelly, 

* Thaddeus Kendall, 

* Marmaduke Wait. 

Second Lieutenants. 

Arthur Rogers, declined, 
Moses Sweat, 
Israel Bartlett, 
Samuel Parker, 
Jesse Lull, 
Daniel Baker, 
Cary Clarke, 
Ozeas Danforth, 
■ William E. Green, declined, 
Christopher Whipple, 
John W. Brownson, 

* Benjamin F. Starke. 



Note. The ofiicers in the foregoing return having the mark * affixed opposite to their names, are those which 
were appointed by the President during the recess of tlie Senate. Those where the contrary is not expressed, are 
now in service. 

JAMES McHENRY, Secretai-y of War. 
War Department, Jlpnl 15th, 1800. 



152 MILITARY AFFAIRS. [1801. 



6th Congress.] No. 43. [Ist Session. 

FORTIFICATIONS. 

COMMUNICATED TO THE HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES, MAY 5, 1800. 

Mr. Nicholas, from the committee to whom was referred so much of the President's speech as relates to " a sys- 
tem of national defence, commensurate with our resources and the situation of our country," made the fol- 
lowing report: 

That it is expedient to make a further appropriation for the fortification of the ports and harbors of the United 
States, and therefore recommend the following resolution: 

Resolved, That there be appropriated, for the present year, the sum of one hundred thousand dollars, to be ap- 
plied to the fortifications of the ports and harbors of the United States, in aid of the sums heretofore appropriated 
for that purpose, and remaining unexpended. 



War Department, May 1st, 1800. 
Sir: 

The schedule, which accompanied my report to the President of the United States, submitted by him to Con- 
gress, on the 13th of January, ultimo, exhibits a view of the appropriations and expenditures for the defence of cer- 
tain ports and harbors of the United States. 

There now remains, of tlie appropriations heretofore made, about thirty-eight thousand dollars, a sum wholly 
inadequate to complete the works which have been undertaken, and now are progressing. 

Without pretending to an accurate estimate of the sums which will be indispensable to complete certain defences, 
for the harbors of Boston, those in Rhode Island, of Salem, Marblehead, New York, Philadelphia, Baltimore, Nor- 
folk, and the works on Beacon Island, North Carolina, &c. and not knowing what other ports there may be a de- 
mand and necessity for fortifying, may it not suffice, to confine the extended grant of moneys, for the purpose of 
fortifying our ports and harbors, to the probable amount which may be required within the present year, predicated 
on the average expenditures of the preceding years. 

The Secretary, accordingly, respectfully submits an opinion, that it will be proper to appropriate, to the fortify- 
ing the ports and narbors of the United States, for the year 1800, one hundred thousand dollars, 
And has the honor to be, with the greatest respect, sir, your obedient servant, 

JAMES McHENRY. 
The Chairman of the Committee of Btfence. 



6th Congress.] No 44. [ad Session . 

GENERAL STAFF OF THE ARMY. 

COMMUNICATED TO CONGRESS, FEBRUARY 23, 1801. 

Gentlemen of the Senate, and Gentlemen of the House of Representatives: 

The enclosed report to me, made by the acting Secretary of War, on the 14th of this month, appears to be 
SO well founded, in all respects, that I recommend it to the consideration of Congress. 

JOHN ADAMS. 
United States, Februai-y 20th, 1801. 

War Department, February 14, 1801. 
Sir: 

Great inconveniences being experienced in the army, from the want of a competent general staff, I conceive 
it to be my duty to submit the matter to your consideration. 

Though the army is at present a small one, the duties of adjutant and inspector general must be performed, and, 
from the nature of our service, in small detachments, these duties become more laborious than in an army actmg in 
one compact body. At present, an officer in the line of the army resides at the seat of Governrnent for these 
purposes, but there is no law allowing him any compensation for these extra services. As he is obliged to keep an 
office, and be constantly employed himself, and also constantly to employ a clerk, it cannot be expected that he 
can continue to do the duties, without compensation beyond his pay in the line. 

Perhaps a sufficient power rests in the Secretary of War to allow him an adequate sum for his extra labor and 
expenses. But, if this be true, it is a loose discretion, which I conceive ought to be directed by law. It is my 
opmion, that a law authorizing the appointing of a field officer in the line to perform the duties, and giving him ad- 
ditional compensation for his services, and also giving him an assistant from among the subaltern officers, would pro- 
mote regularity in the department, discipline in the army, and public economy. 

I have the honor to be, with profound respect, sir, your obedient and faithful servant, 

SAMUEL DEXTER. 
The President of the United States. 



7th Congress.] No. 45. [Ist Session. 

FORTIFICATIONS. 

communicated to congress, DECEMBER 8, 1801. 

By message of the President of the United States, of which the following is an extract: 

The fortifications of our harbors, more or less advanced, present considerations of great difficulty. While some 
of them are on a scale sufficiently proportioned to the advantages of their position, to the efficacy of their protection, 
and the importance of the points within it, others are so extensive, will cost so much in their first erection, so much 
in their maintenance, and require such a force to garrison them, as to make it questionable what is best now to be 
done. A statement of those commenced or projected, of the expenses already incurred, and estimates of their future 
cost, as far as it can be foreseen, shall be laid before you, that you may be enabled to judge whether any alteration 
is necessary in the '— vs respecting this subject. 



1801.] 



FORTIFICATIONS. 






0000<MM^t^^®C»^ 



»o c^ ■* o <-! ■ 



too incio ooi-i 

rjio O-XlO 001> 



irso 'tocio 'coooo 
coo ^-^m co^Hi— < 



153 



ao^ot^-Hif5<xiooco 00 

rf QD O -n* d C3 O -^ O lO « 

'^J>OC0O«>-iCJO— • 'CO 

■rt*lft4nOCO-^Ttl|-(OrH »-' 



Tj< -^ 0» CT -X) 



O O O O QD O ^ 

o o o o t-i o in 

O O O O "Xi O 00 

O O ■ O C^ 1-1 o ^ 

o o "^^ '^ ■— ' "^ 



J> -M in O 



OO QOOiOOO-^OOsOOOOift 



OO COOl^OOiOOiXi* 



I m o to -^ 



j>c^ o«oocioo'X>aso»^<N'<sHC£> 



oooi>ooooo 

OCOOCTOOOOO 
OCOOtOOOl>00 



CO Tt< O CO 00 o in 



in o o o o o 

00 o o o o o 

- _ - ooooooo 

ic<(»no '.— lOi-Hinoin 



OJ 00 -^ 00 G^ O 







^ 
^ 



^ ^ 



"154 MILITARY AFFAIRS. [1801. 



7th Congress.] No. 46. [1st Session. 

NUMERICAL FORCE OF THE ARMY, 

^nd an estimate (if the number of men requisite for each garrison at the several posts and stations. 

COMMUNICATED TO THE HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES, DECEMBER 24, 1801. 

War Department, 23d December, 1801. 

In obedience to the resolution of the House of Representatives of the 22d instant, I have the honor of trans- 
mitting, herev^ith, a'statement of the present military establishment of the United States, marked A, and an estimate 
of all the posts and stations for which garrisons will be expedient, and of the number of men requisite, in my opinion, 
for each garrison, marked B, and request you to lay the same before the House. 

I have the honor of being, with respectful consideration, sir, your very obedient servant, 

H. DEARBORN. 
The Honorable the Speaker of the Home of Representatives. 



1801.] 



NUMERICAL FORCE OF THE ARMY. 



155 





•aji^aaSSv 


OOTi.yDC^O00Vl 

iHi-(criCN(Oaoaic>» 
i-< ^ en >o y3 ■* (o 





CO 


1 




'sireioisniv 'sjaoijtfO pauoissmiuioa-uo^j: 'sjaa 
"WO JJi'lS p3U0issiuiui0D-uojs[ 'sjap^o jb^ox 


. to i>. (N (O c^ 

I TfH b, K V) to 0^ 

iH ^O O) Tf ^O rf Vj 




CO 


■* 
CO 






it 

O cs 
.2ya 

if 

§:§ 


■S3}BAUd 


, "jD oi b- (N a» oi CO 

1 CO 'JD ^ CTl ^ Ol 
-* ^OCO *0 CO »o 


2 


CO 


01 







■saaoifTiJv 


"*&;{:: ' ' ' ' 


00 
CO 








•saa^aduiiux 


1 w 1 1 1 1 1 1 


-■ 


-^ 


c 




•saajij 


1 1 oi >o 00 i^ 00 


^ 


CO 







•sjauiiuaia 


1 I c^ 00 a^ i^(M 


o> 


1 


• 


01 


•s|BJodi03 


1 00 en w in 00 ^ OJ 

Tf >0 <M c^ (N CT 




b- 


01 




•siu^aSjag 


1 1^ b- G^ 0> to CO 
^ "O CO CO C^ CO 


?5 


<o 


to 




.St: 

o"ffi 

g.fS 


■subioishm Joniag 


1 1 W 1 i <M 0» 1 


*" 


« 







■s^ui33Sj3s jaiSBuua^Junt) 


1 1 (M CO C^ C^ 1 (N 


w 


>o 


to 




•saof^w lireaSjsg 


1 1 CO (N <M (N W C^ 


(N 


■* 


to 

TH 




•sjap^o 


1 1 CO <o 1 1 1 1 


Ol 




to 





£ 
O 

13 
O 

_o 

S 
£ 

o 
O 

T3 

C 
c« 

ie 
-S 

CO 


•saiBjv SjUoaSjns 


1 1 C-< IM r-H rt 1 W 


t- 


>o 


M 




■suoaSjng 




lO 


1 


to 




•siuu(i\fpv 




to 


1 


to 




■sj3}SBULia:H^n^ 




to 


1 


to 




•sjaiSBULCBj 




to 


1 


to 




•s^uBuainaiT puooag 


1 1 1 1 00 00 OJt^ 


CO 


;^ 


^ 




•siuT!U3;n3iq jsjij 


1 tM l^ Vl 1-. a. o> 


00 


TH 


to 





■suiuicIbq 


1 C9 to ^ 01 00 Ol 


to 


"O 


b- 


- 


•SJOpEK 


1 1 ^ ^ CI (M rt (N 


in 


- 


10 




•ju^UBranioo spuoi03 s^u^uajnaiq 


1 1 rt 1 r-l 1 rt rH 


Tf 


- 


to 


- 






S 



•aiEooApv aSpnf 


T-l 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 


"^ 


1 
I 


TH 




■dui^O-ap-piV 


W 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 




•sj3}SEUU3:HBn^ apv^ug 


1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 


1 


c< 


M 




■saojDadsui ap^Sug 


C^ 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 


CT 


1 


M 




•a3isi;iuaa;ji3nt) uoisiatq 


■H 1 1 1 1 1 i 1 


- 


1 


-- 




•suopBOiji}jo J JO jopadsuj 


1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 


1 


-- 


- 




•Xi3 jjiviy JO Jopadsui 


rH 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 


- 


1 


»H 




■Amiy 3Tp JO jo^oadsui 


rH 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 


- 


1 


- 




•pjauag .i3}sbuij(bj[ 




tH 


1 






•XBJ3U39 J3}SBUU3}aBT>^ 


r-< 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 


- 


1 


- 




•p3j3U39 jarpeSug 


- i- 


1 


- 










00 
« 

3 


..¥.... 

a 

C 
' '^ ■§ . . . 

i; c 
oT .5 ^ tg "^ "^ "^ 

III ^ 

te"c .g . . . 

i3T3«J0SiO00 

iliiiiil 





1 

1 

1 

« 

■p. 

1 



fin 

c 


1 
•■§ 

C 

1 
1 


-■&! , 

g s S c 

fill 

!a=o =" 
Sg.E c Q. 
" 



156 



MILITARY AFFAIRS. 



[1802. 



B. 

Estimate of all the Posts and Stations tvhere garrisons will be expedient, and of the number of men requisite for 




each garrison. 








No. of com- 


No. of com- 


NAMES OF POSTS. 


WHERE SITUATED. 


panies of Ar- 


panies of In- 






tillery. 


fantry. 


Michillimackinac, - - - - 


Northwestern Territory, 


1 


1 


Detroit, - - - -. - 


Ditto. 


1 


4 


Niagara, - - - - - 


New York, - . - . 


1 


1 


Fort Wayne, . - - - 


Northwestern Territory, 

Pennsylvania and Northwestern Territory, 


- 


1 


Pittsburg and Cincinnati, 


- 


1 


St. Vincennes, . - - - 


Indiana Territory, - . . 


- 


1 


Fort Massac, . - - - 


Near the mouth of the Ohio, 


. 


1 


South West Point, &c. - 


Tennessee, - . . . 


1 


2 


Chickasaw Bluifs, -. - - 


On the Mississippi, 

On ditto, near the Spanish boundary. 

On the Mobile river, near the Spanish 


1 




Fort Adams, 


1 


4 


Fort . - - - - 








boundary. 


- 


1 


Fort Greene, Fort Wilkinson, and (say) 








Cumberland Island, 


Georgia, - - - - - 


1 


3 


Fort Moultrie, &c. and Fort Johnston, - 


South Carolina and North Carolina, 


2 




?<'ort Norfolk, &c. and Fort McHenry, - 


Virginia and Maryland, - - - 


2 




••fort Mifflin and the arsenal. 


Near Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, 


2 




] "ort Jay and West Point, 


New York, - . . - 


2 




Fort Wolcott and Fort Trumbull, 


Rhode Island and Connecticut, - 


2 




Fort Independence, and the magazine at 
Springfield, . . - - 
Fort Constitution, and Fort 


Massachusetts, - - - - 


2 




New Hampshire and District of Maine, 


1 





Total, twenty companies of Artillery, and twenty companies of Infantry, each company to consist of seventy-six 
men. exclusive of commissioned officers and cadets. 

H. DEARBORN. 
Waii Department, 23rf December, 1801, 



7th Congress.] 



No. 47. 



[1st Session. 



ORDNANCE, ARMS, AND MILITARY STORES, AND AN ESTIMATE OF EXPENSES NECES- 
SARY FOR FORTIFICATIONS. 

communicated to congress, FEBRUARY 2, 1802. 

Gentlemen of the Senate and of the House of Representatives : 
I now lay before you, 

1. A return of ordnance, arms, and military stores, the property of the United States. 

2. Returns of muskets and bayonets, fabricated at the armories of the United States, at Springfield and Harper's 
Ferry, and of the expenditures at those places; and, 

3. An estimate of expenditures which may be necessary for fortifications and barracks, for the present year. 
Besides the permanent magazines established at Springfield, West Point, and Harper's Ferry, it is thought one 

should be established in some point convenient for the States of North Carolina, South Carolina, and Georgia; such 
a point will probably be found near the border of the Carolinas, and some small provision by the Legislature, pre- 
paratory to the establishment, will be necessary for the present year. 

We find the United States in possession of certain iron mines and works, in the county of Berkeley, and State 
of Virginia, purchased, as is presumable, on the idea of establishing works for the fabrication of cannon and other 
military articles by the public. Whether this method of supplying what may be wanted, wijl be most advisable, 
or that of purchasing at market, where competition brings every thing to its proper level of price and quality, is for 
the Legislature to decide; and if the latter alternative be preferred, it will [rest for their further consideration, in 
■what way the subjects of this purchase may be best employed or disposed of. The Attorney General's opinion on 
the subject of the title accompanies this. 

There are, in various parts of the United States, small parcels of land which have been purchased, at different 
times, for cantonments and other military purposes. Several of them are in situations not likely to be accommo- 
dated to future purposes. The loss of the records prevents a detailed statement of these, until they can be supplied 
by inquiry; in the mean time, one of them, containing eighty-eight acres, in the county of Essex, in New Jersey, 
purchased in 1799, and sold the following year, to Cornelius Vermule and Andrew Codmas, though its price has been 
received, cannot be conveyed without authority from the Legislature. 

I enclose, herewith, a letter from the Secretary of War on the subject of the islands in the lakes and rivers of 
our Northern boundary, and of certain lands in the neighborhood of some of our military posts, on which it may be 
expedient for the Legislature to make some provisions. 
^ ^ *TH. JEFFERSON. 

February 2, 1802. 



hitf' 



1802.] 



ORDNANCE, ARMS, AND MILITARY STORES. 



157 



Return qf Ordnance, Arms, ^c. the property qf the United States. 



Brass Cannon. 



2 
47 
26 
81 

8 
II 

3 



6 

9 

39 

66 

115 

240 

274 

284 

23 



Brass Howitzers. 



Brass Mortars. 



Brass Swivels. 
Iron Cannon. 



30 

202 

207 

64 

29 

5 

2 

6 

14 



342 
202 
591 
126 
102 



1,985 

3,658 

3,386 

280 

233 

130 



,527 

9,050 

,,365 

o613 

" 735 

118 

256 

253 



Iron Carronades, of sizes. 



Iron Mortars. 



Iron Howitzers. 



Garrison carriages. 

Travelling carnages for cannon. 

do. do. for howitzers. 

Mortar beds. 
Travelling forges. 
Ammunition wagons. 
Tumbril carts. 
Backs for travelling forges. 

Grape Shot fixed. 

for 



2 pound 


3,094 


- 3 do. 


1,469 


- 4 do. 


2,450 


- 6 do. 


4,789 


- 9 do. 


9,153 


- 12 do. 


161 


- 24 do. 


7,037 




115 


2? inch. 




- 5i do. 


2,197 


- 8 do. 


743 




2,299 




33 




1,378 


4j do. 


212 


5i do. 




- 8 do. 




■ 10 do. 




13 do. 


39 


16 do. 


775 




1,886 




2,040 




116 




898 




163 




195 


1 pound. 
2^ & 3 do. 


110 


116 


4 do. 


664 


6 do. 


175 


9 do. 




12 do. 




18 do. 




24 do. 


8,032 


32 do. 


16,052 




34,242 




18,463 




15,223 




17,840 




28,743 




11,451 




6,739 


13 inch. 


1,145 


3i do. 


1 




18 




392 




680 




990 




144 




211 




3,964 


1 


6,175 


pounders. 


14,319 


do. 


[4,361 


do. 


3,170 


do. 


913 



4 
6 
9 
12 do. 



Strapped Shot fixed. 
for 



Case Shot fixed. 
for 



3 

4 

6 

9 

12 

24 



do. 
do. 
do. 
do. 
do. 
do. 



Grape Shot unfixed. 
for 



Case Shot unfixed. 
for 



Cannon Balls. 



Bar Shot. 



Shells. 



3 pounders, 
do. 
do. 
do. 
do. 
do. 
do. 
do. 



Strapped Shot unfixed. 
for 



- 3 

- 4 

- 6 

- 9 

- 12 

- 24 



do. 
do. 
do. 
do. 
do. 
do. 



- 1 do. 

- 2i & 3 do. 



- 4 

- 6 

- 9 

- 12 

- 18 



do. 
do. 
do. 
do. 
do. 

- 24 do. 

- 2| inch.' 

- 4$ do. 

- 5i do. 

- 8 do. 



- I pounder. 
2| & 3 do. 



- 4 

- 6 

- 9 

- 12 

- 18 

- 24 

- 32 

- 42 



do. 
do. 
do. 
do. 
do. 
do. 
do. 
do. 



- 3 pound. 

- 6 do. 



- 9 

- 12 

- 18 

- 24 

- 32 



do. 
do. 
do. 
do. 
do. 



Pounds of Grape Shot. 



■ H inch. 

• a do. 

5j do. 

7 & 8 do. 

9 & 10 do. 

13 & 16 do. 



224,570 



Founds of Musket Ball and Buckshot. 



- H&L3 do. 



4 

6 

9 
12 
24 

4i 

5* 



do. 
do. 
do. 
do. 
do. 
inch, 
do. 



21 m 



55,577 

Flannel Cartridges. 
970 Filled. 
18,547 Empty. 

129 Paper filled. 
78,599 Do. empty. 

Founds of Cannon, Musket, andRifie Powder. 

573,207 

125,307 Pistol cartridges. 

1,251,933 Musket do. 

22,108 Blank do. 

13,697 Fuzes primed. 

22,288 Not primed. 



158 



MILITARY AFFAIRS. 



[1802. 



3,818 Portfires. 

3J Coils of slow match. 
6,062 Pounds of do. 
36,857 Tubes. 

Cannon Cartridge Paper. 

8,622 Quires of. 
3,083 Pounds of. 

Musket Cartridge Paper. 

3,643 Quires of. 

465 Rampart arms. 

53 Blunderbusses. 

947 Carbines. 

1,536 Rifles. 



32 

5,005 

82,711 

1,205 

7,755 

15,966 

1,585,860 

22,991 

454 

20,011 

1,327,254 

224,217 

13,623 

1,438,855 

44,769 

3,666 

816 



Fusees. 
Muskets. 

Muskets complete. 
Pairs of pistols. 
Swords. 
Screwdrivers- 
Musket flints. 
Pistol do. 
Cutlasses. 
Gun worms. 
Pounds of lead. 
Pounds of sulphur. 
Brushes and wires. 
Pounds of saltpetre. 
Cartouch boxes. 
Powder horns. 
Horseman's pikes. 



H. DEARBORN. 



The arms in possession of the army are not included in the foregoing return. 



Return of Muskets and Bayonets fabricated at the United States Armory at Springfield, Massachusetts, from 
and including the year 1795, to the 28th November, 1801. 



In the year 


1795, 


Do. 


1796, 


Do. 


1797, 


Do. 


1798, 


Do. 


1799, 


Do. 


1800, 



To the 28th Noven\ber, 1801, 



16,120 



Muskets. 


Bayonets. 


245 




835 




1,028 




1,434 


390. 


4,595 


4,595 


5,304 


5,304 


2,679 


2,679 



12,968 



War Department, December 8, 1801. 



Statement of expenditures at the armory of Springfield, Massachusetts, from the 10th July. 1793, to 

the 31st December, 1800, -' - - - - - $192,847 1 

Do. from the 1st January to the SOth September, 1801, .... 37,40422 

$230,251 23 



Statement of expenditures at the armory at Harper's Ferry, Virginia, from the 1st October, 1798, to 

the 31st December, 1800, ... - - - - 61,725 12 

Do. from the 1st January to the SOth June, 1801, - - - - - 13,489 86 

$75,214 98 



Department of War, Accountant's Office, December 8, 1801. 
The above statement exhibits expenditures at the aforesaid armories, agreeably to accounts settled and entered 
on the books of this office. 

WM. SIMMONS, Ace' t. Department of War. 



Return of Muskets and Bayonets fabricated at the United States Armory at Harper's Ferry, Virginia, from the 
1st of January to the 30lh of September, 1801, inclusive. 



Muskets. Bayonets. 



From the 1st of January to the SOth September, 1801, 



War Department, December 8, 1801. 



Estimate of Expenditures necessary for erecting and completing Fortifications and Barracks for the year 1802. 

For repairs of platforms, and remounting cannon in Fort Constitution, in Portsmouth harbor, N. Hampshire, 

For completing Fort Independence and Barracks, &c. on Castle Island, in the harbor of Boston, 

For completing two fortifications, of six already commenced, in and about the harbor of Newport, R. Island, 

For completing Fort Mifflin, near Philadelphia, 

For erecting a battery and barracks near Norfolk, in Virginia, 

For completing a battery near Wilrnington, North Carolina, .... 

For completing the works in Georgia, ...... 

For a new enclosed work at Niagara, ....-- 

For sundry repairs at Detroit, Michillimackinac. Chickasaw Blufts, and Fort Massac, 



$1,000 
38,000 
1,500 
1,000 
12,000 
4,000 
6,000 
3,000 
4,000 



Dollars, 70,500 



; l^v'i**^ 



1803.1 MILITIA. 159 

Washington, January 25, 1802. 
Sir: 

It appears that Potts, Wilson, and North, under the firm of George North & Co. having previously purchased 
of General Lee, on the 7th day of May, 1800, agreed with the United States, to convey to them, in consideration of 
42,000 dollars, two hundred and thirty acres of land, or about that quantity, (describing it, J with a furnace, mill, 
corn mill, houses, improvements, with privileges, &c. and also the right of digging ore; which right they held under 
General Lee, from Friend's ore bank, the United States being subject to pay the rent of 1000 dollars, annually, to 
the said Lee, as a rent reserved to him. The consideration money was to be paid by the United States on their re- 
ceiving a good title to the premises. 

Lee, on the same day, by a similar agreement, engaged with the United States to convey to them, by good and 
sufficient deeds, all his iron ore in a tract of land of about 1600 acres, and on which is a bank of iron ore, called 
Fi-iend's ore bank, with certain privileges of ways for carrying oft" the ore, &c. He also agreed to release, or con- 
vey, to the United States, his right to the above mentioned annual rent of 1000 dollars, which, by their agreement 
with North & Co. they were liable to pay to Lee. For, and in consideration of this conveyance, the United States 
were to pay 24,000 dollars. 

On the next day. May the 8th, Lee made and executed to the United States, in pursuance of the agreement 
above stated, his deed of the premises, with a general warranty, to defend them to the United States against all 
persons. 

In the same year. North &Co. conveyed, by a deed, regularly executed, in pursuance of their agreement, two 
hundred and twenty-one acres of land, more or less, with their right of digging ore from Friend's ore bank. Both 
these deeds, or instruments, appear to be properly made and authenticated, and sufficient to vest the premises in 
the United States, if the several grantors were respectively possessed and seised of the premises, free from incum- 
brances, at the time when the deeds were executed. 

It appears, by the oregoing statements, that the United States have paid for the purchase of North & Co. 
$42,000, in addition to an annual rent of $1 000, which they were to have paid to Lee: ancl that for the release from 
paying this annual rent, and the privilege of digging ore in a described 1600 acres of land, and the accommodation of 
one-half acre of land to build on for workmen, they have paid $24,000 to General Lee. 

Upon searching the records of the general court's office, at Richmond, it appears by a certificate of the clerk, 
that 3000 acres of land, including Friend's ore bank, was mortgaged June, 1794, to secure the payment of $8000, by 
several instalments, the last of which ought to have been paid on tiie 1st day of May, 1798. This mortgage deed is 
not among the papers. It is said this money has not been paid; if so, and there is no reservation in the deed of this 
ore bank, the United States title is incumbered to the amount of the whole mortgage money which is now due. 

It is said that the title is further incunibered by a mortgage to one Wilson, of Alexandria, on which some 
considerable part of the money has been paid. Nothing, however, of this appears from the papers you put into my 
hands. I have no information respecting this purchase, excepting what has appeared on the face of the documents. 
1 am, sir, with esteem, your humble servant, 

LEVI LINCOLN. 

Henry Dearborn, Esq. Secretary of War. 

War Department, December 5, 1801. 
Sir: 

I take the liberty of suggesting, for your consideration, the propriety of proposing to Congress that provision 
be made for designating the boundary line between the United States and the adjacent British possessions, in such 
manner as may prevent any disputes in future from the outlet of Lake Ontario to Lake Superior, if not further. 
There are many valuable islands in the lakes and rivers, some of which are already inhabited, which are claimed 
on each side: it is to be presumed that the sooner the line is ascertained, the more easily all disputes will be settled. 
From Mr. Tracey's report, and from information obtained from other sources, it appears that many disputes now 
exist respecting titles to lands at and about Detroit, as well between the United States and individuals, as between 
many of the citizens; and also between citizens of the United States and subjects of Great Britain. Will it not be 
necessary for Congress to authorize the appointment of some board or tribunal for hearing and deciding these dis- 
putes.' 

H. DEARBORN. 
The President of the United Stales. 



7th Congress.] J4q_ 48_ [ad Session. 

MILITIA. 

communicated to the house of representatives, JANUARY 5, 1803. 

Gentlemen of the House of Representatives: 

Agreeably to the request of the House of Representatives, I now transmit a statement of the militia of those States 
from which any returns have been made to the War Office; they are, as you will perceive, but a small proportion 
of the whole. I send you also the copy of a circular letter, written some" time since, for the purpose of obtaining 
returns from all the States; should any others, in consequence of this, be made during the session of Congress, 
they shall be immediately communicated. 

TH. JEFFERSON. 

[circular.] 

War Department, . 

Sir: 

I have the honor, by direction of the President of the United States, to call your Excellency's attention to 
the 10th section of the act of Congress of the 8th of May, 1792, which provides that a return shall annually be 
made to the President, stating the military strength of each State, the actual situation of the arms, accoutrements, 
and ammunition of the several corps, within the same, and every other thing which may relate to their government, 
and the general advantage of good order and military discipline. 

It would be very desirable, as it is highly important, to receive the information contemplated by the act alluded 
to. I therefore take the liberty of suggesting to your Excellency, the propriety of giving the necessary directions 
for TSkcrying the said law into effect; and for the purpose of introducing and presei-ving uniformity in the returns, a 
form is herewith enclosed. 

With high consideration, I am, sir, your most obedient servant. 

His Excellency . 



160 



•fe 



MILITARY AFFAIRS. 



[1803 



•sassoJ^Bjn 



•uayi miv\Y 



•SJauutiJC) 



•suBioisnp^ 



•s|BJodJ03 



•S:>UB8gJ8g 



•sjgjsBuuapBtif) 



•s;uB:jnrpv 



•s^uBua^naii puooag 



•s:^uBU^:Jn^!'7 ;sjij 



•s;uBU8:>n8iT; suiB^duo 



•sure;dBO 



•SJOfBp\[ 



•sjauoioo juBua^naii 



•s^uBjnrpv 



•s.iajsBuua^aBti^ 



•suoagjng 



•saa^sBui^Bj 



•SJOfBI^ 



•spuoioQ :>u™3:>nai'-[ 



•spuoiog 



•jBaaugjc) sa3:)SBj\[ aSBjoj 



•JB.I3U30 S.ia»STJJ\[ uoSuAV 



•JBJ3U39 sJ9}SBWJ3}JBn5 X:^tld^a 




00 ■* — 



^^ CO o 



S in^ § I ^ ^ eiS £^M"S-S o C C 

£ S J § § S S g^ js-fc o s s «ic^; 



'-■-3 
° u 

^ 60 



B§ 



!Uh O 



^^ 



J3 


tj 






^ 




•3 








"^ 






'^ 




,^J' 


jii 










e s^ 




JH 


(i> 




iS 


,£ 
















s 


.5 


?r 




■a 


C 














■5 


e 




:S 


_ 


s 


riT 


T! 


^j 


P 






■SX. 


e 








3 


S 










1 


e 

So 


1 








j: 


t. 


Ti 


c 


3 

be 


§ 








3 




1 


T) 




hn 
















is 


^ 




(U 
















J3 


§ 


J3 


3 




■^ 








t 


^ 


■d- 




.n 


Si 


> 






J5 


.S 8 




Tt 


.^ 


C 


J! 




^ 




'fi 




1 


cc 


J3 


J3 










rlT 


Cm 


^ 


4J 





^ 


H 


2 








J3 


J= 


S 


C3 








1+.. 


n 




" 










5 


e 


•^ 


cc 


WJ 


^ 


0) 


E 




n 







J3«3 




^ 


c 







3 
















2; 




» 










■fi 






-« 





1803.] 



MILITIA. 



161 




162 



MILITARY AFFAIRS. 



[180S. 





ID 


o 


to PS 


o 


1 


Ci 


"V 


o ^ 


n 








^H 




[ -saastij; 


' 


' 


°i ' 


■■ 



•S8H!H 



•SJOIOQ .}o spuB;s 



•S9JTJ puB siunjQ 



•suogBy^ puB sluqiunx | 



■snag piiB spjBqqBog 



•spo^ pais 



•saxog; a3pi.i;aB3 



■s^auOiCBg^ 



•S5[0BSdBU'}[ 



•S|UT]J 



•saqstug puB saji^ 



■si^Bg; asooq^ 



■*1F3 q:^m saSpujjBQ 



•japMoj }0 sputioj; 



•suoo>uodsg 



■^n^d P sjiBj 



•sajqeg 



•suiJB-apig jCj3([i;jy 



•sjapunoj g uojj 



•sjapunoj^ f uo.ii 



•sjapunoj 9 uojj 



•sjapunoj; g uojj 



•sjaz^iAvojj 



•sjapunoj g ssBjg 



■sjapunojj t ssBjg 



•saapunoj 9 ssBjg 



•SJapunoj ex ssBjg 



•SJOUJBjW AiBqMB)«3 



'W.A Pa^ ^u^H 



•olsnjif 



•spjodjog 



•sjuBasjag 



•suSisug 



•sjuBuajnaiq 



•surejdBQ 



(N -H t- 



CT 1— r~ 



i» m-a C E a. :> C S >> 
? ^ o c r^ ff 5 S_2 t. 



2 ta 



0) «j: 



.SO(j ta-r. 



B 



o 0) « « teT3 jg.^ o ? S 5 fe-- 



1803.] MILITIA. jg^ 



7th Congress. ] No. 49. [ad Session. 

COMPLAINT AGAINST CERTAIN OFFICERS. 

COMMUNICATED TO THE HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES, JANUARY 31, 1803. 

War Department, January 29, 1803. 
Sir: 

In obedience to the resolution of Congress of the '25th instant, the Secretary of War has made such inquiries, 
relative to the object* of the resolution, as present circumstances would admit of, and respectfully reports, that no in- 
formation has been lodged in this office, nor any procured relating thereto, excepting, that a military post, consist- 
ing of one company, has been established on the Alobile, and continued about three years, no complaints have come 
to the knowledge of the Secretary of War, excepting those communicated in that clause of the resolution, on which 
the report is requested from this department — the military post is between the junction of the Tombigbee and the 
Alabama rivers, and the boundary line between the United States and West Florida, and as near the said line as a 
suitable site could be found. 

General Wilkinson having been, for a considerable time, in the course of the last autumn, on the river Tombigbee , 
in tlie vicinity of the post, it may be presumed that the citizens in that quarter had an opportunity of giving him in- 
formation relative to any improper conduct of the troops; but as information has been received at this office on the 
subject, it is probable that no complaint was made to the General, or, if made, that he had taken such measures as, in 
his opinion, would remedy the evil complained of. 

I have the honor to be, very respectfully, your humble servant, 

H. DEARBORN. 
The Speaker of the House of Representatives of the United Slates. 

•This was an application to Congress, from the inhabitants of Washingtbn county, in the Mississippi Territory, for the re- 
moval of two garrisons, on account of alleged misconduct of the officers. 



7thCoNGREss.] No. 50. [2d Session. 

MILITIA. ^ 

communicated to the house of representatives, FEBRUARY 7, 1803. 

Mr. Varnum, from the committee to whom was referred that part of the President's message of the 15th day ot 
December last, which relates to the Militia institution of the United States, and a bill which was reported to 
the House at the last session of Congress, on the same subject, made the following report: 

That, after a full investigation of the subject, they are of opinion, that a law which passed the eighth day of 
May, 1792, entitled "An act more effectually to provide for the national ^defence, by establishing an uniform mili- 
tia throughout the United States," embraceth all the objects of a militia institution, delegated to Congress. The 
principles of that law lay the foundation of a militia system, on the broad basis prescribed by the constitution, and 
are well calculated to ensure a complete national defence, if carried into effect by the State Governments, agreeably 
to the power reserved to the States respectively, by the constitution, and therefore ought not to be altered. But, 
although the committee are of opinion that the principles of the system established on the part of the United States 
ought to be adhered to, yet they believe that some small alterations in the details of these principles would render 
that system still more efficacious, and have reported a bill for that purpose. 

In those States which have taken energetic measures for carrying into eft'ect the system adopted by Congress, 
agreeably to the power constitutionally vested in them, the militia are making great proficiency in military discipline, 
and in the knowledge of tactics, which evinceth, that the deficiency in organization, arming, and discipline of the 
militia, which is too apparent in some of the States, does not arise from any defect in that part of tlie system which 
is under the control of Congress, but from omission on tlie part of the State Governments. 

In order, therefore, to impress the State Governments with the importance of the subject, and the indispensable 
necessity of their vigorous co-operation with the General Government, to complete the inilitia institution, so as to en- 
sure, from that source, a permanent national defence, they submit the following resolution: 

Resolved, That the President of the United States be requested to write to the Executive of each State, urging 
the importance and indispensable necessity of vigorous exertions, on the part of the State Governments, to carry 
into efl'ect the militia system adopted by the national Legislature, agreeably to the powers reserved to the States 
respectively, by the constitution of the United States, and in a manner the best calculated to ensure such a degree 
of military discipline and knowledge of tactics, as will, under the auspices of a benign providence, render the militifi. 
a sure and permanent bulwark of national defence. 



7th Congress.] No. 51. [2d Session. 

MILITIA. 

communicated to the house of representatives, march 1, 1803. 

Gentlemen of the House of Representatives: 

According to the request stated in your resolution of December 20th, I communicated to you such returns of 
the militia, of the different States, as had then been received. Since that date returns have been received from 
New Hampshire; Massachusetts, Connecticut, New York, North Carolina, Georgia, and Kentucky, which are 

now transmitted to you . „ . ^ 

TH. JEFFERSON. 
March 1, 1803. 



164 



MILITARY AFFAIRS. 



[1803. 



•^ 



■s. 



•fe 



i 

Hi 


•sassoJiBpy[ 


185 
1,981 
340 

784 


00 t^ 

C! — 


•U8J\[ U1JB|V 1 . . . . 




•sjauung 


• • § • 




•SUBI3ISnp\[ 


O « Ci GO 
r-t Ol CT CO 


■* 


•s[B.iod.to3 1 • • 5 • 




•s;uB3g.iag 


O 00 1-1 c^ 
C* 00 « i> 


to -- 


•SJajsBuija^Bti^ 


. « « - 




•s^uB^nfpy 


■^ . ^ 




■sjuBuajnaiT; puooag | . . . . 


CT 


•sjuBuajnsiT; ;sjij 


C5 -* >0 (N 

— C5 M CO 


S " 


•sjuBuajnaiq uiBjdBg 


• .• 




•sniBjdB^ 


t^ 03 «S O 
■^ ^ CT 


to - 


•SJOfBp\[ • " • "^ • 




•s|8aoi03 ^uBuajnai^; • ■ • - 


• • 


li 

h 

g 

i 

o 
z 
< 

» 

H 
U 

O 
O 

H 
b 


■sjuBjnfpy 


o o ■?! 00 tn t^ to 

CO 00 -^ O O^ I-* ^ 


•sj9)sBmJ8:)jBnf) 


r~ 00 o oi o 05 to 

(S J^ ■* OO IN P5 


•s9;bj\[ ^snoaSjng 


— m in CO to — to 
CO in CO T(< 


•snoaSjng 


— Ol <N « to 00 <N 
CO t^ -^ 00 ^ ^ 


•j9:)sbuiXej 


■n . . . 

00 


•saopBj^ 


^ t~ 00 CT to r^ o 

in in t^ >n 00 "* 05 


•S[9uo|03 ijuBuajnai'j 


^ 00 CO o -^ o l^ 
CO t^ -^ O "(^ d -^ 


•spnoioQ 


OT 


[a 
(a 

1 - 

s 

a 


•sJ8}SBui.i3;aBn5 apBgug 


en 


•S]BJ8U8f) J9;SBJV 8§B.I0j[ 




•s|BJ8uaJC) J8jsBj\[ uoSb^ 




•siBJ9U3g J9;sBuu9;jBnf) jf jndaQ 


CO • • • . ■ 


•S]B.i9a9JC) (juB^nfpy j{;nd9Q 


m 


•S[BJ9U99 XJBD9li;odY 




•SJBJ9U9r) UBIDlS^l[j; 




•SJBJ9U3JC) noagjng 





•IBJ9U9iC) .la^SBUI^BJ . 


11 


•SJorBj\[ gpBSKig; "" §1 • SJ " *" '^ 


•S9nssi JO siBjauar) XjBssiuiuiog 




o 


•aSBHOJtl J JO S|B.I9U9r) jfaBSSlttllUOQ 




•s.i99uiSug 9;B}g 






•sduiBQ-gp-piy 


to o . . « ^ 




•S|BJ9U9f) JUBjnfpV - - • - . _ ^ II 




•sjBJauaf) .i9jsBuiJ9jJBn^ 


• - 




•siBJ9ua£) jaipBgug 


to 00 00 ^ O t^ .-1 ' 




•SIBJ8H99 .IorBJ\[ 


CO o . •* m CO m 




i 

< 


New Hampshire, 
Massachusetts, 
Connecticut, . 
New York, 
North Carolina, 


fcceorgia, . 
Kentucky, 



1803.] 



MILITIA. 



165 





< 
g 


•Sa^BAUJ 




00- 


15,226 

60,958 
37,597 




CO 

n 






•SJ39U0IJ 









•S3JIJ puB siunjQ 






CT to 
00 re 


o 


oo 

o 






•s[B.iodjo3 


: 1 <-> 1 1 1 1 

0(_ 






•S;UB3gj9S 




00^ 


1,411 
3,322 
2,131 


o 
to 


in 






•sjorBp^ ajtj 


00 


03 


(JJ M O 

m o Ti< 


-* 


<N 
















•saorBjii uinjQ 


IM 


w 


(M 00 O 
M lO ^ 


■* 


3 










t^ 


(M , , 


■ 


to 






'sifireaSjag J3:jsBuu8VBnf) 


J3 






•SJOfBJ^ ;UB3§J8g 


P5 


r- 


t^ la n 
CO r^ CT 


CO 


2 






•suSisug 


CI 


t^ 


^ 1> (N 

C» 05 lO 
P3 i> lO 


05 


CO 






•s;uBU8;n3iT; puooag 









•s^uBua^naiT; :)SJij 


•* 




o^ c» la 

^ O lO 
CM 00 O 


oo 

<M 


o 






•sure;dB3 


•* 




r~ t~ to 

r~ o 00 

CO 00 o 


O! 






3 
! 


» 

3 

m 
A 




■afij pu^ ^'"'a; 






3 
3 


•S9JIJ puB suinjQ 






; 


•scBaodj03 






■H 


•S:(UB3§J[3g 






3 


•suSisug 






5 


•s^UBua^naiT; 








•SUlBjdBQ 






3 


a 

•< 
> 
<! 
U 


•suooSbjq 


(M 


o 
of 


1,402 

1,401 

216 


to 








•SJ81ppBg 









•SJ8UJBJ 









•suBioisnj^ 


?? 


to 


05 O , 


t- 


^ 






•S:)UB3§.l3g 


00 


o 


' 2 - 


to 

CO 


■^ 

CT 






•saa:>SBuiJ3|JBn5 


1 <« 1 . 1 1 1 






•sja^sBtaiBj 









•s^uB^nfpv 


, - • , . , . 






•s;anJ03 


S3 




, 00 to 


O) 


CD 






•s^UBU3:>n3iT; 




0( 

o 


1 -"a* ■-< 




00 






•sure;dB9 


OJ 


o 


■* 00 


(M 


CO 






•8J0rBJ\[ 


' 


(M 


, ^ •* 


■ 


■ 






•sjauoiog :jnBn3^n3i'x 


• 


o 


, -H OJ 


• 


■ 










s. 

e 


i 


Connecticut, - 
New York, 
North Carolina, 


S 


i 

o 
3 

B 





166 



MILITARY AFFAIRS. 



[1803. 



Ed 
PS 
H 

P 

s 

O 

< 

P 

< 

i 

z 

S 

s 

< 


•S3JqBg 


1,064 

2,373 

2,914 

1,071 

32 

429 

203 


•suijv apiS ^-"SIW-'V 




•sjapunoj aaaqx ^oij 


•^ n . . . . 


•sjapnnoj jnoj uojj 


■* 


•sjapunoj xig uojj 


. C5 


•sjapunoj amj*^ uoji 


00 


■sjaz;tA\ojj 





•s.rapuno£ aajqx ss^ag S fi "^ 2 • * 


•sjgpunoj jno J sswg • S " • • • • 


•sjapunoj xig ssBjg 


00 r- . _ (M 


•sjapunoj 9Ai3Aix ssBjg 


u: 


•SJOUiVJI^ AVBqMB^BQ 




lid 


•31;^ puB J[UBa 


0* 


•suBioisnj\[ 


•* 


•spjodJOQ 




■s^uBaSjag 


2 


•suSisug 


" • 


•s^uBuajnai^ 


- . 


•SUIK)(iB3 


o 


H 
Z 

g 

K 
2 


■3I!d PiT ^"^ 




•suBpisnj^ 




•S|BJodjo3 




•s;uBa§j8g 




•sugjsug 




•s^uBn8:>n8i'j 




•surejdBQ 






STATES. 


New Hampshire, 

Massachusetts, 

Connecticut, .... 

New York, .... 

North Carolina, 

Georgia, .... 

Kentucky, .... 



1803.] 



MILITIA. 



167 







•SJOIOO JO SpUBJS 






z 










•- Tl< (M lo 


^ 


CS 










50 OO 00 -H 


o 


o 
eq 
OS 










wi^ 01 05 CS 


CO 








•sjpg puB spjBqqBDg 


-^ cT of ^ 
















-<l 














&3 
Q 








O •* -H OJ 


CD tn 










to O GO <^ 


t- -3< 












«-;_ 0_ SD .- 


I- o_ 


a; 








•s;uiij 


cT lo" oT lO~ 


Co" 










— 1 cx> o» <n 


Ol 










« — 












00 t^ 














■^^ CD 












•saqsiua puB saji^w 


1 o" « ' ' 














in CD 


O lO 












O 00 


O 00 


o 










CD, ©>_ 


in CI 


00 








•sjiBg asooT 




TJI 


2 




















l^ 




s.. 








•S8JIJ pUB SUItUQ 


' ' i> ' ' 




1 








00 (M 


•* 






^ 


•suoSb^ puB snjquinx 


1 "5 II 


' 


§ 
g 






s 




t^ CO 00 


O CO 


Pi 






z 




CO t^ o 


o o 


< 






H 




00^ l-^ 03 


"U " 


&4 






i 


•sn^a q^TM. saSpix>jBO 


O C5 










BS 




'*^ r-l 










H 








ti 






P 








$ 








CD CO 


o »-, 




■g 


^ 


•J9PAV0J JO spunoj 


CO Ol ' 


iO CD 






;3 


O 

< 




•* 


f-^ 






1 




r^ 










•suoo^uodsg 


1 o , 

9 00 


' 






( 


i 












<| 




^ 








2 




0( 










£3 

< 


•spoH \ms 


1 ciT 1 1 1 

CO 


■ ■ 






i 


g 






















(si 






CD IC TJi Oi 


00 






O 


<; 




CO « CO lO 












eo^ t^ 05 — 1 


CO 






^ 




•S5[0BSdBU3 


CO* oo' lar 1 








S 














13 


















p CD •» O OJ 


^ 0^ 








r^ « 0» O CD 


CD -^ 






tf 




•saxog 9§pu;jB3 


4,7 
31,0 
13,3 
13,0 

3,0 


CO — 










—1 -" -1 O) (M 


J^ CD 










=0 CO t- CO Ol 


o o> 












00^ CT -^ t^ O 


»0 rl 










•s^auQjfBa; 


■^ -* co" ift^ (yT 

CO 11 i-H 












•saasnj 













-. ■?! •* 


CT t- 










t^ --^ -^ 


00 lO 












CO CD CO^ 


i^ "^ 










•sagia 


' ' TJH 


- 












CD 00 (S OO t- 


00 CO 












■^S* Tji CD 00 t^ 


CD CT 












oo_ 0D_ 00^ in_ Tf 


co^ o> 










•s;35isnj\[ 


cT of Co" OtT CO*" 

I— 1 Tji 1— ( eo .-I 


-T of 


• 








00 CO t^ i^ i-1 


in o» 








■SmSIJJOSJlBJ 


CD ^ -^ ca CO 
cf of 


OQ S 















' 


' 








i '^ ' ' ^ 


• • 










■ t 


IS -2 „ .S 












< 
















New Hamp 
Massachuse 
Connecticu 
New York, 
North Caro 


Georgia, 
Kentucky, 







168 



MILITARY AFFAIRS. 



[1804. 



8th Congress.] 



No. 52. 



[1st Session. 



MILITIA. 

COMMUNICATED TO CONGRESS, MARCH 22, 1804. 

To the Senate and House qf Representatives of the United States: 

I lay before Congress the last returns of the Militia of the United States. Their incompleteness is much to 
be regretted, and its remedy may at some future time be a subject worthy the attention of Congress. 

TH: JEFFERSON. 
March 22, 1804. 



1804.] 



MILITIA. 



169 



•siBJodjoo 



■sja)sciiu3iJisn^ 



•sjuEinfpy 



■sjuBuajnan puooas 



•sjuBuajnaji jsjij 



■S}U13U3in3I'J UIBjd83 



.H CN CO to ^ -^ C^ 
<N 00 .-< CO 00 CO 
(N O CO ■* t~ 



<N 00 1-t CO 00 CO l^ (O b- O .-I IVQOC^ 



CO t£J *0 b^ O ^ -^ 



I I I I I I 



I I I I I I 00 



<o 00 h.o> -*co c: 

rt Ol (N CO CO 1-* 



I I I I h. I 



C^ C» O <N CO M 1 to 
CO O -* .H to t^- CO 



I <N I I I I I 



I Oil III 



I to I I III 



) to .-t 00 CO CO 



II III 



I -* I I I --l 



I 111 III 



I I 01 I I I 



I 0> I <M III 



to M O b- ■<? C^ tH V5 to to t-^ t? c^ (M 

^ O C^ COCO (N (N .-' 



I I I I I I 



I CO I I 111 



•SUISJOBO 



•sjofsiv 



•s|3UO[oo iUEU3;n3iT 



■siuBinfpv 



•sjaiSBiujsjjBn^ 



•B3JBK s,uo33ans 



•suo33jns 



•SjajSBOljfBJ 



•sjofen 



• ^UBpuBoioioo sjauoioo jasaajnai/j 



■sisuoioo 



■sa3}SEUU3^.ren^ apsSug 



■S|EJ3U3f) J3)SEU19S«aoJ 



•s[Bj3ua9 jajsBuiuoSsAV 



•s[Ejaua3 jaiseuajajjEnQ XjndaQ 



•si^jauag ^uBinLpy AjndaQ 



•s|Ba3U39 XjEoamody 



•sjisjauag UBioisXqj 



•siBjausg uoaSjng 



CO o o -^ to o 



CO ■* (M T-( C>) Q* 1 



I >0 I rH I (N 



I I I N I rt i-< 



•^ r-i I I III 



.-(^ooc^vjoooto 

COCO(M.HCOOt}<0* 



COtO^^COtO »OrHC0(M 
b- CO ■* (N -^ 



OOltoO CO O^OlO* 

cofr^c^.-tcoooco^ 



.-<0*OCOtO TjtiM.H 1 

"* C<i CO r^ CO 



OlcotoiOJOtO^O ^tOrJf|tO liHl I 

C4 to C^ CO -* CO >* C^ 



.-iait^toco.^aioo 



^ to ■*.-l Ol I (N 1-1 I 
»0 i-( CN T-( w 



I I I I O Tl O (M 



t I CO I I I ?4 I 1 



*n V5 *o c^ to »o b* to to CO o >o <J> .-' y-* 



OOOOtOrHloOV^to 
CNl^C^.-'COOCOCO 



to-*tcoi~. ^.c»'*-* 

00 ■.* -^ CQ ^ 



■S]BJ3U39 J3}SBUIi(E<J 



•saofepi 3pBS[ja 



■SSnSSI JO S[^3U3C) XJESSIU1U103 



•3s«qojn J JO SJBJ3U39 Xjbssiuhuo3 



•SJ33UlSua 3J«1S 



•sduiB3-3p-piV 



•SlBJ3U3a }UEinf'pv 



•S{BI3U33 ja^sBiuao^Jun^ 



•si«a3U33 jaipiBSua 



•SIBJ3U39 jofepi 



111 III 



I ^ I I III 



I <-! I I II 



I I 1 I III 



11—11 III 



I W <M 1-1 



O W 0» t*. l^ 1 r-t rH 



I I rH I I III 



11—11 III 



00 I I CO -* I I 1 CO 






1 rH I -1 1 1 1 I 



11—11 I I I — 



tOOJCn'ti'COTitT-HCO 



CTi O Olb-T-I I — I I 



CO O'* — •*■*■*'* 



■* >0 <N CO "O 1 I I I 



•apsui 

. 3WIS 13^3 J° UjnPH 3m aE3X JEqAV JOJ 



COCOCOCOCOCJCOCO 

oooooooo 

QOOOOOOOQOOOOOOO 



(N(NO»CO(N COCOCOCO 

ooooo oooo 

00 00 CO CO 00 00 00 CO CO 






(U I I I I I I 



I 1 1 I I I 1 . - 1 



1 1 ' „- „- I I ' ' 5 t s 



3S & 

■s ** 



Q g Jj 
>,c ° 

rt * « 

'^ cf ■£ 



(i7 o ^ 
on 13 f 






<u c u 
cfi <u .a 

^ <5 o 

III 

•= ° o 

^ '= .. 

" S m 
— .2 c 



.S2S 



13 i-g 



u bA o 



170 



MILITARY AFFAIRS. 



[1804. 





1 


■3[! J pUB 3lUEa 




2 


' 1 






•suBioisnM 




c« 


CJ 






•s[Ejodioo 


"1 1 






•s^uBaSjas 




o 


o 






■suSisug 




CO 


CM 






•sjuBuainaiT 




•o 


CM 






■SUlBldEO 




■* 


CM 






p 
n 


■3\\ji puB quBH 




o 


c^^ 

CM 






•ssjij puB suinaa 


IM 1 






•S[t5aodjo3 


« 1 






•siutaSjas 




(O 


■* 






•suSisug 


M 1 






•S4UBU31T131T 


C 




3 


•surejdBO 




c< 


- 




C 
O 


1 
1 


•suooSsjQ 




00 ^ CO o w 

tH rH ^ CO (M 
CO (NN.b-C» 


C?. CO — <o 
CM TJl lO r^l 




< 


■SJ3IPPBS 


1 1 1 1 1 1 M o> 

r-f t-t 


1 1 (N 1 1 


1 1 1 1 




-SJ3IJJBJ 


1 1 1 1 1 1 <N v> 


1 1 t^ 1 1 


1 1 1 1 




o 


■suBjoisnpi 


CON. CO V3 (N rH tJi 


o 1 r-c in «) 

rl COtH 






Pi 


•s}ut;aSj3S 


OCKOOO-HOCN 

aoo*r-(»-icooo>o 


CO ^ CO C^ tP 
CO T- Ct CO CM 


-"J"* <o 1 




•sjaisEiuasiJBn'b 


1 .-. 1 r-l QO 1 1 ■* 


\ \ r-t \ i 


Jill 






•sjaisBuiifsj 


1 1 1 1 t^ 1 1 1 


] 1 — 1 1 


1 1 1 1 






•simnnfpv 


1 ao 1 1 00 1 O) 1 


1 1 rt 1 1 


1 1 1 1 






•sjaujoo 


<N>Ol^COCOC010>0 
C-» «)(N CO rl M >0 


CO lO O 00 CO 


r-l tN CO 'H 






•S}UBU3}liai/I 


■^ O "! lO -*10 O 


CTi rH m CO 


CM CO lO CT 






■sure^dBO 


(N-*ooco>nTj<o>oo 

CT >0(M COM rt in 


t-. 00 to — CO 


rt CM CO rt 






•sjofBre 


1 ^ 1 .-100 ^ Ol 1 


00 ■* >n 1 1 


1 I 1 1 






•siauoioo lUBuajnan 


\ in 1 <M CO i-l(N 1 


-* (N t^ 1 1 


1 1 1 1 






JO > 


•SpBUl SBAV 31BJS 113^3 


Cj CO CO CO CO CJ CO CO 

oooooooo 

000O00CX3CO0O0O00 


C^ (M CM CO (N 
00 00 OO CO 00 


CO CO CO CO 

ooo o 






1 
! 

J 


S 
u 

CO 


1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 


1 1 r 1 r 1 1 


1 1 1 1 1 





1804.] 



MILITIA. 



171 



•sjaputioj aajqx "O^'I 



•sjapuno J jnoj uoai 



•sjapunod xig "OJI 



(N I 



'Sjspunoj auifj uoji 



■sjapunoj 33jqx sscjg 



■sjapunoj jnoj ss«jg 



•sjapunoj xig ssEjg 



•sjapunoj 3A13AVJ, ssBjg 



•SJOIJJB^ Al^qAlBJlJO 



(N 00 I ■# w CO w 



I <N 1 (M r-( 



Oi ?* Tj* (N *H c^ 



w I J I I 



•SJ3JIJ: pUB SJ3U1IHIUCI 



•siBJodjon 



■S)UC33j3S 



Ob-OO-^^HQO^OW 
O^-^C^t-(O>»O00tO 
CO »o ^ Tt w Ol oo o 
^oT-^-'^'coowcT 



^ oi 00 to CO V5 a» V) ^ 

O^ *0 ■<*' (O C>» CO to (N b- 

to b-Tod'to CO -^i-rcrj-T 

»0 CO (N 1-1 c^ 



tOOOO^lOCOO-Hb- ■* »OCOQ0 CTloOtN 



i-("*-*»OC0V^"*^- 
■^tOtOT-(h»"**0"* 



CO I to -* O V) r-l I 



I I I >o 1 to I 



^^ »n to o oi c^ b- 00 ^^cooo-* 

aio^oococ»coc^(co cn^^c^kco 

cf 1— coi-^cT co<N*-r i-T 



•sjofBK 3}id; 



l^'^'^t'-COCOtOt^ 
CM to (M CO UOCM (^ 



C^ O K "* CS> 



•sjoIbjv mnjg 



•ni>.'*J^coootNoo 

CN »0 (N CO 'O CO t^ 



O O Ol CO^ I I I I 



sjubsSjss J3jsBnu3jjsn^ 



O CO l~-tO ■* I (?J p 



'* I CO I to 



■sjofEM lUBaSj3S 



■suSisug 



•siuBuajnsii puo33s 



■sjusuajnaiq ?sjij 



■snrejdBO 



0*OOOO^OW^"*00 



CO CO W(M to I I I W 



COt-M ■*K"*00 {MCTr-l'-l'-l 



'"#»OtOOOWCOW^*0 



O (N to CO tjt 

Oi iTi In ^^ Oi 
]r^ *o CO c^ CO 



Ol >-l CTi h- 



I I I I I I I 



(N01^C0C^(NC0O CO^OOOCftO o^cocoo 



■^totooicootoo^ 



*o»r)i^c^co t-»rHCOCO 



C^h-tT^ CO 00 CO w OOtOCOC^^ 



»r)co<3iO»ob-vi(>» 

"**C»OOOCOOCOO 



O* t^ C^ CO QO CO C^ 00 V) CO CM ■<* 



_ - 00 to W w 

00 00 00 ^ ■<# t^ ^ CO CO 



•3[!J pu-B r^usa 



•s[\5Jodjo3 



■s;ub3Sj3S 



•suSisua 



•suiBjdeo 



•SpSOl SB« 3JBJS iJOBa 
JO ujn}3a 3qi J«3'^ i^H* -"OJ 



OH 



I I I I I (N 



I I I I I :* 



I I I I I p 



1 1 I I I "2 



COCOCOC0C0(MCOC0 (NCNC^COC^ COCOCOCO 



oooooooo 



ooooo oooo 



00 00 00 00 CO CO 00 00 00 <» CO OO 00 00 CO OO 00 



I I I I I I I I I 



■= s ^- 

a t. o 

^ 5 T? . . M* .5 .= . "O fi -S 

c.« = -5 . &--C .- - -o o . jf ," - S 



I I I I I I I I I . . I I r I 



172 



MILITARY AFFAIRS. 



[1804. 



■sjoioo JO spuEjs 



•sjiag puB spjBqqiBOS 



o fN ^ o> ^ *o 

tH Oi "<# o h, ^ 

N. CN i^ o^ cr^ ov I 



•S1U1U 



■saqsnja pu« sajijW. 



O to »D C^ b- Oi O^ 

O T-^ Ol O* O ^ T-H 

(N o ^ t^ »o ^ o^ 



O »0 CO O O 00 

Ti< -^ ■* CO ^ o 



•saji j^ puB suinjci 



•suoSbjW puB sij.iquinx 



■siiBg q}iAV ssSpiJiaBO 



•japMOd JO spunoj 



•suoojuodsa 



•spog uiBH 



I I ^ I I 



I- I 1 CT (M I 



ts. CO to CO 00 

tH CO Ol V) 

J t- I 00 to Oi 

CO CO t-^ 



O CO -* ' 

*0 »-< O I I 1 

o> »n .-c ' ' ' 



I I I I CO I I 



I V) I I I I I I 



O r-( 00 CO O ^ O 



CO I l^ I I O i-( 1 



■S^lOBsdBUJI 



•saxog aSpij^JBO 



•spuOifBg 



•S3U>.H 



o th 00 *n c^ Oi CO 

VI <£l C4 o 00 *o .-( 
O ^ b- i-H ■«* iH I 

co--^ O 



CO*OCOCNOOCO-* 



inl^ooo^oo^f-to 

(NOVncTCOCO'-'O 

iocoaii-"Cniv*oo 
Tt i>r cf (n" CO vT cT cT 



■<* tN CO O CO CO lO 

(yt o> o G^ <o Ti* 00 



I I I I I I I I 



I c>i 1 I I to 



»-lrJ<.-(COb- OVl^D^o 
(M -^ CO CO *0 b-b,00»^ 



-s[oisIj1 jo saa'jj 



•SUJ.IV spig Xasiiiviv 






OVjCOCNOOO-^O 

b-b-*o*oc^oooo 

i-T-'d^co'c'rcooooro' 



CO b- i-H U-3 G^ CO 00 yD b- 



b- <-i ts. ■* (N CN a> '^ 

COCOiJOV)'-! <NCOt- 



) injs, 1- 1-1 rs) CO 

) to 00 Ol t- 00 o 



N-CJCO-^CO OiOl-^ 



I I CO I I I 



1 CO CO CO CO <>) CO CO M M tN CO r^ co co co 



oooooooo 

COOOOOCOOOOOOOOO 



ooooo oooo 

CO 00 00 00 



I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I t I I I I 



I I I I I t 






603 5 



(UK u^ o 11 u SqS-- O O »' " 'r- ■= ■- -^^ 






1805.] DISOBEDIENCE OF ORDERS JUSTIFIED ON THE GROUND OF ILLEGALITY. 173 



8th Congress.] No. 53. [2d Sessio n. 

RATIONS COMMUTED. 

COMMUNICATED TO THE HOIFSE OF REPRESENTATIVES, JANUARY 16, 1805. 

War Department, January I5th, 1805. 
Sir: ^ 

In obedience to the order of the House of Representatives of the 14th instant, I have examined the petition of 
sundry ofhcers of the army of the United States on the subject of rations; and 1 beg leave to submit the following 
observations, by way of report thereon. 

The principle, as stated in the petition, has long been established, that the officers should receive, in lieu of their 
rations, when not drawn in kind, the contract price at the posts where they may respectively be stationed, upon the 
presumption that the price of rations would generally be in proportion to the expense of the necessaries of life at the 
respective posts. There may, however, be, and probably are, exceptions to the general principle: and as some incon- 
veniences occur in settling the accounts of officers' subsistence, in consequence of their frequent removals from one 
post to another, it may not be improper to establish by law what sum of money each grade shall receive in lieu of 
rations- And as the prices of the necessaries and conveniences of life have considerably increased, since the esta- 
blishment of the present pay and emoluments of the officers of the army, and although the average contract price for 
the two last years has not been more than fourteen and a half cents per ration, I take the liberty of suggesting the 
propriety of establishing the subsistence of the officers at the rate of twenty cents for each ration allowed to the re- 
spective grades; or of allowing to each subaltern, for his subsistence, in addition to his pay, twelve dollars per month; 
to each captain, eighteen dollars per month; and in like proportion to all other grades of commissioned officers, in- 
cluding surgeons and surgeons' mates. 

I have the honor to be, very respectfully, your obedient servant- 

H. DEARBORN 
To the Honorable the Speaker of the 

House of Representalives of the United States. 



8th Congress. ] No. 54. [2d Sessio w. 

DISOBEDIENCE OF ORDERS JUSTIFIED ON THE GROUND OF ILLEGALITY. 

communicated to THE SENATE, JANUARY 30, 1805. 

To the Honorable the Senate and House of Representatives of the United States. The remonstrance and petition of 
sundry citizens and officers of the militia in the State of Tennessee. 

Your remonstrants, having those respectful feelings for your honorable body, which citizens ought to possess, and 
which those bearing commissions in the militia ought ever to cherish, beg leave to represent — 

That they have, with much concern, seen a veteran and meritorious officer in the army of the United States ar- 
rested for imaginary crimes, compelled to travel a distance of fifteen hundred miles to stand his trial, and that trial 
then postponed for several months, contrary not only to the rules and articles of war, but also to those natural rules 
of justice, to the benefit of which every member of society is entitled. 

That the only crime of which he was found guilty, and the only one perhaps of which any serious expectation of 
convicting him was ever entertained, was a refusal to crop his hair, in conformity to an order which he conceived to 
be illegal, and which your remonstr.ints conceive to have been an arbitrary and useless exertion of authority; that, 
in the execution of the sentence of the court martial, which subjected him to a reprimand from the commanding 
General, your remonstrants have been able to discover, not the calmness and dignity to be expected from a person 
invested with so high an office, but a disposition to passion and invective, well calculated to nirike impressions unfa- 
vorable to the military character of the accused, and foreboding a renewal of persecution. 

Your remonstrants have been prompted to an expression of these feelings, not only from a disposition to resist 
oppression from whatsoever quarter it may come, even if directed against the most humble and obscure member of 
the community, but also from a long acquaintance \yith the person injured in this instance, a knowledge of his vir- 
tue and integrity as a man, and his bravery and fidelity as a soldier. During a command of several years at a post 
■where not only the greatest firmness and the strictest attention to discipline were necessary, but also the discharge 
of his duty in enforcing obedience to the laws had an almost unavoidable tendency to create numerous and impla- 
cable enemies; in this situation, the trae state of which was but little known beyond the bounds of this State, we 
have seen him not only cause the laws to be respected and obeyed, but also, by the humanity and delicacy of his 
conduct, conciliate the esteem of the offenders, and cause those to refrain through affection, whom fear alone had 
been found insufficient to restrain. In other situations also, in all of which no glory or reputation in the view of the 
world could be acquired, and where no reward awaited him beyond the approbation of his own conscience, we have 
ever seen him patient, persevering, industrious, and obedient to all orders, which were in any way directed to the 
promotion of the public good. In fine, we declare that in the whole of his official conduct, which has fallen under 
our inspection, we have seen much commanding our approbation, and deserving our imitation, but nothing which, in 
our opinion, even malice itself could censure. 

Your remonstrants further beg leave to call to the recollection of your honorable body, that the accused. Colonel 
Butler, entered into the service of his country early in the revolutionary war, during the whole of which depressing 
and perilous period he stood the firm and active officer — after its close, his desire to serve his country continued. 
The defeat at the site of Fort Recovery, which witnessed the death of General Butler, left his brother atnong the 
wounded. Search the history of the American army, you will often find the name of Butler; but where was it 
marked with disgrace.' Was he ever accused of disobedience? Never, until the case occurred to which we now 
call your attention. When roused by the signal of danger, he was first at his post, and the first to refuse submis- 
sion to indignity. The pride of a veteran of twenty-six years' service was roused by the order for cropping his 
venerable grey hairs, an order unsanctipned either by law, reason, or the usages of the army. 

Your remonstrants further represent, that, possessing the principles of freemen, they shudder at the idea of being 
compelled to obey an illegal and arbitrary mandate — that, possessing the feelings of men, they can never passively 
stoop to such degradation. While the delegated powers of the Union are generally circumscribed by barriers, 
which they must not overleap, how long must it be regretted, that our fellow-citizens of the army are subject to an 
authority absolute and arbitrary. How much is it to be feared, that the uncontrolled power of a commander of your 
army shall, by the force of a general order, drive from your service the most experienced and most useful officers; 
oppress the bravest and most virtuous men; pursue with unrelenting persecution, under pretexts the most frivolous, 
those who have fought your battles, and spilled their blood in your defence: and finally degrade the military cha-' 
23 TO 



174 



MILITARY AFFAIRS. 



[1805. 



racter of your army, by illegal and unnecessary orders, unmerited censures, malicious arrests, and reprimands, cru- 

''' ' Your'remorlst'rants are well aware of the necessity of discipline and subordination in an army; but they cannot 
conceive it the duty of a freeman to obey an order unsanctioned by law, without meaning, without utility, capri- 
cious and absurd, irrelative to the duties of a soldier, degrading to a man, and destructive ot that pnde which consti- 

'^"'Hfthfs^desDotfc abuse of power is tolerated, when shall it cease? Shall your militia, when called out in defence 
.,f their country, partake of the humiliation.? Shall they be compelled to sustain a mutilation to humour the caprice ot 
m individual ? J&ust they submit to a mark to render ihem unlike their fellow citizens? They hope not; and that 
when their country requires the calling out a military force from the body of its citizens, it will not be shackled with 
such humiliating conditions as to render it ineffectual. ,, . , ■ n, j.- ^ 

Under the impressions excited by the transaction which has called forth an expression of these sentiments, your 
petitioners hope, with due submission and respect, that your honorable body will ordain and establish such articles 
iVnd rules for the future regulation of the army, as will prevent abuses of power, and preserve from indignity and 
insult those who devote their lives to the service of their country- ^, . , . ■ ,. 

Your remonstrants beg leave further to represent, that Colonel Thomas Butler, of the United States Army, is tne 
character that has been thus illegally and improperly dealt with, and in consequence thereof, the feelings ot your 
remonstrants have been raised to make that representation of facts which they have now done; and they also beg 
leave to represent, that the order alluded to in this remonstrance, is radically illegal and despotic, that the cause 
which gave to it birth is triiing, and unworthy the attention of a great General belonging to the United States army, 
and, therefore, as republicans, we feel ourselves justified and emboldened in bringing to the view ot your honorable 
body his particular situation. , . , ,,,,,. j * r 

We vour remonstrants, further and lastly beg leave to make known to your honorable body, the second arrest ot 
Colonel Thomas Butler, of the United States Army, for the simple crime ot not cropping his hmr, during his late 
command at New Orleans; and hope your honorable body will not only render such general reliet as the nature oi 
our Government requires, in its present peculiar state of good order and tranquillity, but that you will specifically 
relieve this worthy, aged, and respectable officer, Colonel Butler, from persecution. 



Andrew Jackson, Major General, 

Shadrach Nye, Adjutant, 

Charles Donoho, 

James C. Wilson, ., . ^ , 

W. J. Anderson, Aid-de-camp to Major General, 

Daniel Smith, 

J. Whiteside, Attorney General, 

Henry Bradford, Major, 

William Trigg, junr. 

G. 0. Blackmore, Brigade Major, 

James Cryer, Justice of the Peace, 

Hinchey Pettway, Merchant, 

Thomas Mitchell, 

James Desha, Merchant, 

Robert B. Mitchel, 

B. Seawell, Attorney at Law and Colonel, 

Nathaniel W. Williams, Attorney at Law, 

Robert Whyte, Attorney at Law, 

John H. Bauen, Attorney at Law, 

J. Wharton, Attorney at Law, 

J. Hatchings, Merchant, 

H. G. Burton, Attorney at Law, 

Josephus H. Coun, Merchant, 

Thomas Master, Major, 

James Mannell, Senator, 

Griswald Latimer, Captain, 

Demey More, Major, 

William Gwin, Captain, 

Joseph T. Williams, Major, 

Isaac Lane, Captain, 

Archibald Marlin. Magistrate, 

J. C. Hamelton, Attorney at Law, 

David Shelby, Clerk S. C. 

Thos. Stuart, Attorney for West Tennessee dist. 

William W- Roose, Colonel, 

Isham T. Davis, Captain, 

William Montgomery, Justice of the Peace, 

J. Winchester, Brigadier General 4th Brigade, 

Edward Douglass, Lieut. Colonel, Sumner county. 



William Hall. 

Stockley Donelson, Colonel, 

Thomas Harney, 

Robert Hays, Colonel, 

Robert Puidy, late Captain United States Army, 

Jno. Dickinson, Attorney at Law, 

Jno. Anderson, Merchant, 

Samuel Finney, 

John Gordon, Captain, 

Joseph Hays, Doctor, 

Thomas A. Claiborne, formerly of the Army of the Unit- 
ed States, 

A. Foster, Merchant, 

John McNaiiy, Judge, &c. 

William Tait, Merchant, 

Deaderich & Tatum, Merchants, Nashville, 

Stephen Cantrell, 

James Tatum, Lieut. 3d N. C. R. late Revolutionary 
Army, 

J. Childress, jun. Marshal, 

King, Carson, & King, Merchants, Nashville, 

Tho. Dillahunty, J. P. 

Moses Fisk, 

Roger B. Sappington, Physician of Nashville, 

Beal Bossley, 

William Lytle, 

John Childress, 

Wm. Black, 

Jos. Ervvin, 

Tho. Thopson, 

William Russell, 

R. C. Foster, Member of the Legislature, 

Robert and William Searcy, Merchants. 

Tho. Cruteher, Treasurer, Mero District, 

James Hennen, M. D. 

J. H. Parker, 

Jos. Colman, 

Ho. Tatieur, late Captain in the Revolutionary army of 
the United States. 



8fll CONGRESS.I 



No. 55. 



[2d Session. 



MILITARY FORCE, THE POSTS AT WHICH STATIONED, AND THE EXPENSES OF FORTI- 
FICATIONS, ARSENALS, ARMORIES, AND MAGAZINES, IN THE YEARS 1803 and 1804. 

COMMUNICATED TO THE HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES, FEBRUARY 15, 1805. 



War Department, February 13, 1805. 



Sir 



In obedience to a resolution of the House of Representatives of the United States, of the 22d ultimo, I have 
the honor of transmitting, herewith, a statement of the number of officers and privates in the actual service of the 
United States during the years one tliousand eight hundred and three, and one thousand eight hundred and tour; 
and also the names of the posts where soldiers were stationed during those periods, together with the number of 
privates and officers at such posts: and also a detailed statement of the sums expended during the years one thou- 
sand eight hundred and three, and one thousand eight hundred and four, on fortifications, arsenals, armories, and 

"* ^ I have the honor to be, very respectfully, your obedient humble servant, DEARBORN 

To the Honorable the Speab3!r of the 

House of Representatives of the United States. 



MILITARY FORCE. 



175 



— 


•ajBSajSSy 


gSfe5?5SS-SSS3'.^5SSSSgSSSSS^S^KS^S?fSB9CT 








•SSlEAlJfl pue 'S.133 

-yijav 'iHBiDisnpi 'sjaogjo 
pauoissiiuuuoo-uou piioj. 






T 


&5 




S "3 " 


•S3)B[V (SuoaSjns 




<M 


::5 




•suosSang 


- - ' 


% 


-s 




Non-commissioned OHi- - 
cers. Musicians, and 
Privates. 


•SajBAUJ 


180 

68 
111 

54 

3a 

54 
5£ 
6S 

IJ 
11 

8 

4 
3 

1 


Si 




■SUBIOISUK 


C» w 1 "^ 




•siBJodjoo 1 


(N rt 


-J' 






■siubsSjss 


tN . , w 






w " . . —' 


C 












•BJofniv iucsSjss | 


: ^ - 1"' 









■sui!■!S^l;^ | 
•Sjinsn puooas 


„ WW wCT-<-l--"^-^--^0.ww.-jo 


•^ 




■siUBU3;n3!T jsjij 


WCOW.WWWW..CT.(NWW.io 

CO 




6 S 

"1 
•go 

• * 

■3 

"33 
fa . 

.'C 

£ fa 

Is 

o . 

-3 U 

ill 
12 5 

ill- 

ill 


■SUlBldBO 
■S-lofKlV 1 


1 3 

. 1 
1 1 3 
. . 1 
. . 1 
. . 1 
. . 1 
. . 1 
. . 1 

'. '. 3 

\ '. 2 

'. . 1 
. . 1 

1 2 20 


^ 

Z 






•sjsuoioo •4"31'1 1 

•S13UO1U0 1 
•S31BAUa 


46 . . 
33 . . 
35 . . 

20 . . 
50 . . 

21 . . 
2 1 . 

53 . . 
25 . . 
40 . 
34 . 
8 . 
10 . 

45 1 . 
44 . 

46 . 
32 . 
. 8 . 
30 . 
20 . 
36 1 

25 . 

25 '. 

25 . 
81 . 
24 . 

36 '. 
855 2 






■SJ301JIWV 


wwM .^ . •<» •'^"•' ■ •""'"'» •'"'"'^ • ■ ■'° .'ot>)o>^D .r~ - • 1 



CO 


^ 




•suEioisnpj 


.^„wCTc,« .CO .-t-* •'^^ •"--'*=•'" . . .CO .w .coco .^ . . 1 


-i; 




•SlB.IodjOQ 


.^COCTCTCOrH .^C^ .WWW^WCCOW^^CT • • .CO . <^^ W f. ^ .^ . . j 






•sjuieaSass 


-^^;;:;^^^ . .* .coc-hco-^w^cwcco^ . .. .co .c. .^.<^. .^ . . 


to 






•oisnM JO J3qoB3X 


- 1 


iC 








All 

d commis- 
fficersand 
dets. 


•sjapKO 

•s.inaiT puoo3S 

•sjuEuaniaiT }s.ii j 

■SUlBldBO 


111. 
111. 
11.. 
. 1 . . 
111. 

11 1 . '. 
. 1 . . 

1.2. 
112. 

. . . 

11.. 

12.. 
.111 

1 1 2 '. 
.111 
. 1 . . 

'. 1 'l '. 

! 1 2 . 
. . 1 . 
.222 
.1.1 

1 1 1 1 






EKnS, 

Artificers Field an 

and sionedC 

Privates. Ca 


•sjofciv 

•spuojoo -jnan 

•s|3uoioo 

•S31BAIJd 


_ ■ 7— TT ■ ■ . 1 -^ 

. ' "- — ^ . . , \ ■^ 

. 1 Tf 






•SJ3Di;i}.lV 




! • 
IE 






COnPS OF KNRI> 

"ield and conunis- 

ioned Officers, and 

Cadets. 


•SJSpBf) 

•sSeuSuct 

([DU3.IJ }0 J3l|0B3.I, 


- • ■ ■ 






•9,1"31T pU033S 








•suiB;dBO 


lZIIZIZI=in:^=^-^^^--^^^^?-^T-^Tr-^r^ 






•s.lofr.lv 




1 w 

1 
i -- 






< 

F< i. 

< " 
P ° 


•duiBp-ap-piB puB 
lususjnaiT is.iij 








•jsisnuiXiia 
•.loioadsu] puB 
'uiBinfpv •loO -JT 


w . . . 














w 




•|B.i3U39 jsipsSug 




1 


■^ 




Dates of 
Returns. 


e z ^ 




.0 

■el 

g 








&« CO 

I?! 

« '£ nl 

S <u tn 

0L| 


Fort Wilkinson, Georgia, 
Fort Green, Georgia, 
Fort Johnston, S.Carolina, 
Fort Moultrie, S. Carolina, 
Fort Johnston, N. Carolina, 
Fort Nelson, Virginia, 
Washingtpii City, Columbia, 
Fredericktuwn, Maryland, 
Fort Mifflin, Pennsylvania, 
Fort Fayette, Pennsylvania, 
Fort McHenry, Maryland, 
Fort Jay, New York, 
West Point, New York, 
Fort Trumbull, Connecticut, 
Fort Wolcott, R. Island, 
Springfield, Massacluisetts, 
Fort Iiulependence, do. 
Fnrt Constitution, N. Hamp. 
Fort Sumnev, Maine, 
Fort Niagara, New York, 
Fori Detroit, 1. Ty. 
Fort Michillimackinac, do. 
Fort D<-arborn, do. 
Fort Wayne, do. 
Fort Knox, I'S- 
Kaskaskia, do. 
Fort Massac, do. 
Fort Pickering, Chick. Bluffs 
Fort Adams, Mississippi Ty. 
New Orleans, Louisiana, 
Fort Plaqueminas, do. 
Fort Sloddert, Mississippi, 
Southwest Point, Tennessee 
Tellico, do. 
Tennessee river, 




s 

III 

< 

< 



176 



MILITARY AFFAIRS. 



[1805. 



■*' *'• I ^o-* to CO coco -^(N »fJ-*VOCO.-<^0^»0^^»Ot^*Oi-(r-i 

'suEiDisniv 'sjaojiio psuoissiuauioo-uou jciox j '^ j - j ^ rn c^ ^ 



"fe 



.'^ 



•ssjcis ys suoaSaiig 



■sajEj^ SjUoaS.ins 



•siioaa.ins I 



.2 3 t. 

as i 



•s[EJod.io3 



's;u«^Sj3S " 



ob-co-<#cnoioco CO 



J CO ■* CO CO ** -* 



.'^OO-^Tj.^coM'* .f-l 



. co»-'*<i'-<j<-*-^w.^ .tH 



•3isni\ |o B.isqoi^s I I 



•S.!OJl<l^ )lli:3S.13S I 



e J. 



■suSisua 








^J »^ 










■s)in!uain3iT puoDag 


CO 






r- CO -H (M >-l r« >H 










■siuouainari isaij; 


C-1 


^ 


^ 












•SUlB)dEO 


















•sa.,r«w 
















• 


•si3iio|uo unuisinan 



















l...l.,f) I 



E i £ 






t^vOOlC>T-4QOl^tOVjtOt.-C»C->c0^01.-0^b^ 



■CO ■* (M CT (N <M 



-*Ti'-<TCN»-liococo 



COCSCO»nrH.i*b-tO 



sjiModjoo 



•sjuBaSjsg 



•oisnivr JO SJ3ipi!3,l, 



•sjUBU3:inai'j puooag 



•sjuBuajnsri isaij^ 



•suimdco 



. CM ^ ^ CO . CO G'* . (M 



) iH CO (N 1-1 •* !N CO 



-CM .COi-t.-ICOrHCOCOrH*^CO^ 



.■*C^ .(MC^ -COi-I^COr-t-^rHWCOCO"* 



.i-t . . »H . . (N f-l rH 



'sjofepj I 



ipuo|oo luciiam^rj | 



•s|aiui|iio I 



■^ 



<s> 






•saiBAUj 






.,- Hscc 



•a^nnSuiii i|3ii9jj ^1) jJi|3B.-)x 



•SHi'^ii^inaiT piiiioas 



■sui«"=ii"^n )s.u.4 



•suundttf) 



I -duiBD-siJ-piV 'S 'liiai'l }sai,4 



•.131SCIUX«J 



•losdsiil 5S[ SuKinfiivNOTViT 



•|Kjauao .iAiiJt!J3iJj] 



CP5 



S c o 



"5.0.= 



g - o o o « 
- o — o 

CO <^ " " 

13" 1-5 S" 

O tn OZ 









~Z o"Zsg ' 



- u.H t= 



o * ?^ >^ P = .=> ,?^ r3 £ S 5 S .y f. . 



= Z ■ = j S S b. ■ 



: ^ tc^ O tn Z 






S.3 

OOCO^COijOOtiCCCOOOCOOCOCSaiiUfc. 

(^[^h[:^^|:^h^hh^^f>i<»(^fI1(^[^^hF>1h(^P^i<ccZ<; 



c 5 c ~ "" 



1805.] 



MILITARY FORCE. 



177 






'susiDisiiK 's.iaoijjo pauoissiuiuioo-UDii ibjoj, | 






•saiBK ^ BUoaSang 



•S^iait S,ll03S,IMg 






•suBioisnjv 



siu.iodioa 



snii;a3.i3S 



i-H f-H CO *D -^ . ^o 



i-* ^ r-< CO CO - ^ 



. CO CO . <N 



<0 rt CO 



^ . CO CO ^ . '^ . . rH CO CO . C^ 



DisiiK |o saaipiM.i, | 



(M I rN I Tj- 



SJol'lMV )!1K3 



I (M I • I CJ 



use 



•siiSisug 



•sniRtiajnoiT puoosg 



•siuBuainsn js.iij 



00 rH Cft 



•SUlt!ldB3 



■s.iofKi\T 



•s|3iioion iiiKiuinsiT 






Ico 



|<N 



t-- C7> O CT 1 



rH • O • (N • r-1 I 



00 »n CO t^ 



•SUBIDISniV 



•siEiodjog 



. CO C^ . ^Oi . ^ . N 



lO -H 00 



•siuKaSaag 



•DISIIIVIO S.I31|1K3X I 



^ w M 



n 



•sjuBuainsi/i puoDag 



■sjutiuainai'i isjij 



•siinndi^O 



•s.n)l'.tiv I 



■S|3tI0|00 IUBM311131^ 



-■ I 



■S|3llll|l)D I 



^1 . I.H 



"C CO C^ 



•S).iper) I 



I •■-' I 



U-3-3 



•satirij-iuBj i|i"^i.K »<>.i3i|oe 



>n pu.OJS I 



Biiieuaii\->n )saij | 



|co 



■SUIEldKO I 



■sjoTriV 



•duiDj-ap-piv 'S -tiiaiTisaij | 



OlSEOIAKj I 



■)a3dsin ig 'jmnnjVv -lOD ■j'j | 



•H;jjti.-i3 Jaipe^ua I 



I - i 



00 CO CO CO 00 CO 



CO CO 



O o 
00 CO 



•t; >. 






S o <u 






C fl 



. 3 bo . 



_cl. tni 



-. as ^ 






g bo 

Si 

iJ S 






= o- 



•I K 



gpg 



178 



MILITARY AFFAIRS. 



tlSOo. 



sl 



k;>s 



'^, 









S'fe 



5 a 



^S 



■s^ 



o w o o 



Or- O O 



o o o o o 
o o o o o 

ooo oo»n ooOCT 



OOOOiil^OO-iOOOO 

■*ooior-oo-^oooo 

o o ^^ o o o o 



. OoOiCDOTOOOOOOO 



O'i>oot^c»mood> 

O O OOOOC0«<X)OOO 

o o 

oooo-^oo^fiooo 

lO O tDOiOO-HO«00<» 



oo 






5b 



o 



II 



.3-S ;^g» a. 
•■•tj: t- ? o s 



•^ 



"6 

ca o 



- o 



So 









a. cl !-•£ ^ o- 



e>o ¥ >: 






JZ en aj 

S ° "^ 

"" en aj 

' a> o CJ 



°^— , 

- c 2 
g D ca 



^ .a o 



^^' 



^i^tl 



.1, ,.^<a 

CO 0^2 

■""S =•- =«"-? «■-= S) ,. S i;^ 
3 !>.-2 0) o.^" a;.2*. S '^■S 



CO g 



O bJO 



o o 

o c •- 

-"a OD 

Co -3 

•so, C 

is j; « 

"ca-iT 



C3 ^ S 

V ooi> c 

"e.S tS'o'v 
■ c o Z - "« 

"Jr ,., ° u 



ca a> 



-SJi ..2 



, ca- 
S'o si s5 £-3' 



=s <5 ^ g u tart's 
ca^ ^ ^"^"o :S «"■ 



--a oj 



; otc =• 

p,p y b< >< "* 1^ S" 2 



igs. 



c c— ^3 aT 3 c 

33S'cOCL3 ^ 

° ° i, o'S OJ ° "5 
oosarSioo 

ca ca_tc- c«, ca^H 

Co S G 

tuO 



.2 £ '^ 






~-ff s< tS 



0) 5 i; q b-S rt S 3^ 

ff rv C "3" ^ 
=- -S C C 



a o i- c.o 

a.C ^D.<u -^ « — 



s c 

OJ OJ c 



o_«-2i;o„^qo"poo 



00&. 



"^■^ SmS^33u3 
'>i— "=„ 000 

■a ca ca u.2.2.2 <^ ".2 " o o o o- 
•^ S^w u^^S^S " " " O O O o o - 

ca ^ ^ ca . T^~ ca ca — ca ca ca ca ca:2 

Coo CoooCffcCCCCC 

Sp&tt, OfefefeOOfaOOOOO 



"o"o o ca j,^ 00?^ 

-.J ^ ^ >^ ?."T3 ^ ^ ca 

c c D-= = =-5 



C C _ 

3'r; £ 3 3 3-a 
o-ri rLo o o c 5 
o£cuo"^=^ 



^ _ J o 

;::; ca ca 



o o 
u a - 



o o c c c 



ISO Ki-'-SOOOfc^tiC 



»-'-^oor^ocD^CTtor^ic:jQO 



CO *^ 1^ OD 00 

f^ r^ CO CO to 



Oi c^ r» ^ ^ 



' t^ Ti* in »o »o *^ CD 



1 CO CO CO CO CO c 



3 CZ) 00 GO CO OO 



fMC«mcOl^00CT)^Cv^ 
O^^^C^JCT(yiCV3M 

COCOCOCOCDCDCOCD^O 



'CO t^^^t^ •*Q0tNic00i^00O--^ 



(N <N (S — 



-s 



ca S.^ 



^ =« 
. gs 



s .? 



ca o 
" c 
iTc 



O CL CO M ' 

a) jj •■ o 
o =33.^ 



' kS ' -= 






ca i- ca JiC^ 
C " C^ = 



a. bjo S 5 . - c ^ 



2 ^'^ 
roj < g ._- 
°cSS'S-i^S2>> >> e S 

Q ca^'H ca J5 o) -g I- t;.S ff 
•K |»2 j;ffl-ap3i=jr S.> 
■<wO(£^WO§§cbO 



■a 2 



£■§ 



•-ii2-^ 
,<£-2 



P3~ 



-S co> -5'- 









coFi-^ 



-a g £ ,S . c . S ^^ . 

fgfecp: c g gf^ 3 g p 



:o4i>i> o Q 



^3cfC"UC £ 

^<< c c a)"^ o ." r 
•= .2;z:-a ™m o,= 
c . = — W)^ M— o 

^cg:£«p.>H£ 

g « oTO orS "^ gf^ 



1805.] 



I 



MILITARY FORCE. 



179 



qOOO?OOJ;OD 00C2OOOOOOS ooocoooooogo gooooo 



o o o o o o 



;SooK- SioooSooooo ooCooooooSso 

-^ O O iC — o 






1-: So '.'- 

5 o S S 






5" " o 



C 3-5 ;S 






s 

CO . IS -w 

S2"=K? -:£ 

'-' >- CO '*-' 

, ^ 5- o ^ 
S -«2 =* 5 

S eS ^ gp- 

"^ o S i O 

^-a_' 



to-: 



(Dap 



■~ S. =« 



^ 5— C! 



ssp:s„-i 



3 3 O r«'~5 



;SooCI P-~ g^ 



o G— . S c " 1. 
■2^^ S =.3 g. 



CO 



(3 g 

o o o o c o o 



g S 



^ o 



pP-1-3 



3C- tjig 3-= 3r<- •■ 



-• cr i*/ t^ cz 



oPh 



~6 S « 
« 2 s 

;- « o .-y ~ 

o & o-S 
tn g cs J2+J 

ti i^ O =. j3 



oj 



= -2 5 a; 



-3-^^15 a 
aj 



■ c5 S 



a) cc 

_3 C 



3.0 Sd ""O ^ ~ 

■^ ■"— a; c . . E (U 

o = o g u o - 

o S u ^ " u 

■ " CO ~ mi ca 

S = " • • 



3-5 



t- to o c^ ^ 



coCocddc 
OfeOfeOQQOI 



■rz CO 



^ CO 

O 

^ QD 

D. -I 



O 00 

o- 
i = 

g-g 
.. '" ^ E 

^ ^c o. , 

co^ °° • ^ , ^ 

2 ^iiO^S -S'S (' 

^ -*^ .J; CO _ >- jj ;,j(j , 



^00 mo 



o « 



".CO' 2 



c3.n 

1 « o S S 
ciz;2 S 



j^g aj bJO , ^-g^'l.c 



S:^^2-? S-a;)^^^:! ~C5i^-t; 

-g^s'i^ s^^3^3 ^.sl^:^ 



.s2-stgco-^^5„-?i 

■S-5cZ'^£g.S!5£o = S 

S^ 6g aj -rrS-S-S .'Si X 3Jio.s^ 



'■5 o S 



0(^3 o o 
a) to a);^:;: 
i» •: «= j= J= 
« 3 bXI 3 3 
-g a.c P.O. 



.= ^^ i>.-^ i.j 5 s ij s -s«<^;^;^ 

!»_g^bxr3 5 o.*.;"^.-^ — ■ aJ tn ^ aj S <u ?^ 

iol-^^2«'§|'S.a '■^52-2-2 
St^ i;- c^ ='€ o.j;=5 ^ ^^^^'-o 

a,S-2 o:f " i^ a; m" ="■:« ?e D.O.Q.D.D. 

£ £ g-^ S .-"==7= °^-='=.^.*'.« "'^ 

'o'o I 6-n b''o'c = b'^'^ g'-'o'o'o'o'o 

33 = mSSs33S33H = 3 = = 5 

ts rt^ "^ . ts "3 ^ — =* =« c IS cs cd =a s 

fK cofefef^f^ooofeoo 00000 



CTcotootc wiStosStS";^ GSSS-SSSiTISSSm 



ci 0:1 at) o o o 
tS C£> CD i-^ i> t- 



000000000 



.>j. >., . - ^. ™ ~, . - O ■* C* CO -^ 

r- ^- i> ^^ *-* 



r^t^t^ttjt^itjt?; ^pltCt-i-r-t-t-r-i-t-t- 



-H 10 O ^^ 00 



C .i? 



yrS^ to^ 00 >« r^ 00 O^OS CO CO CO 0^ ^• 






<o — if^" -• cTsO tor^»5^ 



CT rt -I ,-. 0» 



""3 '^J J i " i 



- ■ z. 



' ' ffl-J5 


' 


S S 


' 


-Ji 






i?< 




>. 


JS *s 












a .-s 




— 


§• '1^ 


, 




, , 


' ^ ' 




O-B. 














c« So 




3j S 







_ ^J-J<!-w 




-b5^ 






H '.SSS 




a) aj 


-a 














Paymaster 
field, - 
Of West P 
Military St 
Superinteni 




moo 


,' bO 


- c 2 





bb 

i3 5 


o.S 


°c3 






s§ 


3-.-. ca 3 — 
a,OWc» 



CO ■ -— 



= 1-5 33 



"^^ >>S o 

= CC-' « g.c 
- .0 C 5t3'»° 



c;:jr .-s bjc 

iStl 






O , J 



(B aJnC ^ 

' F-. 5 _r p 

■*j -t-> >, ^ 

" "" g 
=<i ogj r3. bo 

^j' a; aj -4J -^j 
c^-Jg C O 
?:■ 03 nj « « 

?; e £.2.2 

3 re ts <5 5 



= 'e 



o s5 



3 ^§2 SI J 
^ .S-J2 3J C S >, c 

fc g 33-5 Sr= .^ 



pq 



bjObJOtuO— ■ 

c 5 CO 



n 

S P ^j; 

= -7«i .p.S-S 



^«U' 



ji-J 



.5.2 bjoc.S ;- 



_ „ cJ="?r 

a.2-5-2a^^.5?i?>.S 



u O 






o p: 5:;= o 






5^ 

_£ aj 

O 3 
° £ 



_aj|S 



Ms 



IH^ 



180 



MILITARY AFFAIRS. 





s 




y 






3 




O 
B 


M • 


<1 






O O O '^ o o « 

>0 -^ O 00 o o cv^ 

CQ »n in CO i^ o 00 

CO t^ C* CT CO •<* O 



^ CM 



S 'W 



n -2 



O^ C I u. 



3 .2 g . I 



Z 3 



-a 00 S 

o oJ 5 



6/0 " .i 



2 S 



<Ll 



'S.o m 

c ^ si 

C j3 Q. 






.^r-" -T5 






c s 






.o ^ 

■*" o 



o e rt 



n 



o,,o 



"Q 



3 1 CO 'o "^ 1 53 53 






o I 3 ^ aj 






t» S 



?i3 '3 'OS 



^ "-5 i^" « 



_^ 00 J5 — - ;i; aj vS 















o 



_ _ ^ „ c S c 

, O t>>0'5 cd o ?3 

'tn"_rt *" ^ "c vZ ^ "* 

=* u t. I- 1. •-" I. 

O O O O t« cS 



i^ 






^ 


fi 


?^ 






ci 




OJ 


3 


-c 


tu 00 


S 


41 

Q 


-a 


-a 

V 


t2 


1 


1 




0. 


■^ 


c 






2 


^^ 


hfi 


^^, 


QJ 


g 
c 








Q 




c 
3 










13 









^ 


•^ 


B 





F 




(.VS 




l-= 


(.U 


c 












taPM 




(^ 








to 



J l^ QO CO CO 



t- t- t^l> t- 



tD l> CM CD CO 



fS^S S 



-^ *j 



^ 



'^1 



.o-o 



C ra t- 
S.-S HI 

>>:= a. 

fSStw 






SB- 
aJ O) =* C " 

is s i^ S « 
.-§.■§ £;?■ ^ 



ca »j j; M 5 



. a)>-s 
S.2I 

o 5.H 
!>>§ c 



:SfSof2 Sj 



'o 



Om 



s 

n 


HOC 


Harris 
Lyma 
ment, 




i'-'-S^! 


£ ■ 'So 


> 


a?. 2 S 

03»Sfe 


mi 



a) a) c-S 



ca 

.!£ =a 
ca >» , 



0) j>~ "3 =*aa ►^ — a 

tj-jtuc— c«^ gf^ .aj'"^ 

siisi ^i III 



^1 



[1805. 



1805.] 



MILITARY FORCE. 



181 



OO OOCQ ooooooooooo o r>>o 

oo oooi ooooooooooo O t-iO 

OO OC-i^ OOOOOOOOOOO O OiTi 

mo oo ooio-^ooooooo o oj-^ 

CO CN t-^ 00 O^"^ ■"• OOJOOQOOt^ 1-H i-ii-- 

-^ cT 00 cT w" co' G<r C-T oT -h" ^ 



lOOOOOOOO OOOOrt-QOOOO 

c^ooooooo — .^^^™». ^— .--. 

'^OOOOOOO 

c^ooooooc^ 



OOOOCOCNOOO 

i^OOOI-CTjOOOO 

t-,iOOO'iO^OOOC> 






o ^ 

00 <y 



"u ^ o 
=3. ^'' ^ 






t». 33 _ .,, _ 

i: "3 ' "^ — ti< 



1 ^ ^ 






w 









o c"0 

2 S P " 



— — 3J 

= IT C 'JC-3 +^ ■= "« 1- •- S G -^ 

§« c-^ =t^ c^^ffi H.-"" .Q "S 

g ^ip3-», ^ c^"= - "" " •- ~S 



5 ^ 
to ^ 



■a* c 






d :.:: i- 



5 |»S .^ § 



O! 



t. O a, . -- i" o) 

S "^ t£ = != 

••^ .Co c— — 
o. * Si i; a>-2 =<* 

"o "o c i2 o bj3 o 

3 3 3^3-^3 
O O C.= = p O 

o o o £ o ^ o 

= c = c o c; 
OOO CfeO 



-" ca S ■ - '^ = 



z.^ 



,_p c c 0) ,^ c c c: .^ S ^- frt — ' 



o >> 

a> £ 



"83 C5 

2 o